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Wreck Removal Convention Bill


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Wreck Removal Convention Bill
Schedule — Wreck Removal Convention

 

Schedule

Section 1(4)

 

Wreck Removal Convention

           

The Schedule referred to in section 1(4) is—

“SCHEDULE 11ZA

Wrecks Convention

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Preamble:

           

THE STATES PARTIES TO THE PRESENT CONVENTION,

           

CONSCIOUS of the fact that wrecks, if not removed, may pose a hazard to

navigation or the marine environment,

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CONVINCED of the need to adopt uniform international rules and

procedures to ensure the prompt and effective removal of wrecks and

payment of compensation for the costs therein involved,

           

NOTING that many wrecks may be located in States’ territory, including the

territorial sea,

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RECOGNIZING the benefits to be gained through uniformity in legal

regimes governing responsibility and liability for removal of hazardous

wrecks,

           

BEARING IN MIND the importance of the United Nations Convention on

the Law of the Sea, done at Montego Bay on 10 December 1982, and of the

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customary international law of the sea, and the consequent need to

implement the present Convention in accordance with such provisions,

           

HAVE AGREED as follows:

Article 1

Definitions

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For the purposes of this Convention:

           

1. “Convention area” means the exclusive economic zone of a State Party,

established in accordance with international law or, if a State Party has not

established such a zone, an area beyond and adjacent to the territorial sea of

that State determined by that State in accordance with international law and

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extending not more than 200 nautical miles from the baselines from which

the breadth of its territorial sea is measured.

           

2. “Ship” means a seagoing vessel of any type whatsoever and includes

hydrofoil boats, air-cushion vehicles, submersibles, floating craft and

 

 

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floating platforms, except when such platforms are on location engaged in

the exploration, exploitation or production of seabed mineral resources.

           

3. “Maritime casualty” means a collision of ships, stranding or other incident

of navigation, or other occurrence on board a ship or external to it, resulting

in material damage or imminent threat of material damage to a ship or its

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cargo.

           

4. “Wreck”, following upon a maritime casualty, means:

(a)   

a sunken or stranded ship; or

(b)   

any part of a sunken or stranded ship, including any object that is or

has been on board such a ship; or

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(c)   

any object that is lost at sea from a ship and that is stranded, sunken

or adrift at sea; or

(d)   

a ship that is about, or may reasonably be expected, to sink or to

strand, where effective measures to assist the ship or any property in

danger are not already being taken.

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5. “Hazard” means any condition or threat that:

(a)   

poses a danger or impediment to navigation; or

(b)   

may reasonably be expected to result in major harmful consequences

to the marine environment, or damage to the coastline or related

interests of one or more States.

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6. “Related interests” means the interests of a coastal State directly affected

or threatened by a wreck, such as:

(a)   

maritime coastal, port and estuarine activities, including fisheries

activities, constituting an essential means of livelihood of the persons

concerned;

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(b)   

tourist attractions and other economic interests of the area

concerned;

(c)   

the health of the coastal population and the wellbeing of the area

concerned, including conservation of marine living resources and of

wildlife; and

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(d)   

offshore and underwater infrastructure.

           

7. “Removal” means any form of prevention, mitigation or elimination of the

hazard created by a wreck. “Remove”, “removed” and “removing” shall be

construed accordingly.

           

8. “Registered owner” means the person or persons registered as the owner

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of the ship or, in the absence of registration, the person or persons owning

the ship at the time of the maritime casualty. However, in the case of a ship

owned by a State and operated by a company which in that State is

registered as the operator of the ship, “registered owner” shall mean such

company.

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9. “Operator of the ship” means the owner of the ship or any other

organization or person such as the manager, or the bareboat charterer, who

has assumed the responsibility for operation of the ship from the owner of

the ship and who, on assuming such responsibility, has agreed to take over

all duties and responsibilities established under the International Safety

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Management Code, as amended.

           

10. “Affected State” means the State in whose Convention area the wreck is

located.

 
 

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11. “State of the ship’s registry” means, in relation to a registered ship, the

State of registration of the ship and, in relation to an unregistered ship, the

State whose flag the ship is entitled to fly.

           

12. “Organization” means the International Maritime Organization.

           

13. “Secretary-General” means the Secretary-General of the Organization.

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Article 2

Objectives and general principles

           

1. A State Party may take measures in accordance with this Convention in

relation to the removal of a wreck which poses a hazard in the Convention

area.

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2. Measures taken by the Affected State in accordance with paragraph 1 shall

be proportionate to the hazard.

           

3. Such measures shall not go beyond what is reasonably necessary to

remove a wreck which poses a hazard and shall cease as soon as the wreck

has been removed; they shall not unnecessarily interfere with the rights and

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interests of other States including the State of the ship’s registry, and of any

person, physical or corporate, concerned.

           

4. The application of this Convention within the Convention area shall not

entitle a State Party to claim or exercise sovereignty or sovereign rights over

any part of the high seas.

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5. States Parties shall endeavour to co-operate when the effects of a maritime

casualty resulting in a wreck involve a State other than the Affected State.

Article 3

Scope of application

           

1. Except as otherwise provided in this Convention, this Convention shall

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apply to wrecks in the Convention area.

           

2. A State Party may extend the application of this Convention to wrecks

located within its territory, including the territorial sea, subject to article 4,

paragraph 4. In that case, it shall notify the Secretary-General accordingly, at

the time of expressing its consent to be bound by this Convention or at any

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time thereafter. When a State Party has made a notification to apply this

Convention to wrecks located within its territory, including the territorial

sea, this is without prejudice to the rights and obligations of that State to take

measures in relation to wrecks located in its territory, including the

territorial sea, other than locating, marking and removing them in

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accordance with this Convention. The provisions of articles 10, 11 and 12 of

this Convention shall not apply to any measures so taken other than those

referred to in articles 7, 8 and 9 of this Convention.

           

3. When a State Party has made a notification under paragraph 2, the

“Convention area” of the Affected State shall include the territory, including

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the territorial sea, of that State Party.

           

4. A notification made under paragraph 2 above shall take effect for that

State Party, if made before entry into force of this Convention for that State

 
 

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Party, upon entry into force. If notification is made after entry into force of

this Convention for that State Party, it shall take effect six months after its

receipt by the Secretary-General.

           

5. A State Party that has made a notification under paragraph 2 may

withdraw it at any time by means of a notification of withdrawal to the

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Secretary-General. Such notification of withdrawal shall take effect six

months after its receipt by the Secretary-General, unless the notification

specifies a later date.

Article 4

Exclusions

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1. This Convention shall not apply to measures taken under the

International Convention relating to Intervention on the High Seas in Cases

of Oil Pollution Casualties, 1969, as amended, or the Protocol relating to

Intervention on the High Seas in Cases of Pollution by Substances other than

Oil, 1973, as amended.

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2. This Convention shall not apply to any warship or other ship owned or

operated by a State and used, for the time being, only on Government non-

commercial service, unless that State decides otherwise.

           

3. Where a State Party decides to apply this Convention to its warships or

other ships as described in paragraph 2, it shall notify the Secretary-General,

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thereof, specifying the terms and conditions of such application.

           

4. (a) When a State Party has made a notification under article 3, paragraph

2, the following provisions of this Convention shall not apply in its territory,

including the territorial sea:

(i)   

Article 2, paragraph 4;

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(ii)   

Article 9, paragraphs 1, 5, 7, 8, 9 and 10; and

(iii)   

Article 15.

           

(b) Article 9, paragraph 4, insofar as it applies to the territory, including the

territorial sea of a State Party, shall read:

           

Subject to the national law of the Affected State, the registered owner may

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contract with any salvor or other person to remove the wreck determined to

constitute a hazard on behalf of the owner. Before such removal commences,

the Affected State may lay down conditions for such removal only to the

extent necessary to ensure that the removal proceeds in a manner that is

consistent with considerations of safety and protection of the marine

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environment.

Article 5

Reporting wrecks

           

1. A State Party shall require the master and the operator of a ship flying its

flag to report to the Affected State without delay when that ship has been

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involved in a maritime casualty resulting in a wreck. To the extent that the

reporting obligation under this article has been fulfilled either by the master

or the operator of the ship, the other shall not be obliged to report.

 
 

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2. Such reports shall provide the name and the principal place of business of

the registered owner and all the relevant information necessary for the

Affected State to determine whether the wreck poses a hazard in accordance

with article 6, including:

(a)   

the precise location of the wreck;

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(b)   

the type, size and construction of the wreck;

(c)   

the nature of the damage to, and the condition of, the wreck;

(d)   

the nature and quantity of the cargo, in particular any hazardous and

noxious substances; and

(e)   

the amount and types of oil, including bunker oil and lubricating oil,

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on board.

Article 6

Determination of hazard

           

When determining whether a wreck poses a hazard, the following criteria

should be taken into account by the Affected State:

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(a)   

the type, size and construction of the wreck;

(b)   

depth of the water in the area;

(c)   

tidal range and currents in the area;

(d)   

particularly sensitive sea areas identified and, as appropriate,

designated in accordance with guidelines adopted by the

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Organization, or a clearly defined area of the exclusive economic

zone where special mandatory measures have been adopted

pursuant to article 211, paragraph 6, of the United Nations

Convention on the Law of the Sea, 1982;

(e)   

proximity of shipping routes or established traffic lanes;

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(f)   

traffic density and frequency;

(g)   

type of traffic;

(h)   

nature and quantity of the wreck’s cargo, the amount and types of oil

(such as bunker oil and lubricating oil) on board the wreck and, in

particular, the damage likely to result should the cargo or oil be

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released into the marine environment;

(i)   

vulnerability of port facilities;

(j)   

prevailing meteorological and hydrographical conditions;

(k)   

submarine topography of the area;

(l)   

height of the wreck above or below the surface of the water at lowest

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astronomical tide;

(m)   

acoustic and magnetic profiles of the wreck;

(n)   

proximity of offshore installations, pipelines, telecommunications

cables and similar structures; and

(o)   

any other circumstances that might necessitate the removal of the

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wreck.

Article 7

Locating wrecks

           

1. Upon becoming aware of a wreck, the Affected State shall use all

practicable means, including the good offices of States and organizations, to

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warn mariners and the States concerned of the nature and location of the

wreck as a matter of urgency.

           

2. If the Affected State has reason to believe that a wreck poses a hazard, it

shall ensure that all practicable steps are taken to establish the precise

location of the wreck.

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Article 8

Marking of wrecks

           

1. If the Affected State determines that a wreck constitutes a hazard, that

State shall ensure that all reasonable steps are taken to mark the wreck.

           

2. In marking the wreck, all practicable steps shall be taken to ensure that the

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markings conform to the internationally accepted system of buoyage in use

in the area where the wreck is located.

           

3. The Affected State shall promulgate the particulars of the marking of the

wreck by use of all appropriate means, including the appropriate nautical

publications.

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Article 9

Measures to facilitate the removal of wrecks

           

1. If the Affected State determines that a wreck constitutes a hazard, that

State shall immediately:

(a)   

inform the State of the ship’s registry and the registered owner; and

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(b)   

proceed to consult the State of the ship’s registry and other States

affected by the wreck regarding measures to be taken in relation to

the wreck.

           

2. The registered owner shall remove a wreck determined to constitute a

hazard.

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3. When a wreck has been determined to constitute a hazard, the registered

owner, or other interested party, shall provide the competent authority of

the Affected State with evidence of insurance or other financial security as

required by article 12.

           

4. The registered owner may contract with any salvor or other person to

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remove the wreck determined to constitute a hazard on behalf of the owner.

Before such removal commences, the Affected State may lay down

conditions for such removal only to the extent necessary to ensure that the

removal proceeds in a manner that is consistent with considerations of

safety and protection of the marine environment.

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5. When the removal referred to in paragraphs 2 and 4 has commenced, the

Affected State may intervene in the removal only to the extent necessary to

ensure that the removal proceeds effectively in a manner that is consistent

with considerations of safety and protection of the marine environment.

           

6. The Affected State shall:

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(a)   

set a reasonable deadline within which the registered owner must

remove the wreck, taking into account the nature of the hazard

determined in accordance with article 6;

 
 

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(b)   

inform the registered owner in writing of the deadline it has set and

specify that, if the registered owner does not remove the wreck

within that deadline, it may remove the wreck at the registered

owner’s expense; and

(c)   

inform the registered owner in writing that it intends to intervene

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immediately in circumstances where the hazard becomes

particularly severe.

           

7. If the registered owner does not remove the wreck within the deadline set

in accordance with paragraph 6(a), or the registered owner cannot be

contacted, the Affected State may remove the wreck by the most practical

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and expeditious means available, consistent with considerations of safety

and protection of the marine environment.

           

8. In circumstances where immediate action is required and the Affected

State has informed the State of the ship’s registry and the registered owner

accordingly, it may remove the wreck by the most practical and expeditious

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means available, consistent with considerations of safety and protection of

the marine environment.

           

9. States Parties shall take appropriate measures under their national law to

ensure that their registered owners comply with paragraphs 2 and 3.

           

10. States Parties give their consent to the Affected State to act under

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paragraphs 4 to 8, where required.

           

11. The information referred to in this article shall be provided by the

Affected State to the registered owner identified in the reports referred to in

article 5, paragraph 2.

Article 10

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Liability of the owner

           

1. Subject to article 11, the registered owner shall be liable for the costs of

locating, marking and removing the wreck under articles 7, 8 and 9,

respectively, unless the registered owner proves that the maritime casualty

that caused the wreck:

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(a)   

resulted from an act of war, hostilities, civil war, insurrection, or a

natural phenomenon of an exceptional, inevitable and irresistible

character;

(b)   

was wholly caused by an act or omission done with intent to cause

damage by a third party; or

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(c)   

was wholly caused by the negligence or other wrongful act of any

Government or other authority responsible for the maintenance of

lights or other navigational aids in the exercise of that function.

           

2. Nothing in this Convention shall affect the right of the registered owner to

limit liability under any applicable national or international regime, such as

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the Convention on Limitation of Liability for Maritime Claims, 1976, as

amended.

           

3. No claim for the costs referred to in paragraph 1 may be made against the

registered owner otherwise than in accordance with the provisions of this

Convention. This is without prejudice to the rights and obligations of a State

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Party that has made a notification under article 3, paragraph 2, in relation to

 
 

 
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