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Legal Aid, Sentencing and Punishment of Offenders BillPage 10

(b) the Director has determined that the individual qualifies for such
advice and assistance in accordance with the regulations (and has not
withdrawn the determination).

(2) Those individuals are—

(a) 5individuals who are involved in investigations which may lead to
criminal proceedings (other than individuals arrested and held in
custody at a police station or other premises),

(b) individuals who are before a court or other body in criminal
proceedings, and

(c) 10individuals who have been the subject of criminal proceedings.

(3) When making the regulations, the Lord Chancellor must have regard, in
particular, to the interests of justice.

(4) The regulations must require the Director to make determinations under the
regulations having regard, in particular, to the interests of justice.

(5) 15The regulations may require the Director to make such determinations in
accordance with—

(a) section 20 (financial resources) and regulations under that section, and

(b) criteria set out in the regulations.

(6) The regulations may make provision about the making and withdrawal of
20determinations under the regulations.

(7) The regulations may, in particular, include—

(a) provision about the form and content of determinations and
applications for determinations,

(b) provision permitting or requiring applications and determinations to
25be made and withdrawn in writing, by telephone or by other
prescribed means,

(c) provision setting time limits for applications and determinations,

(d) provision for a determination to be disregarded for the purposes of this
Part if made in response to an application that is made otherwise than
30in accordance with the regulations,

(e) provision about conditions which must be satisfied by an applicant
before a determination is made,

(f) provision about the circumstances in which a determination may or
must be withdrawn,

(g) 35provision requiring information and documents to be provided, and

(h) provision requiring individuals who are the subject of a determination
to be informed of the reasons for making or withdrawing the
determination.

(8) The circumstances prescribed under subsection (7)(f) may, in particular, relate
40to whether the individual who is the subject of the determination has complied
with requirements imposed by or under this Part.

(9) The regulations may provide for review of, or appeals to a court or other
person against, a decision by the Director—

(a) that the interests of justice do not require advice or assistance to be
45made available to an individual under the regulations, or

(b) that criteria prescribed under subsection (5)(b) are not met.

Legal Aid, Sentencing and Punishment of Offenders BillPage 11

(10) In this section “assistance” includes, in particular, assistance in the form of
advocacy.

15 Representation for criminal proceedings

(1) Representation for the purposes of criminal proceedings is to be available
5under this Part to an individual if—

(a) the individual is a specified individual in relation to the proceedings,
and

(b) the relevant authority has determined that the individual qualifies for
such representation in accordance with this Part (and has not
10withdrawn the determination).

(2) Representation for the purposes of criminal proceedings is to be available
under this Part to an individual if—

(a) the proceedings involve the individual resisting an appeal to the
Crown Court otherwise than in an official capacity, and

(b) 15the relevant authority has determined that the individual qualifies for
such representation in accordance with this Part (and has not
withdrawn the determination).

(3) Where an individual qualifies under this Part for representation for the
purposes of criminal proceedings (“the principal proceedings”), representation
20is also to be available to the individual for the purposes of—

(a) any related bail proceedings, and

(b) any preliminary or incidental proceedings.

(4) Regulations may—

(a) make provision specifying whether proceedings are or are not to be
25regarded as preliminary or incidental for the purposes of subsection (3),
and

(b) make provision for exceptions from subsection (3).

(5) Regulations under subsection (4)(b) may, in particular, make exceptions for
proceedings taking place more than a prescribed period of time before or after
30the principal proceedings.

(6) In this section—

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16 Qualifying for representation

(1) The relevant authority must determine whether an individual qualifies under
this Part for representation for the purposes of criminal proceedings (whether
provisionally or otherwise) in accordance with—

(a) 5section 20 (financial resources) and regulations under that section, and

(b) the interests of justice.

(2) In deciding what the interests of justice consist of for the purposes of such a
determination, the following factors must be taken into account—

(a) whether, if any matter arising in the proceedings is decided against the
10individual, the individual would be likely to lose his or her liberty or
livelihood or to suffer serious damage to his or her reputation,

(b) whether the determination of any matter arising in the proceedings
may involve consideration of a substantial question of law,

(c) whether the individual may be unable to understand the proceedings
15or to state his or her own case,

(d) whether the proceedings may involve the tracing, interviewing or
expert cross-examination of witnesses on behalf of the individual, and

(e) whether it is in the interests of another person that the individual be
represented.

(3) 20The Lord Chancellor may by order amend subsection (2) by adding or varying
a factor.

(4) Regulations may prescribe circumstances in which making representation
available to an individual for the purposes of criminal proceedings is to be
taken to be in the interests of justice for the purposes of a determination under
25section 15.

(5) In this section “the relevant authority”, in relation to an individual and criminal
proceedings, means the person who is authorised by or under section 17, 18 or
19 to determine (provisionally or otherwise) whether the individual qualifies
under this Part for representation for the purposes of the proceedings.

17 30Determinations by Director

(1) The Director is authorised to determine whether an individual qualifies under
this Part for representation for the purposes of criminal proceedings, except in
circumstances in which a court is authorised to make the determination under
regulations under section 18.

(2) 35A determination by the Director under section 15 must specify the criminal
proceedings.

(3) Regulations may make provision about the making and withdrawal of
determinations by the Director under that section.

(4) Regulations under subsection (3) may, in particular, include—

(a) 40provision about the form and content of determinations and
applications for determinations,

(b) provision permitting or requiring applications and determinations to
be made and withdrawn in writing, by telephone or by other
prescribed means,

(c) 45provision setting time limits for applications and determinations,

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(d) provision for a determination to be disregarded for the purposes of this
Part if made in response to an application that is made otherwise than
in accordance with the regulations,

(e) provision about conditions which must be satisfied by an applicant
5before a determination is made,

(f) provision about the circumstances in which a determination may or
must be withdrawn,

(g) provision requiring information and documents to be provided,

(h) provision requiring individuals who are the subject of a determination
10to be informed of the reasons for making or withdrawing the
determination, and

(i) provision for the review of a decision by the Director that the interests
of justice do not require representation to be made available, or to
continue to be made available, to an individual under this Part for the
15purposes of criminal proceedings.

(5) The circumstances prescribed under subsection (4)(f) may, in particular, relate
to whether the individual who is the subject of the determination has complied
with requirements imposed by or under this Part.

(6) An appeal lies to such court or other person as may be prescribed against a
20decision by the Director that the interests of justice do not require
representation to be made available, or to continue to be made available, to an
individual under this Part for the purposes of criminal proceedings, subject to
subsection (7) and section 19(3).

(7) Regulations may provide for exceptions from subsection (6).

18 25Determinations by court

(1) Regulations may—

(a) provide that a court before which criminal proceedings take place, or
are to take place, is authorised to determine whether an individual
qualifies under this Part for representation for the purposes of criminal
30proceedings of a prescribed description, and

(b) make provision about the making and withdrawal of such
determinations by a court.

(2) The regulations may, in particular, include—

(a) provision about the form and content of determinations and
35applications for determinations,

(b) provision permitting or requiring applications and determinations to
be made and withdrawn in writing, by telephone or by other
prescribed means,

(c) provision setting time limits for applications and determinations,

(d) 40provision enabling a court to determine that an individual qualifies
under this Part for representation for the purposes of criminal
proceedings before another court,

(e) provision for the powers of a magistrates’ court of any area under the
regulations to be exercised by a single justice of the peace for the area,
45and

(f) provision about the circumstances in which a determination may or
must be withdrawn.

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(3) The circumstances prescribed under subsection (2)(f) may, in particular, relate
to whether the individual who is the subject of the determination has complied
with requirements imposed by or under this Part.

(4) The regulations must provide that, subject to prescribed exceptions, an appeal
5lies to such court or other person as may be prescribed against a decision by a
court that the interests of justice do not require representation to be made
available, or to continue to be made available, to an individual under this Part
for the purposes of criminal proceedings.

(5) The regulations may include consequential provision modifying an Act or
10instrument.

19 Provisional determinations

(1) Regulations may provide that the Director or a court may make a provisional
determination that an individual qualifies under this Part for representation
for the purposes of criminal proceedings where—

(a) 15the individual is involved in an investigation which may result in
criminal proceedings,

(b) the determination is made for the purposes of criminal proceedings
that may result from the investigation, and

(c) any prescribed conditions are met.

(2) 20The regulations may, in particular, include—

(a) provision about the stage in an investigation at which a provisional
determination may be made,

(b) provision about the making and withdrawal of determinations,
including provision described in section 17(4)(a) to (h) and (5),

(c) 25provision about the circumstances in which a provisional
determination is to cease to be provisional, and

(d) provision about the circumstances in which a provisional
determination is to be treated as if it were a determination by the
Director or a court under section 15.

(3) 30The right of appeal under section 17(6) does not apply in relation to a decision
made as part of a provisional determination made under the regulations.

(4) In this Part, as it applies in connection with a provisional determination made
under the regulations as to whether an individual qualifies for representation
for the purposes of criminal proceedings, references to proceedings include
35criminal proceedings that may result from the investigation concerned.

Financial resources

20 Financial resources

(1) A person may not make a relevant determination that an individual qualifies
under this Part for services unless the person has determined that the
40individual’s financial resources are such that the individual is eligible for the
services (and has not withdrawn the determination).

(2) Regulations may—

(a) make provision about when an individual’s financial resources are
such that the individual is eligible under this Part for services, and

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(b) make provision for exceptions from subsection (1).

(3) Regulations may provide that an individual is to be treated, for the purposes
of regulations under subsection (2), as having or not having financial resources
of a prescribed description.

(4) 5The regulations may, in particular, provide that the individual is to be treated
as having prescribed financial resources of a person of a prescribed
description.

(5) Regulations may make provision about the making and withdrawal of
determinations under this section.

(6) 10Regulations under subsection (5) may, in particular, include—

(a) provision about the form and content of determinations,

(b) provision permitting or requiring determinations to be made and
withdrawn in writing, by telephone or by other prescribed means,

(c) provision setting time limits for determinations,

(d) 15provision about conditions which must be satisfied before a
determination is made,

(e) provision about the circumstances in which a determination may or
must be withdrawn,

(f) provision requiring information and documents to be provided,

(g) 20provision requiring individuals who are the subject of a determination
to be informed of the reasons for making or withdrawing the
determination, and

(h) provision for the review of a determination in respect of an individual’s
financial resources.

(7) 25The circumstances prescribed under subsection (6)(e) may, in particular, relate
to whether the individual who is the subject of the determination has complied
with requirements imposed by or under this Part.

(8) In this section “relevant determination” means a determination that is required
to be carried out in accordance with this section by—

(a) 30section 10 or 16, or

(b) regulations under section 12 or 14 or paragraph 4 of Schedule 3.

21 Information about financial resources

(1) The relevant authority may make an information request to—

(a) the Secretary of State,

(b) 35a relevant Northern Ireland Department, or

(c) the Commissioners for Her Majesty’s Revenue and Customs (“the
Commissioners”).

(2) An information request may be made only for the purposes of facilitating a
determination about an individual’s financial resources for the purposes of
40this Part.

(3) An information request made to the Secretary of State or a relevant Northern
Ireland Department under this section may request the disclosure of some or
all of the following information—

(a) a relevant individual’s full name and any previous names;

(b) 45a relevant individual’s address and any previous addresses;

Legal Aid, Sentencing and Punishment of Offenders BillPage 16

(c) a relevant individual’s date of birth;

(d) a relevant individual’s national insurance number;

(e) a relevant individual’s benefit status at a time specified in the request;

(f) information of a prescribed description.

(4) 5An information request made to the Commissioners under this section may
request the disclosure of some or all of the following information—

(a) whether or not a relevant individual is employed or was employed at a
time specified in the request;

(b) the name and address of the employer;

(c) 10whether or not a relevant individual is carrying on a business, trade or
profession or was doing so at a time specified in the request;

(d) the name under which it is or was carried on;

(e) the address of any premises used for the purposes of carrying it on;

(f) a relevant individual’s national insurance number;

(g) 15a relevant individual’s benefit status at a time specified in the request;

(h) information of a prescribed description.

(5) The information that may be prescribed under subsections (3)(f) and (4)(h)
includes, in particular, information relating to—

(a) prescribed income of a relevant individual for a prescribed period, and

(b) 20prescribed capital of a relevant individual.

(6) Information may not be prescribed under subsection (4)(h) without the
Commissioners’ consent.

(7) The Secretary of State, the relevant Northern Ireland Departments and the
Commissioners may disclose to the relevant authority information specified in
25an information request made under this section.

(8) In this section—

Contributions and costs

22 5Payment for services

(1) An individual for whom services are made available under this Part is not to
be required to make a payment in connection with the provision of the services,
except where regulations provide otherwise.

(2) The regulations may, in particular, provide that in prescribed circumstances an
10individual must do one or more of the following—

(a) pay the cost of the services;

(b) pay a contribution in respect of the cost of the services of a prescribed
amount;

(c) pay a prescribed amount in respect of administration costs.

(3) 15The regulations may, in particular, provide that where—

(a) civil legal services are provided to an individual under this Part in
relation to a dispute, and

(b) prescribed conditions are met,

the individual must pay a prescribed amount which may exceed the cost of the
20civil legal services provided.

(4) The regulations may, in particular, make provision about the determination of
the cost of services for the purposes of the regulations.

(5) The regulations may, in particular—

(a) provide for an individual’s liability under the regulations to make a
25payment to change or cease in prescribed circumstances,

(b) provide for an individual’s liability under the regulations to arise on a
determination by a prescribed person,

(c) provide for such a determination to be varied or withdrawn by a
prescribed person, and

(d) 30provide for the review of such a determination in respect of an
individual’s liability to make a payment.

(6) The regulations may, in particular, provide that an individual is to be treated,
for the purposes of the regulations, as having or not having financial resources
of a prescribed description.

(7) 35Regulations under subsection (6) may, in particular, provide that the
individual is to be treated as having prescribed financial resources of a person
of a prescribed description.

(8) The regulations may, in particular, include provision for an amount to be
payable entirely or partly—

(a) 40by periodical payments;

(b) by one or more lump sums;

(c) out of income;

(d) out of capital.

(9) The regulations may, in particular, include—

Legal Aid, Sentencing and Punishment of Offenders BillPage 18

(a) provision requiring information and documents to be provided,

(b) provision about the time and manner in which payments must be
made,

(c) provision about the person to whom payments must be made, and

(d) 5provision about what that person must do with the payments.

(10) The regulations may, in particular, make provision for the payment by an
individual of interest, on such terms as may be prescribed, in respect of—

(a) a loan made to the individual under this Part,

(b) a payment in connection with the provision of services which is not
10required by the regulations to be made by the individual until after the
time when the services are provided, and

(c) so much of a payment as remains unpaid after the time when it is
required by the regulations to be made by the individual.

(11) The regulations—

(a) 15must make provision for the repayment to an individual of any amount
in excess of the individual’s liability under the regulations or under
section 23, and

(b) may make provision for the payment of interest on the excess.

(12) In this section—

23 25Enforcement

(1) Regulations may make provision about the enforcement of an obligation to
make a payment imposed under section 22.

(2) The regulations may, in particular, make provision for costs incurred in
connection with the enforcement of an individual’s obligation to make a
30payment to be recovered from the individual.

(3) Regulations under this section may, in particular—

(a) provide that overdue amounts are recoverable summarily as a civil
debt;

(b) provide that overdue amounts are recoverable as if they were payable
35under an order of the High Court or a county court, if the court in
question so orders on the application of the person to whom the
amounts are due.

(4) Regulations under this section may include provision requiring information
and documents to be provided.

(5) 40Schedule 2 (criminal legal aid: motor vehicle orders) has effect.

24 Charges on property in connection with civil legal services

(1) Where civil legal services are made available for an individual under this Part,
the amounts described in subsection (2) are to constitute a first charge on—

Legal Aid, Sentencing and Punishment of Offenders BillPage 19

(a) any property recovered or preserved by the individual in proceedings,
or in any compromise or settlement of a dispute, in connection with
which the services were provided (whether the property is recovered or
preserved for the individual or another person), and

(b) 5any costs payable to the individual by another person in connection
with such proceedings or such a dispute.

(2) Those amounts are—

(a) amounts expended by the Lord Chancellor in securing the provision of
the services (except to the extent that they are recovered by other
10means), and

(b) other amounts payable by the individual in connection with the
services under section 22 or 23.

(3) Regulations may make provision for exceptions from subsection (1).

(4) Regulations may make provision about the charge under subsection (1)
15including, in particular—

(a) provision as to whether the charge is in favour of the Lord Chancellor
or a person by whom the services were made available, and

(b) provision about its enforcement.

(5) Regulations under subsection (4)(b) may, in particular, include—

(a) 20provision requiring amounts recovered by the individual in
proceedings or as part of a compromise or settlement of a dispute, and
costs payable to the individual, to be paid to the Lord Chancellor or a
person by whom the services were made available,

(b) provision about the time and manner in which the amounts must be
25paid,

(c) provision about what the Lord Chancellor or the person by whom the
services were made available must do with the amounts,

(d) provision for the payment of interest on all or part of the amounts,

(e) provision for the payment to the individual concerned of any amount
30in excess of the amounts described in subsection (2), and

(f) provision for the enforcement of requirements described in paragraph
(a).

(6) Regulations under this section may include provision requiring information
and documents to be provided.

25 35Costs in civil proceedings

(1) Costs ordered against an individual in relevant civil proceedings must not
exceed the amount (if any) which it is reasonable for the individual to pay
having regard to all the circumstances, including—

(a) the financial resources of all of the parties to the proceedings, and

(b) 40their conduct in connection with the dispute to which the proceedings
relate.

(2) In subsection (1) “relevant civil proceedings”, in relation to an individual,
means—

(a) proceedings for the purposes of which civil legal services are made
45available for the individual under this Part, or

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