Civil Aviation Bill——————————

These notes refer to the Civil Aviation Bill
as introduced in the House of Commons on 19 January 2012 [Bill 275]

Explanatory Notes

introduction

1. These Explanatory Notes relate to the Civil Aviation Bill as introduced in the House of Commons on 19 January 2012 . They have been prepared by the Department for Transport (DfT) in order to assist the reader of the Bill and to help inform debate on it. They do not form part of the Bill and have not been endorsed by Parliament.

2. The Notes need to be read in conjunction with the Bill. They are not, and are not meant to be, a comprehensive description of the Bill. So where a clause or part of a clause does not seem to require any explanation or comment, none is given.

BACKGROUND AND summary

3. This Bill contains measures intended to modernise the regulatory framework for civil aviation in the United Kingdom through reforms to the legislative framework for the economic regulation of airports, the legislative framework of the Civil Aviation Authority (CAA), and by conferring certain aviation security functions on the CAA. It also contains measures to reform the Secretary of State's powers to regulate the provision of flight accommodation.

Reforms to the framework for the economic regulation of airports

4. The House of Commons Transport Committee’s 2006 report The Work of the Civil Aviation Authority recommended that DfT should carry out a review of the CAA, including the central elements of the framework for the economic regulation of airports (report available at: www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200506/cmselect/cmtran/809/80902.htm).

5. In 2008, the Government announced that such a review would take place and would be informed by advice from an independent panel of experts. The panel’s recommendations were published in December 2009, following a public consultation in March 2009 (http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/+/http:/www.dft.gov.uk/pgr/aviation/airports/reviewregulatioukairports/expertpanelopinion and http://www2.dft.gov.uk/consultations/archive/2009/ukairports/index.html ).

Bill 275-EN

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6.
Advice from the expert panel, and the response to the public consultation, supported the case for reform to the framework for the economic regulation of airports, and in December 2009 the previous Government published its decision document which set out the case for reform in this area 1 .


1http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/+/http:/www.dft.gov.uk/pgr/aviation/airports/reviewregulatioukairports/decisiondocument/

7. In the Queen’s Speech of May 2010, the Government announced its intention to reform the framework for the economic regulation of airports. In Written Ministerial Statements in July 2010 and March 2011, the Government provided Parliament with further detail on the direction of the reforms, and the intention to bring forward legislation . An earlier version of the Bill was published in draft on 23 November 2011 to give the House of Commons Transport Committee the opportunity to consider the Bill before it was brought before Parliament.

8. In most sectors of the economy, the degree of competitive rivalry between firms and the threat of competition law is sufficient to protect consumers from the risk of firms exploiting their market power, for example by charging unreasonably high prices or by providing unreasonably low levels of service quality.

9. However in some sectors of the economy typically those which used to be state-owned monopolies and where circumstances limit the prospect for effective competition – economic regulation is needed to protect consumers. Such regulation has typically capped the prices that dominant firms can charge in order to promote efficiency, while providing them with a fair return on their investments. In the UK economic regulation is carried out by independent expert regulators in the following sectors: gas and electricity (Ofgem), water (Ofwat), telecoms and post (Ofcom), rail (Office of Rail Regulation) and airports and air traffic services (CAA) 1 .


1 In addition in Northern Ireland the Northern Ireland Utility Regulator regulates the gas electricity and water sectors and in Scotland the Water Industry Commission for Scotland regulates the water industry.

10. The current legislative framework for airport economic regulation was established for Great Britain under Part 4 of the Airports Act 1986 and for Northern Ireland the Airports (Northern Ireland) Order 1994 ( No. 426 (N . I.1) ) . Under this regulatory framework the Secretary of State is responsible for deciding which airports should be "designated" for price cap regulation. The CAA is then responsible for regulating these airports by setting the maximum amount they can charge airlines over a five year period, and setting service quality conditions linked to these charges.

11. Consultations on reforming the regulatory framework have illustrated that the aviation industry, the regulator and other stakeholders believe the current regime is burdensome, disproportionate and in need of reform. The Competition Commission concluded in its 2009 report BAA airports market investigation: A report on the supply of airport services by BAA in the UK 1 that the current legislative framework distorts competition between airlines by adversely affecting the level, specification and timing of investment and the appropriate level and quality of service to passengers and airlines.


1 http://www.competition-commission.org.uk/rep_pub/reports/2009/fulltext/545.pdf

12. It is widely considered that the current framework for airport economic regulation does not meet the standards expected from a modern regulatory regime. The current regime would not permit the CAA to introduce alternative forms of regulation - for example by monitoring prices and regulating certain aspects of service quality - even if this would benefit passengers and reduce costs for industry.

13. Reform to the framework of the economic regulation of airports is also prompted by the significant changes that have taken place in the aviation sector since the enactment of the Airports Act 1986, including large increases in passenger volumes, the expansion of regional airports and entry by low-cost airlines.

14. The economic regulation measures contained in this Bill are intended to provide the CAA with a clear primary duty to further the interests of passengers and owners of cargo; provide a more flexible and targeted set of regulatory tools (including a licensing regime); make the CAA’s decisions more accountable through a system of appeals; and reduce unnecessary regulatory and central government involvement .

15. The Bill also grants the CAA powers to enforce competition law by enabling the CAA to exercise powers concurrently held with the Office of Fair Trading (OFT) . These powers include the enforcement of competition law in the airport operation services sector and the ability to make market investigation references to the Competition Commission for the airport operation services sector. A number of economic regulators (including the CAA for air traffic services only ) already have concurrent powers with the OFT in respect of sectors which fall within their responsibility. These sectors include telecommunications, gas, electricity , water and sewerage , and railway services.

Aviation security

16. The Bill confers certain aviation security functions on the CAA, including the review of aviation security directions, advice and assistance to industry and compliance. The Secretary of State remain s responsible for aviation security policy and making aviation security directions under the A viation S ecurity A ct 1982 .

17. The Bill also enables transfer schemes to be made in connection with the aviation security functions to be conferred on the CAA.


Reform to the legislative framework of the CAA

18. The Transport Committee report The Work of the Civil Aviation Authority also recommended that the DfT should carry out a fundamental review of the CAA itself. In 2007 the Government commissioned Sir Joseph Pilling to conduct an independent strategic review. The report was published in June 2008 1 . Sir Joseph Pilling’s recommendations have informed some of the CAA reform measures contained in the Bill. Some of his governance recommendations have been implemented without the need for legislation, for example the creation of a separate Chair and Chief Executive. Others require primary legislation.


1 (http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/+/http://www.dft.gov.uk/pgr/aviation/domestic/pillingreview.PDF).

19. The Bill makes a number of changes to the CAA’s legislative framework, as follows:

CAA membership

20. Currently, the Secretary of State for Transport appoints all the members of the CAA’s board and, with Treasury consent, determines their remuneration. Sir Joseph Pilling, in his 2008 Report of the strategic review of the CAA recommended that modernising the CAA’s governance structure would help the CAA to maintain its general standing and record of success. Another recommendation was that the CAA Board should be allowed to appoint its own executive directors and determine their remuneration packages. The Bill contains provisions that make this change.

Civil sanctions

21. The Bill enables the CAA to make use of alternative civil sanctions alongside existing criminal penalties.

CAA’s charging schemes

22. The CAA’s charging schemes are the mechanism by which it recovers its regulatory costs from industry. These normally come into force on 1 April each year following consultation with the Secretary of State. Under the C ivil A viation A ct 1982, the CAA is required to allow a minimum of 60 days between publication of its proposed charges and those charges coming into force. The Bill introduces a statutory obligation on the CAA to consult charge-payers and reduces the 60-day notice period to 14 days.

Criminal proceedings

23. The CAA currently investigates and prosecutes aviation-related offences on behalf of the Crown, pursuant to arrangements to provide assistance to the Secretary of State under section 16 of the Civil Aviation Act 1982 . The Bill makes express provision for the CAA to institute criminal proceedings as part of its enforcement function under s ection 20 of the Civil Aviation Act 1982 to ensure that costs associated with carrying out enforcement work, including prosecutions, will be recoverable from the industry under the new charging scheme arrangements rather than the taxpayer, as is currently the case under present arrangements.

Information, guidance and advice

24. The Bill contains provision creating a new duty for the CAA to publish or arrange for the aviation sector to publish such information and advice as the CAA considers appropriate: (i) to assist users (passengers or freight service users) or potential users of air transport services to compare services and make more informed choices; and (ii) to inform the public about the environmental effects (including emissions and noise) of civil aviation in the UK and measures taken to limit the adverse environmental effects. The CAA may also publish best practice guidance and advice for the aviation sector aimed at either improving service standards for users or limiting the adverse environmental effects of civil aviation in the UK . The CAA must consult on its policy for carrying out these new functions and have regard to the principle that the benefits should outweigh any adverse effects.

Disclosure of medical information

25. The CAA receives medical information relating to flight crew and air traffic controllers in the course of licensing those persons to perform their air navigation roles. It is currently prohibited from disclosing that information unless at least one of a number of conditions is met, for example the consent of the person to whom the information relates has been obtained . The proposed change, following a recommendation of the House of Lords Committee on Science and Technology in 2007 ( H L Paper 7, December 2007 ) and Government response ( H L Paper 105, May 2008 ), will permit the CAA to disclose that medical information, in anonymised form, for medical research purposes.

Regulation of the provision of flight accommodation

26. The Bill amends the Secretary of State's existing powers to regulate the provision of flight accommodation, which is the basis of the Air Travel Organisers' Licensing (ATOL) scheme run by the CAA. The scheme protects passengers purchasing seats on flights, mainly where these form part of a package holiday, in the event of the insolvency of a package tour operator. The Department for Transport consulted on proposals to reform the ATOL scheme in summer 2011 1 , including broadening the scope of the Secretary of State's regulation-making powers to allow the scheme to better reflect the way in which holidays including a flight are now sold and arranged. The amendments to the existing power would allow the Secretary of State to make regulations to require ATOL licences to be held by (i) airlines for sale of holidays including a flight and (ii) businesses procuring holidays including a flight on an "agent for the consumer" basis. Also, the Secretary of State would be able to make regulations imposing obligations on ATOL licence holders and giving consumers a right of action in the courts in relation to contraventions of the regulations.


1 http://www.dft.gov.uk/consultations/dft-2011-17

S tructure of the Bill

27. The Bill is divided into three Parts . It has 112 clauses and 14 Schedules.

28. The Bill makes changes to a number of existing Acts, most notably the Aviation Security Act 1982 (the "ASA 1982") , Civil Aviation Act 1982 (the "CAA 1982") , Airports Act 1986, Transport Act 2000 (the "TA 2000 " ) and the Regulatory Enforcement and Sanctions Act 2008 (the "RESA 2008 " ) . The arrangement of the Bill is as follows:

Part 1: Airports

Chapter 1: Regulation of Operators of Dominant Airports

Clauses 1-2: General duties

Clauses 3-4: Prohibition

Clauses 5-13: Dominant airports

Clauses 14-17: Licences

Clauses 18-21 : Licence conditions

Clauses 22-23 : Modifying licences

Clauses 24-30: Appeals against licence conditions etc

Clauses 31-47: Enforcement of licence conditions

Clauses 48-49: Revocation of licence

Clauses 50-55: Obtaining information

Clauses 56-58: Penalties

Clause 59: Disclosing information

Chapter 2: Competition

Clauses 60-65: Competition

Chap t er 3: General Provision

Clauses 66-72: Interpretation

Clauses 73-77: Other general provision

Part 2: Other A viation M atters

Clauses 78-82: Aviation security

Clauses 83-93: Provision of information about aviation services

Clause 94: Regulation of provision of flight accommodation

Clauses 95-99: CAA membership

Clauses 100-104: Further provision about CAA

Clauses 105-106: Miscellaneous

Part 3: Final provisions

Clauses 107-112: Final provisions

Schedules 1- 14

Schedule 1: Appeals against determinations

Schedule 2: Appeals under sections 24 and 25

Schedule 3: Appeals against orders and penalties

Schedule 4: Appeals against revocation of licen c es

Schedule 5: Appeals against penalties: information

Schedule 6: Restrictions on disclosing information

Schedule 7: Index of defined expressions

Schedule 8: Status of airport operators as statutory undertakers etc

Schedule 9: Regulation of operators of dominant airports: consequential provision

Schedule 10: Regulation of operators of dominant airports: transitional provision

Schedule 11: Aviation security directions etc: minor and consequential amendments

Schedule 12: Aviation security: further provision about transfer schemes

Schedule 13: Appeals against penalties

Schedule 14: CAA membership: transitional and saving provision

Territorial extent and application

29. Clause 110 sets out the territorial extent of the Bill.

30. The Bill extends to the whole of the United Kingdom .

31. Most, but not all, of the Bill’s provisions apply to every part of the U nited K ingdom . For example, the amendments made by clause 101 to section 20 of the CAA 1982 do not apply in relation to Scotland .

32. The amendments, repeals and revocations made by clause 76 and Schedules 8 and 9 have the same extent as the provisions amended, repealed or revoked.

33. This Bill does not contain any provisions falling within the terms of the Sewel Convention, or which would require any Legislative Consent Motions in respect of devolved legislatures. As the Sewel Convention provides that Westminster will not normally legislate with regard to the devolved matters in Scotland without the consent of the Scottish Parliament, if there are amendments relating to such matters which trigger the Convention, the consent of the Scottish Parliament will be sought for them.

commentary

Part 1 – Airports

chapter 1 – regulation of operators of dominant airports

General duties

Clause 1: CAA’s general duty

34. Subsection (1) provides that the CAA must carry out its functions under this Chapter of Part 1 of the Bill in a way which it thinks will further the interests of users of air transport services regarding the range, availability, continuity, cost and quality of airport operation services (the "primary duty"). The CAA must do so, where appropriate, by promoting competition in the provision of airport operation services ( subsection (2) ).

35. "Airport operation services" are defined in clause 68 and "air transport services" are defined in clause 69 .

36. The primary duty refers specifically to the interests of users of air transport services in respect of airport operation services: it does not empower the CAA to take into account whatever general interests these persons might have in other capacities (for example as a local resident).

37. There may be conflicts between the interests of users of air transport services. For example, current users may not want to pay for investment that benefits future users. Subsection (5) empowers the CAA to determine how to fulfil its primary duty in cases where such conflicts arise.

38. Subsection (3) lists a number of matters to which the CAA must have regard in performing its duties under subsections (1) and (2). The duty to have regard to these matters does not, individually or collectively, override the CAA’s primary duty. The matters to which the CAA must have regard under subsection (3) include:-

a) under subsection (3)(a), the need to secure that each licence holder is able to finance its provision of airport operation services. Whilst this should require the CAA to encourage efficient and economic investment by allowing a reasonable return over time, the financing duty does not require the CAA to ensure the financing of regulated airports in all circumstances, for example the regulator would not be required to adjust regulatory decisions in order to take account of an airport’s particular financing arrangements or put the interests of users at risk by making them pay for an inefficient operator’s financing decisions.

b) under subsection (3)(b) and (c), outcomes relating to demand for airport operation services and the need to promote economy and efficiency in the provision of such services, that one would expect in a competitive airports market where airports provide the services demanded by passengers at minimum cost. These matters reflect the fact that the ultimate aim of economic regulation is, as far as is possible, to replicate the outcomes of a competitive market.

c) guidance issued to the CAA by the Secretary of State on how it carries out its functions under Chapter 1 (subsection (3)(d)). For example the Secretary of State may issue guidance to the CAA on the Secretary of State’s preferred approach to resilience licence conditions after Royal Assent.

d) any international obligations notified by the Secretary of State to the CAA (subsection (3)(e)).

Clause 2 : Secretary of State’s general duty

39. In exercising any function under this Chapter or Chapter 3 (other than the functions under clauses 66(3) and 68( 6 )) of Part 1 of the Bill the Secretary of State will be subject to similar duties to those to which the CAA is subject under clause 1.


Prohibition

Clause 3 : Prohibition

40. If an operator of a dominant area located at a dominant airport does not have a licence for the dominant airport area, then clause 3 states the operator is prohibited from levying charges for airport operation services.

41. "Dominant airport area" and "dominant airport" are defined in clause 5 .

42. The prohibition applies to all charges for airport operation services at the airport (other than those in respect of an area for which the operator has a licence), not just those levied in respect of the dominant airport area for which the licence is required. So, for example, if there was one operator of the entire airport but the area comprising the runway was the only dominant area, the operator could not levy charges for any airport operation services at the entire airport without a licence which covered the runway.

43. The licence must include a provision specifying the area covered by the licence (see clause 17 (1)). Therefore if a licensed operator of one dominant area at an airport became the operator of another dominant area which is not covered in its existing licence, the prohibition would apply to the newly acquired dominant area and any other area within the airport operated by that person not covered by its original licence.

Clause 4 : Prohibition: exemption

44. The effect of c lause 4 is that if a person is the operator of an airport area on the day on which the area becomes a dominant area, or on which the airport becomes a dominant airport, and the operator does not have a licence on that day, then the operator is exempt from the prohibition until a licence for that airport area is g ranted and takes effect. Under c lause 14 , such an operator is treated as having made and published an application for a licence. This is designed to protect existing operators of airport areas who would otherwise subsequently become subject to the prohibition.

45. Clause 4 does not protect new operators of airport areas which are already dominant areas located at dominant airports (for example, an area comprising the terminals and runways at London Heathrow); otherwise a change in management control would result in the new operator of the dominant airport area not being subject to regulation.

Dominant airports

Clause 5 : Dominant areas and dominant airports

46. C lause 3 has the effect that operators of dominant areas located at dominant airports require a licence to levy charges for airport operation services. This clause explains what comprises a dominant airport area and a dominant airport.

47. This clause introduces the concept of an ‘airport area’ (and therefore a ‘dominant airport area’) to allow for the possibility of there being more than one operator at an individual airport. This could be the case, for example, if an airline acquired or leased a terminal building. As there can be more than one ‘airport area’ at an airport, it follows that there can be more than one ‘operator of an airport area’ at an airport.

48. This differs from the approach used in the Airports Act 1986 , which refers to an airport operator as "the person for the time being having the management of an airport, or, in relation to a particular airport, the management of that airport". That Act does not include provision about cases in which there is more than one operator of an airport.

49. Clause 5 states that an airport area is dominant if the CAA makes a determination that the market power test is met in relation to the area and publishes a notice to that effect.

50. The clause introduces the concept of a ‘core area’ and states that an airport is dominant only if there is some overlap between one or more dominant airport areas and all or some of the airport’s core area. Non-core airport areas include car parks with pedestrian access to the terminal building or pick-up and drop-off points. Therefore if the only dominant airport area at airport X comprised the pick-up and drop-off points, airport X would not be a dominant airport.

Clause 6 : Market power test

51. Clause 5 states that an airport area is dominant if the CAA publishes a determination that the market power test is met in relation to the area. This clause states that the market power test is met in relation to the airport area only if the CAA is satisfied that tests A, B and C are all met by the operator of that airport area.

52. There is an important distinction: tests A, B and C are applied to the operator of the airport area; in contrast the market power determination is made in relation to an airport area . The determination applies to an area, rather than to the operator, to allow for it to remain valid in the event that a new operator takes over management control of the assets. Clause 7(9) states that a market power determination, once published by the CAA, will continue to have effect until overtaken by a subsequent determination. So if operator A acquires a dominant airport area (which is located at a dominant airport) from operator B, the market power determination and therefore the prohibition will apply to operator A 1 .


1 Unless there is an operator determination stating that operator B is the operator of the dominant airport area. In practice it is expected that operator B would notify the CAA of the expected change of operator. The CAA would then withdraw the original operator determination and may make a further operator determination on operator A. Otherwise, operator B would remain subject to regulation as the operator of an area over which it no longer has requisite management control. (See also notes on clauses 11 and 13 for "operator determinations").

53. Clause 6 states that tests A, B and C all have to be met by the operator of an airport area for the market power test to be met. These tests are designed to ensure that operators of airport areas are only subject to economic regulation if: (A) the operator has or is likely to acquire substantial market power; (B) competition law on its own is not sufficient to address the risk the operator may abuse its market power; and (C) the benefits of regulating the operator outweigh the costs.

54. Subsections ( 6 ) and ( 7 ) limit the circumstances in which test A is met.

55. Subsection ( 6 ) states that test A is only met if:

  • the product market in which the operator has (or is likely to acquire) substantial market power is a market for services which include or comprise one or more airport operation services; and
  • the geographic market in which the operator has (or is likely to acquire) substantial market power includes, comprises or forms part of the airport area.

56. Subsection ( 6 ) would therefore prevent an operator being regulated solely on the basis that it satisfies the market power test in relation to a different product or geographic market.

57. Subsection ( 7 ) states that in conducting test A, if there is an operator of an airport area which includes all or part of the core area as well as other areas in the airport, the CAA must identify a market for one or more airport operation services provided in a core area and geographically the market must include the core area. So for example if an operator controlled an entire airport (which includes a core area) but its substantial market power was limited to a market comprising car parks with pedestrian access to the terminal building (which is not a core area), then test A would not be met.

58. It is envisaged that in conducting the market power test the CAA will take due account of all applicable guidelines and recommendations relating to the analysis of markets and market power, which have been produced by the UK and European Competition Authorities.

Clause 7 : Market power determinations and Clause 8 : Publication of market power determinations

59. Clause 7 empowers the CAA to determine whether or not the market power test is met in relation to an airport area whenever it considers it appropriate to do so. This is defined as a "market power determination".

60. In order to comply with European law (Directive 2009/12/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 March 2009 on airport charges), this clause also requires the CAA to determine whether the market power test is met in relation to an airport area in certain specified circumstances and if requested by certain specified people. Those specified circumstances are listed in subsection ( 2 ) of clause 7 and the exceptions to this are listed in subsection ( 5 ) .

61. When a request is made for a market power determination in respect of an airport area, the CAA is empowered to treat that request as if it were a number of requests in respect of a number of airport areas that consist of or include that area. Or it could consider an area including, but wider than, the area for which the request is made. For example, if someone requested a market power determination in relation to an area which comprises the entire airport and there is more than one operator at that airport, the CAA would need to consider the areas managed by the different operators separately.

62. Subsection ( 7 ) of clause 7 states that the CAA should have regard to the market(s) in which the operator has substantial market power (test A) when it makes a market power determination in relation to an airport area. The following simple example illustrates what is meant here. Imagine the CAA concluded that the operator was dominant in the provision of runways, but not in the provision of passenger terminals. In such a case one would not necessarily expect the market power determination to apply to an area which includes the passenger terminals unless there are particularly good reasons for doing so. In such circumstances subsection ( 7 ) would not prohibit the CAA from making a market power determination in relation to an area that included the passenger terminals, but it means that the CAA would need good reasons for doing so.

Clause 9 : Operators of areas, Clause 10 : Operator determinations and Clause 11 : Publication of operator determinations

63. Clause 9 defines an operator of an airport area as the person with overall responsibility for the management of all of that area. This means that where two separate entities both have some form of management control over an airport area (for example the lessee and lessor of a passenger terminal building), only one of them can comprise the operator of the area for the purposes of this Part of the Bill.

64. Clause 10 empowers the CAA to determine who has overall responsibility for the management of the area, including in cases where one or more separate entities have some form of management control over the airport area. This is defined as an "operator determination". Subsection (4) sets out the factors that the CAA should consider when making an operator determination.

65. S ubsection (5) of clause 10 provides that the CAA must make an operator determination in relation to a person, if requested to do so by that person. Subsections (6) and (7) list the exceptions to this requirement.

66. When a request is made for an operator determination in respect of an airport area, the CAA is empowered by subsection (8) of clause 10 to treat that request as if it were a number of requests in respect of a number of airport areas that consist of or include that area. Or it could consider an area including, but wider than, the area for which the request is made.

67. An operator determination, once published by the CAA, will continue to have effect until the CAA publishes a notice withdrawing it. If the CAA withdraws the operator determination without making a further operator determination then the identity of the operator will depend on the facts and any regulations which have been made by the Secretary of State under powers conferred by clause 9 (2).

Clause 12 : Advance determinations

68. To give prospective operators greater certainty about whether they would require a licence to levy charges, this clause empowers the CAA to make market power determinations and operator determinations in advance of a particular event taking place. For example, suppose a third party was considering whether to lease a passenger terminal building from the current operator. This clause empower s the CAA to consider the terms of the lease and determine which party would be the operator of the terminal building if the lease was entered into. If the CAA determined that the third party would be the operator of the terminal building, this clause also empower s the CAA to determine whether the third party satisfies the market power test and therefore require s a licence if it were to enter into the lease.

69. The advance determination(s) would not take effect until the circumstances described in the determination(s) arose. The CAA is empowered to delay publication of an advance determination if the circumstances have not yet arisen and doing so would involve disclosing commercially sensitive information.

Clause 13 : Appeals against determinations

70. This clause introduces Schedule 1 where provisions relating to appeals against market power and operator determinations are set out.

Schedule 1: Appeals against determinations

71. Schedule 1 provides a right of appeal to the Competition Appeal Tribunal . It sets out the procedure s relating to appeals and to decisions on appeal s . The Competition Appeal Tribunal Rules of procedure (under section 15 of the Enterprise Act 2002) also apply insofar as the rules set out in this Schedule do not override them.

72. Paragraph 1 states which parties may appeal a market power determination and operator determination to the Competition Appeal Tribunal and the grounds on which such appeals can be made.

73. Paragraph 2 states that appellants have 60 days to appeal a market power or operator determination. The time period for appealing starts on whichever of the following days is the later:

  • the day on which the determination is published; or
  • the day on which the reasons for the determination are published.

74. Paragraph 2 also states that although the Tribunal’s rules of procedure can amend the time period within which an appeal can be made, the rules cannot alter the day on which the time period commences.

75. Paragraph 3 states the decisions that may be taken by the Competition Appeal Tribunal following an appeal and paragraph 4 makes provision for further appeals on points of law.

Licences

76. Procedures relating to applications for a licence , and the grant or refusal of such an application, are covered by clauses 14 to 16 .

Clause 14 : Application for licence

77. Persons who operate a dominant area at a dominant airport require a licence to levy charges and this clause states the requirements on the applicant and the CAA when an application for a licence is made. Subsections ( 3 ) and ( 4 ) provide that if a person is the operator of an airport area before the area or the airport becomes a dominant area located at a dominant airport , then that person will be treated as having already made and published an application for a licence.

Clause 15 : Granting licence

78. This clause states the process the CAA must comply with before granting a licence and before the licence comes into force. This clause includes a requirement for the CAA to consult for a reasonable period on proposed licence conditions and states that a licence may not include conditions which differ significantly from those on which it has consulted.

79. After the notice that the licence is granted has been published by the CAA, the licence cannot come into force for at least six weeks. The notice must specify matters that include the reasons for the conditions included in the licence , how the CAA has taken into account representations made and the reasons for any differences from the conditions initially proposed. This is stated in subsection (7) . An application for permission to appeal against the CAA’s decision to include or exclude a licence condition by the licence holder and/or airlines that are materially affected can be made during the six week period after publication of the notice. Appeals about the inclusion or exclusion of conditions in a new licence are dealt with in clause 24 and S chedule 2. For convenience reference is made in this section of the commentary to particular provisions of Schedule 2, in addition to the separate commentary on that Schedule that appears below.

80. P aragraph 9 of S chedule 2 states that if an application to suspend a licence condition is made in the six week period, the licence condition does not come into effect for ten weeks from the date the licence was granted. This extension is to give the Competition Commission at least four weeks to consider the application for a direction to suspend the licence condition before it would otherwise come into effect. The grounds upon which such a direction may be given are set out a t paragraph 10( 2 ) of Schedule 2 and the effects of such a direction at paragraph 10( 3 ).

81. Subsection (9) provides that if the CAA grants a licence in advance of a person becoming the operator (of all or part of an area), the licence does not come into force until that person becomes the operator (of all or part of the area).

Clause 16 : Refusing to grant licence

82. Clause 16 states the grounds on which the CAA may refuse to grant a licence and the process the CAA must follow should it decide to refuse to grant a licence, including a requirement to consider representations made about a proposal to refuse to grant a licence within a period of at least 30 days beginning with the notice of the proposal refusal . The circumstances where the CAA may refuse a licence are stated in subsection (1) . These include an application from a person whose licence for that airport area has previously been revoked (or a person "connected to" that person , within the definition set out in clause 71) . Otherwise, they comprise circumstances where a licence is considered not to be required.

Clause 17: Content and effect of licence

83. Under clause 17, the licence must specify the airport and the airport area or areas for which it is granted.

The circumstances in which the licence may be revoked by the CAA must be set out in the licence. The licence must also provide that it may only be revoked in accordance with clause 48 (which sets out the procedural requirements).

Licence conditions

84. The CAA has sought views on a n indicative licence intended to give Parliament a flavour of what the licensing regime might mean in practice. This can be found on the CAA’s website 1 .


1 http://www.caa.co.uk/docs/5/IndLicenceSlides.pdf


Clause 18: Licence conditions

85. This clause states that the CAA may include in the licence any conditions it considers necessary and expedient having regard to the risk that the licence holder may engage in conduct amounting to an abuse of substantial market power in a market for airport operations services . It is further empowered to impose any other licence conditions it considers necessary or expedient having regard to its duties under clause 1 .

Clause 19: Price control conditions

86. Clause 19 requires the CAA to impose price control conditions where it considers this necessary or expedient having regard to the risk described in clause  18(1)(a) .

87. Subsection ( 1 ) provides that a licence condition is a price control condition to the extent that it regulates prices by (a) specifying the amount (or maximum amount) that may be charged , or providing that the amount (or maximum amount) that may be charged is to be determined in accordance with the condition; or (b) requiring that the amount charged should be approved by the CAA.

88. Subsections (4) and (5) enable the CAA to impose such price control conditions as it considers appropriate to deprive an operator of some or all of any unfairly high charges recovered by that operator and amounting to an abuse of substantial market power in specified circumstances and over a specified time period. These broadly comprise circumstances where the person was the operator on the day on which the relevant area became subject to regulation and remains the operator thereafter. The relevant time period begins when the operator becomes subject to regulation and generally ends when a licence is granted (see clause 4(4)).

89. Subsection (6) provides that provisions for a price control condition may be made by reference to the amount charged for particular goods or services or to the overall amount charged for a range of goods or services.

90. Subsection (7) requires price control conditions to be time-limited.

Clause 20: C onditions relating to CAA charges

91. Clause 20 provides that a licence may include conditions requiring payment of the CAA’s charges determined by a scheme or regulations made under section 11 of the CAA 1982 in respect of its functions under Chapter 1 of Part 1 of the Bill .

Clause 21: Content and effect of licence conditions

92. Generic examples of provisions which may be included in licence conditions are set out in subsection (1) . The examples are neither a prescriptive nor an exhaustive list of provisions that may be included.

93. Subsections (3) and (4) state that a condition of the licence may be modified without recourse to the standard licence modification process (set out in clauses 22 to 30), provided the specific requirements of subsection (3) are met in that licence condition. However, the proposed inclusion of such a provision in the licence condition would itself be subject to the standard licence modification process (including possible appeal to the Competition Commission).

94. The requirements to be met under subsection (3) are that the licence condition specifies or describes the circumstances in which it may be modified, the period(s) within which the power may be exercised and the types of modification which may be made. For example, a licence condition may require information to be provided by a specified date each year but provide also that the CAA may replace that date with a different date at any time in the next 3 years if the number of passenger movements in a stated period exceeds a stated figure.

95. Such a provision may be modified through the standard licence modification process or through its own self-modifying provisions.

96. Subsection (5) concerns licence conditions containing exceptions relating to, or operating by reference to, financial arrangements entered into by the licence holder or a connected person before clause 3 of the Bill comes into force ("derogations"). Where a licence condition contains such derogations it may not specify that the exception will cease to have effect on a stated date or in specified circumstances , or provide for the CAA to determine which financial arrangements benefit from the exception. The effect of this provision is to require a licence modification to remove a derogation. Special additional rules apply to a licence modification in such a case: see notes on clause 23 below.

97. Subsection (6) states that a licence condition no longer has effect when the licence holder is not the operator of any part of the airport area for which the licence is granted or when the CAA makes a determination that the airport area is no longer a dominant area located at a dominant airport. Please see also notes for clauses 7, 9 and 10.

Modifying licences

Clause 22: Modifying licence conditions and licence area

98. This clause provides the process the CAA must follow for modifying conditions of a licence or the area for which the licence is granted. "Modifying" a licence condition is defined in clause 72 and comprises adding, removing or altering licence conditions.

99. The process requires the CAA to specify the proposed modification, give reasons for and state the effect of the proposed modification and consider any representations received ( subsection s (2) and (4) ).

100. If after doing so the CAA decides not to make the modification it must publish its reasons ( subsection (5) ).

101. If, following consideration of representations, the CAA wishes to make significant changes to the proposed licence modification then the process described in subsection (2) will need to be repeated in respect of the amended proposal ( subsection (7) ).

102. If the CAA decides to make the proposed modification to a licence condition, it will take effect from the date specified by the CAA in the notice it publishes under subsection (6) . This must be at least six weeks after the day which this notice is published ( subsection (9) ) . The notice must also state how the CAA took into account representations received and the reasons for the modification (including the reasons for any differences from the proposed modification ) and its effect (see subsection (8) ).

103. During the six week period mentioned in subsection (9) an application for a direction to suspend a licence condition may be made under paragraph 11 of Schedule 2 where an application for permission to appeal under clause 25 has been made.

104. Paragraph 12 of Schedule 2 states that if an application for a direction to suspend the modification of a licence condition is made in the six week period, the modification does not come into effect for ten weeks from the date the decision on the modification was published. This extension is to give the Competition Commission at least four weeks to consider the application for a direction to suspend the modification of the licence condition before it would otherwise come into effect. The grounds upon which such a direction may be given are set out at paragraph 13 ( 2 ) and the effects of such a direction are set out at paragraph 13 ( 3 ).

105. The area for which the licence is granted is neither appealable nor may the decision be suspended and hence the six week delay in coming into force is not required for this type of modification.

Clause 23: Restriction on power to modify

106. Clause 23 provides a restriction on the CAA’s powers to modify licence conditions. It applies where a licence condition contains an exception ("derogation") relating to or operating by reference to financial arrangements entered into before clause 3 of the Bill comes into force. This may occur, for example, where a ring fencing licence condition is subject to a derogation to prevent it cutting across financial arrangements entered into by the licence holder or a person connected to the licence holder before clause 3 comes into force .

107. In these circumstances, the CAA cannot modify the licence by removing or restricting the derogation until it has determined that: (i) there has been a material change in circumstances since the derogation was granted; and (ii) the benefits of removing the derogation are likely to outweigh its adverse effects to users of air transport services. The CAA must publish its determination on or before giving notice of its proposal to make a licence modification.

108. For example, a typical ring fencing licence condition found in other regulated sectors is a prohibition on the granting of security over ass ets of the regulated business. Where an operator of an airport area has existing lending in place at the time that clause 3 comes into force which is secured on the assets of the regulated company , the regulator may choose to include it as a provision in the licence but with a derogation to indicate the prohibition on the granting of security over assets would not be operative. In these circumstances the CAA would not be able to remove or restrict this derogation until the dual test has been satisfied.

Appeals against licence conditions etc

Clause 24: Appeal to Competition Commission: conditions of new licences

109. An appeal against a decision by the CAA to include or not to include a licence condition under clause 15 (granting licence) may be brought by either the holder of the licence (the operator of the airport area), or a provider of air transport services (an airline) whose interests are materially affected by the decision. Such an appeal is made to the Competition Commission. "Air transport services" is defined in clause 69 .

110. The time limit for an application for permission to appeal is set out in paragraph 1(1) of Schedule 2. The application for permission to appeal must be made within six weeks of the CAA publishing the notice under clause 15 of the decision to grant a licence.

111. The Competition Commission may refuse permission to appeal under clause 24 on either one or both of two grounds. First, that the appeal is brought for reasons that are trivial or vexatious. Second, that the appeal does not have a reasonable prospect of success.

Clause 25: Appeal to Competition Commission: modification of licence conditions

112. An appeal against a decision by the CAA to modify a licence condition may be brought by either the holder of the licence (the operator of the airport area), or a provider of air transport services (an airline) whose interests are materially affected by the decision. Such an appeal is made to the Competition Commission. "Air transport service" is defined in clause 69 .

113. The time limit for an application for permission to appeal is set out in paragraph 1( 1 ) of Schedule 2. The application for permission to appeal must be made within six weeks of the CAA publishing the notice of its decision to modify the licence condition .

114. Permission to appeal may be refused on one or more of three grounds. First, that the appeal is brought for trivial or vexatious reasons. Secondly that the appeal does not have a reasonable prospect of success. Thirdly that the appeal is brought against a decision relating entirely to a matter remitted to the CAA under an earlier appeal under clause 24 or 25 and it is brought on grounds that were considered, or could have been raised by the applicant or a relevant connected person , as part of that earlier appeal (see subsections (5) and (6) ).

Clause 26: When appeals may be allowed , Clause 27: Determination of appeal, Clause 28: Determination of appeal: time limit s and Clause 29: Determination of appeal: publication etc

115. Clause 26 states the circumstances in which the Competition Commission may allow an appeal. It may only do so to the extent that it is satisfied that the decision was based on an error of fact and/or that it was wrong in law and/or that it was based on the wrong exercise of discretion. These are the grounds on which the appellant could make an appeal.

116. Clause 27 states what the Competition Commission must do if it does or does not allow an appeal or allows only part of the appeal. Where the appeal is allowed (in whole or in part) , it may quash the decision, remit the matter to the CAA for reconsideration and decision in accordance with the Chapter and any directions it may give or substitute its own decision for that of the CAA.

117. Clause 28 stipulates the time limits within which the Competition Commission must determine an appeal. All of these are taken from the date at which the notice of the decision to grant the licence or the decision to modify the licence condition is published.

118. The standard time limit for determining an appeal is 24 weeks. This may be extended once by up to 8 weeks if the Competition Commission is satisfied that there is good reason to do so.

119. The Competition Commission may also extend the appeal period, by a period it considers appropriate, if there is an ongoing appeal to the Competition Appeal Tribunal which the Competition Commission thinks may be relevant to the appeal that has been made to it .

120. Subsection (9) of clause 28 enable s the Secretary of State, by regulations made by statutory instrument subject to the annulment by either House of Parliament (see clause 73(3)) , to modify the time periods in this clause.

121. Clause 29 provides the procedures that the Competition Commission must follow after its determination of an appeal, including procedures for publication of the order which contains the determination. The CAA must take the steps that it considers requisite for it to comply with the order.

Clause 30: Procedure on appeals

122. The Competition Commission must apply the CAA’s general duty (subsections (1) and (2) of clause 1) to their decision on an application for permission to appeal under clause 24 or 25 , their decision on an application for permission to intervene in an appeal and the determination of the appeal. Furthermore, where the Competition Commission considers there are conflicts between the interests of different classes of user of air transport services or between the interests of users of air transport services in different matters in the general duty, the Competition Commission is to carry out its determinations in a manner which it considers furthers those interests as it thinks best (subsection (5) of clause 1).

123. The Competition Commission must also have regard to the same matters to which the CAA must have regard in carrying out its general duties (see subsections (3) and (4) of clause 1) in determining an application for permission to appeal , an application for permission to intervene in an appeal and the appeal itself.

124. The effect of subsection ( 5 ) is that Part 2 of Schedule 7 to the Competition Act 1998 does not apply to the Competition Commission when it carries out its functions under Chapter 1 of Part 1 of the Bill.

Schedule 2: Appeals under sections 24 and 25

125. This Schedule applies to appeals to the Competition Commission in respect of conditions in new licences (or the absence of a condition) and in respect of the modification of licence conditions.

Part 1: Permission to Appeal

126. This Part of the Schedule provides the procedures applicable in relation to an application for permission to appeal to the Competition Commission under clause 24 or 25. Permission may be granted subject to conditions. It also contains provisions requiring the permission granted to exclude matters considered as part of an earlier appeal or matters that could have been raised by the applicant (or a relevant connected person) in the earlier appeal unless it considers that there are compelling reasons not to do so (at paragraph 2(5) and (6)).

Part 2: Intervention in appeal

127. This Part of the Schedule provides that any person with standing to appeal should be eligible to seek permission to intervene in an appeal in support of the appellant(s) or the respondent. Permission to intervene is granted only where the Competition Commission is satisfied that allowing the intervention is necessary or desirable for the proper resolution of the appeal.

Part 3 : Automatic suspension of condition of new licence or modification

128. This Part of the Schedule provides for the automatic suspension of relevant financial arrangements conditions when they are appealed under clause 24 (conditions of new licences) or clause 25 (modification of licence conditions). A "relevant financial arrangements condition" is one that is subject to an exception relating to financial arrangements pre-dating the coming into force of clause 3 . The purpose of this provision is to ensure that a relevant financial arrangements condition included in a new licence does not have effect until the appeal against the decision is determined or withdrawn, or to preserve the current position where the removal or reduction of a derogation from such a condition in an existing licence is proposed. The underlying reason is that without such a provision an appeal may prove nugatory where it cuts across existing financial arrangements.

Part 4 : Application for suspension of condition of new licence or modification

129. This Part of the Schedule provides the procedures in relation to applications for a direction suspending a condition of a new licence coming into force under clause 15 (and for applications for a direction suspending modifications of licence conditions under clause 22 ) . It also sets out the test which must be met before a direction may be given.

Part 5 : Appeals

130. This Part of the Schedule provides the procedures applicable to the Competition Commission in hearing appeals under clause 24 (relating to conditions of new licences) and clause 25 (relating to modification of licence conditions).

131. Paragraph 20 of Schedule 2 provides the CAA with limited powers when a licence condition or modification is remitted back to the CAA (see clause 27(2)(b)). In particular, paragraph 20(2) provides that the CAA may make a licence modification on reconsidering the matter effective on or after the date on which the original decision took effect or would have taken effect but for its suspension, provided the licence holder agrees. This will allow the CAA to address any injustice that may have arisen through licence enforcement measures taken in respect of an obligation which in the light of the CC decision should never have been imposed on the licence holder.

132. Paragraph 20(3) to 20(5) empowers the CAA to make adjustments to any new or altered price cap imposed in consequence of the CC determination where it transpires that the charges made by the licence holder during the appeal period were higher than the maximum that would have been allowed if the CAA’s original decision had accorded with that of the CC ’s determination . In such a case, the CAA in determining the new price cap is empowered to put the licence holder in the position it should have been in if, during the appeal period, it had in fact charged at the revised (lower) price cap. There is flexibility to allow the CAA to provide an adjusted price cap so as to recover all or some of the excess charge.

133. For example, the licence holder charged £10 per passenger during the appeal period. The CC decision leads the CAA to conclude that a price cap of £7.50 per passenger is appropriate for the entire period of the appeal and subsequently. The new price cap could be set below £7.50 per passenger to the extent necessary to recover all or some of the £2.50 excess charge per passenger during the appeal period.

134. Paragraphs 20(3), 20(6) and 20(7) provide similar powers to make appropriate adjustments where the CC decision on appeal leads to a higher price cap than the charges made during the course of the appeal.

135. Paragraph 21 provides the CC with similar powers to those applicable to the CAA under paragraph 20 of Schedule 2, where the CC substitutes its decision for that of the CAA (see clause 27(2)(c).

Part 6 : General

136. This Part of the Schedule sets out general procedures applicable to the Competition Commission in carrying out its functions under this Schedule and Chapter 1. It makes provision for the receipt of new evidence in certain circumstances. It provides that an application for permission to appeal or an appeal , or permission to intervene or an intervention, may only be withdrawn with the Competition Commission’s consent (at paragraph 29 ). It includes provisions requiring the Competition Commission to make a costs order to recover its own costs and empowers it to make costs orders between the parties and former parties to an appeal (at paragraph 31 ). Paragraph 3 2 enables the Secretary of State, by a statutory instrument, to modify the time periods in this Schedule.

Enforcement of licence conditions

Clause 31: Contravention notice

137. Clause 31 provides that the CAA may issue a contravention notice where it reasonably believes that a person has contravened or is contravening a licence condition. It must specify the contravention, explain any action that the CAA may take and specify a representation period of not less than 30 days (which may be extended), except in cases of repeated contravention where a shorter period for representations may be given. The contravention notice (and any subsequent extension or withdrawal) must be published and a copy sent to appropriate industry representatives .

Clause 32: Restrictions on giving contravention notices

138. Clause 32 provides that the CAA must not give a contravention notice or an urgent enforcement order in respect of a contravention where it has already given a contravention notice in respect of the same contravention, except in specified circumstances such as where contraventions of the same condition have occurred in different ways or at different times.

Clause 33: Enforcement order

139. Clause 33 provides that the CAA may issue an enforcement order to a person if it has determined that the person is contravening a condition set out in a contravention notice. It may also do so if it has determined that the person has contravened a condition set out in a contravention notice and, before the end of the representation period, has failed to take all the appropriate steps specified in the notice. An enforcement order must be published, specifying the condition and contravention, the appropriate steps to be taken and a reasonable period in which to take them, and the CAA’s reasons for giving the order.

Clause 34: Enforcement order: modification and revocation

140. Clause 34 provides that the CAA may revoke or, with the agreement of the person to whom the order was given, modify an enforcement order provided that a notice in relation to the proposed revocation or modification has been published, a copy sent to the person to whom the order was given, and any representations made in the specified period have been considered. The notice must include reasons for the modification or revocation and specify a reasonable period for making representations. The CAA must publish a notice detailing the revocation or modification of an enforcement order as soon as practicable after revoking or modifying the order and must send a copy of the notice to appropriate industry representatives.

Clause 35: Urgent enforcement order

141. Clause 35 provides that an urgent enforcement order may be given where the CAA has reasonable grounds for believing that a person is contravening , or has contravened or is likely to contravene , a licence condition, that the contravention has resulted in or creates, or is likely to result in or create , an immediate risk of a serious economic or operational problem for users or providers of air transport services, and that an order is appropriate to prevent, remove or reduce that problem or risk. Such an order must give the CAA’s reasons, specify the steps to be taken and specify a reasonable period in which to take them. The CAA must publish an urgent enforcement order as soon as practicable after giving it and send a copy to appropriate industry representatives.

Clause 36: Urgent enforcement order: confirmation

142. Clause 36 provides that the CAA must confirm or revoke an urgent enforcement order as soon as practicable after giving it. The CAA may only confirm an urgent enforcement order (with or without modifications) where it has determined that the contravention in fact has occurred or is occurring, or is likely to occur; that it has resulted in or creates or is likely to create an immediate risk of a serious economic or operational problem; and that the order is appropriate to prevent, remove or reduce that problem or risk, or the likelihood of the problem arising. Before confirming an urgent enforcement order, the CAA must publish, and send to the person to whom it was given, a notice of the proposal to confirm, giving reasons, and allowing for any representations to be made. A notice with details of the confirmation must be published as soon as practicable after the confirmation of the order and a copy sent to the person to whom the order was given and appropriate industry representatives.

Clause 37: Urgent enforcement order: modification and revocation

143. Clause 37 provides that the CAA may revoke or, with the agreement of the person to whom the order was given, modify, an urgent enforcement order , provided it has published a notice, sent a copy to the person to whom the order was given and considered any representations made about the proposal in the specified period. The notice must include the CAA’s reasons for the proposed modification or revocation. The CAA must publish a notice as soon as practicable after modifying or revoking an urgent enforcement order and send a copy to the person to whom the order was given and to appropriate industry representatives. Subsection (6) provides that the power under clause 36 to confirm an order with modifications (without the agreement of the person subject to it) is not restricted by the provisions of this clause.

Clause 38: Civil proceedings

144. Clause 38 provides that a person who has been given an enforcement order or urgent enforcement order (whether or not it has been confirmed) must comply with it. The obligation to comply with an enforcement order or an urgent enforcement order that has been confirmed is a duty owed to every person who may be affected by a contravention of a requirement of the enforcement order or urgent enforcement order. Any person affected by a contravention of a requirement of an enforcement order or urgent enforcement order may bring civil proceedings against the person to whom such an order was given. It is a defence for the person to whom the order was given to show that all reasonable steps were taken and all due diligence exercised to avoid contravening the order's requirements. The CAA may enforce compliance in civil proceedings for an injunction or any other appropriate remedy or relief.

Clause 39: Penalty for contravention of licence condition

145. Clause 39 provides that a penalty may be imposed on a person given a contravention notice after the CAA has considered any representations made in the specified period and determined that the person is contravening or has contravened a licence condition specified in the notice. Where the contravention notice specifies more than one contravention and/or more than one period of contravention, the CAA may impose a separate penalty for each contravention and/or for each period of the contravention, as appropriate.

Clause 40: Penalty for contravention of order

146. Clause 40 provides that the CAA may impose a penalty where it has determined that a person is contravening or has contravened a requirement of an enforcement order or an urgent enforcement order that has been confirmed.

Clause 41: Procedure before imposing penalty

147. Clause 41 provides that the CAA must, before imposing a penalty in respect of a contravention notice or contravention of an enforcement order, give the person a notice about the proposed penalty, publish the notice as soon as practicable, send a copy to appropriate industry representatives and consider any representations made about the proposed penalty in the specified period of not less than 21 days. The notice must include the proposed amount of the penalty, which may be varied upon further notice, specify the relevant licence condition or requirement and the act or omission that the CAA has determined constitutes a contravention of the condition or requirement. Where the penalty is calculated entirely or partly by reference to a daily amount, the notice must specify the day on which daily amounts begin and the day on, or circumstances in which, they cease to accumulate.

148. Before varying the proposed amount of the penalty, the CAA must give the person notice, specifying the proposed variation and giving the CAA’s reasons for the proposed variation. The notice must be published as soon as practicable and a copy sent to appropriate industry representatives. The CAA must consider any representations made about the proposed variation in the specified period of not less than 21 days . A notice imposing a penalty or varying the proposed amount of the penalty may be withdrawn by the CAA at any time by giving notice to the person.

Clause 42: Procedure after imposing penalty

149. Clause 42 provides that the CAA must, as soon as practicable after imposing a penalty in respect of a contravention notice or contravention of a requirement of either an enforcement order or an urgent enforcement order that has been confirmed, give notice to the person on whom the penalty is imposed, publish the notice and send a copy to appropriate industry representatives. The notice must specify the amount of the penalty imposed, the relevant licence condition or requirement, the act or omission that the CAA has determined constitutes a contravention of the condition or requirement and provide a reasonable period for payment of the penalty. Where the penalty is calculated entirely or partly by reference to a daily amount, it must specify the day on which daily amounts begin and the day on, or circumstances in which, they cease to accumulate.

Clause 43: Amount of penalty

150. Clause 43 provides that the amount of a penalty, which may be either or both of a fixed or daily amount, must be appropriate and proportionate to the contravention for which it is imposed. In determining the amount of a penalty, the CAA must have regard in particular to any representations made to it, any steps taken by the person on whom the penalty is to be imposed towards complying with the licence condition or requirement specified in the notice given under clause 41(1) , and any steps taken by that person towards remedying the consequences of the contravention or requirement.

Clause 44: Amount of penalty: fixed amount

151. Clause 44 provides that calculation of a fixed amount of a penalty imposed on a person for contravention of a licence condition or contravention of an order must not exceed 10% of a person’s qualifying turnover for the qualifying period, as reported in what are known as regulatory accounts, unless calculation of qua l ifying turnover is otherwise provided by regulations made by the Secretary of State.

Clause 45: Amount of penalty: daily amounts

152. Clause 45 provides that the daily amount of a penalty imposed on a person for contravention of a licence condition or of an order is an amount payable where the contravention continues after the penalty is imposed. The daily amount, which must not exceed 0.1% of the person’s qualifying turnover for the qualifying period, is payable in respect of each day in a specified period that the CAA considers appropriate.

Clause 46 : Use of powers under Competition Act 1998

153. Clause 46 provides that the CAA must consider whether it would be more appropriate to proceed under the Competition Act 1998 before exercising its powers to give a contravention notice or an enforcement order, to give and confirm an urgent enforcement order, and to impose penalties for contravention of a licence condition or contravention of an enforcement order or confirmed urgent enforcement order. The CAA may not proceed under the Bill if it considers proceeding under the Competition Act 1998 to be more appropriate.

Clause 47 : Appeals against orders and penalties and Schedule 3 : Appeal s against orders and penalties

154. Clause 47 gives effect to Schedule 3 which sets out the factors against which a person may appeal to the Competition Appeal Tribunal in respect of action to enforce licence conditions, and the grounds on which an appeal may be made. Appeals may be made against a decision to give an enforcement order or to confirm an urgent enforcement order, the specified steps to be taken and the period allowed for taking those steps. Appeals may also be made against a decision to impose a penalty, the period allowed for payment, the amount of the penalty or, in the case of daily amounts, the period during which daily amounts accumulate. An appeal against an enforcement order, or an appeal against a penalty for contravention of a licence condition or order, may be made by the person to whom the order has been given or on whom the penalty has been imposed (as the case may be). Appeals against modification and revocation of enforcement orders may be made by a person who is not the person to whom the order was given and who appears to the Competition Appeal Tribunal to have sufficient interest in the decision. The making of an appeal against an enforcement order, but not an urgent enforcement order, suspends the effect of the order until the appeal is decided or withdrawn, unless the Competition Appeal Tribunal orders otherwise. A further appeal may be made against a point of law arising from a decision of the Competition Appeal Tribunal.

Revocation of licence

Clause 48 : Revocation of licence

155. Clause 48 provides that the CAA may, by notice, revoke a licence in the circumstances specified in the licence. Before revoking a licence the CAA must notify the licence holder that it intends to revoke the licence, giving its reasons and allowing the licence holder to make representations. The CAA must allow a period of at least 30 days from notification before it gives notice revoking a licence , unless the licence holder agrees otherwise. The period may be extended once for up to 30 days. The CAA may withdraw a notice revoking a licence, giving its reasons for doing so. The notice of revocation, extension or withdrawal must be published as soon as practicable after it has been given and a copy must be sent to appropriate industry representatives.

Clause 49: Appeals against revocation of licence and Schedule 4 : Appeals against revoca tion of licences

156. Clause 49 gives effect to Schedule 4 which provides for appeal against a decision to give a notice revoking a licence and a decision to give a further notice withdrawing a licence revocation notice , except where such a notice was given in accordance with a direction given by the Competition Appeal Tribunal. An appeal may also be made against a decision as to the day on which revocation takes effect. The making of an appeal suspends the effect of the notice and extends the period specified in the notice until the appeal is decided or withdrawn. A further appeal may be made on a point of law arising from a decision of the Competition Appeal Tribunal.

Obtaining information

Clause 50 : Power to obtain information

157. Clause 50 provides that the CAA may, by notice, require a person to provide information or a document that it reasonably requires for the purposes of carrying out its functions under Chapter 1 of Part 1. The information or document required may only be of a kind which a person could be compelled to produce in evidence in civil proceedings before a court.

Clause 51 : Enforcement of information notice

158. Clause 51 provides that the CAA may impose a penalty that is appropriate and proportionate of a fixed amount up to £2,000,000 and/or a daily amount up to £100,000 on a person who fails to comply with a notice to provide information or a document. The Secretary of State may by regulations amend those amounts.

Clause 5 2 : Penalty for providing false information, destroying documents etc

159. Clause 52 provides that the CAA may impose a penalty that it considers appropriate and proportionate on a person who knowingly or recklessly provides information that is false or misleading. A penalty may also be imposed if a document that is required to be produced is intentionally altered, suppressed or destroyed. The clause specifies the circumstances in which the CAA may impose a penalty including where false or misleading information is provided in accordance with a licence condition or where a person provides false or misleading information knowing that the information is likely to be used by the CAA for the purpose of carrying out its functions under Chapter 1 of Part 1.

Clause 53 : Procedure before imposing penalty

160. Clause 53 provides that before imposing a penalty in respect of a failure to comply with a notice under clause 50 or in respect of the provision of false or misleading information etc, the CAA must give notice about the proposed penalty, including the proposed amount. Such notice must be published and a copy sent to appropriate industry representatives. The CAA must allow for a representation period of not less than 21 days. Before making any variation to the proposed amount or to the day on which daily amounts begin or cease to accumulate, or to the circumstances in which they cease to accumulate, the CAA must give notice, publish the notice, send a copy of the notice to appropriate industry representatives and consider any representations made.

Clause 54 : Procedure after imposing penalty

161. Clause 54 provides that the CAA must give notice as soon as practicable after imposing a penalty under clause 51 or 52 . The notice must be published and must state the amount of the penalty, give the CAA’s reasons and specify a reasonable period within which the penalty must be paid.

Clause 55 : Appeals against penalties and Schedule 5 : Appeals against penalties : information

162. Clause 55 gives effect to S chedule 5 which sets out the basis on which a person may appeal to the Competition Appeal Tribunal against a penalty imposed on the person for failure to provide information or for providing false or misleading information etc. An appeal may be made against any of the matters mentioned in paragraph 1(2) of Schedule 5, including the amount of penalty and the period allowed for payment. S chedule 5 provides the grounds for appeal, and makes provision about decisions on appeal. A further appeal may be made on a point of law arising from a decision of the Competition Appeal Tribunal.

Penalties

Clause 56 : Imposing penalties

163. Clause 56 provides that the CAA may not impose a penalty in respect of an act or omission for which a penalty has already been given, with regard to the contravention of a licence condition or of an order or of a notice under clause 51 , unless the acts or omissions took place at different times or at different periods.

Clause 57 : Recovering penalties

164. Clause 57 provides for the consequences of unpaid penalties including recovery of unpaid balances and interest payable to the CAA, which must be paid into the Consolidated Fund.

Clause 58 : Statement of policy on penalties

165. Clause 58 provides that the CAA must prepare and publish a statement (including any revised statement) of its policy on penalties. The CAA must consult when preparing or revising a policy statement. Clause 58 also provides that the CAA must, when imposing a penalty or determining the amount of a penalty, take into consideration the statement published before the contravention in respect of which the penalty is to be imposed.

Disclosing information

Clause 59 : Disclosing information and Schedule 6 : Restrictions on disclosing information

166. Clause 59 provides for the protection from disclosure by the CAA of commercial information and information relating to the private affairs of an individual where such disclosure would cause significant harm. It gives effect to Schedule 6. Schedule 6 imposes a prohibition on the disclosure of information which relates to the affairs of an individual or a particular business and is obtained under or by virtue of Chapter 1 of Part 1 of the Bill , subject to permitted exceptions. Those exceptions include where information is disclosed by the CAA to facilitate carrying out its regulatory functions under Chapter 1 or its functions under clause 83 or 84 and disclosure for the purposes of law enforcement or criminal proceedings.

Chapter 2 – competition

Clause 60 : Functions under Part 4 of Enterprise Act 2002 and Clause 61 : Enterprise Act 2002: Supplementary

167. These clauses provide for most of the functions of the OFT under Part 4 of the Enterprise Act 2002 (market investigations) to be exercisable concurrently by the CAA, so far as those functions relate to the provision of airport operation services. "Airport operation services" are defined in clause 68.

168. Part 4 of the Enterprise Act 2002 allows for the OFT to make a market investigation reference to the Competition Commission (the "CC"). These investigations are designed to complement the Competition Act 1998 by providing a means of addressing problems in markets where competition does not appear to be working well, but where there is no apparent breach of existing competition law. An example of the sort of circumstances in which a market investigation might take place would be a situation where a non-collusive, uncompetitive oligopoly existed. This would be characterised by a few large firms supplying almost the whole of the market (known as an oligopoly) and, without there being any agreement between them (collusion) or any concerted practice such as would infringe the Competition Act 1998, they all tended to follow parallel courses of conduct, while new competitors faced significant barriers to entry into the market, and there was little or no evidence of vigorous competition between the existing players.

169. The OFT is able to make a reference to the CC where it has reasonable grounds to suspect that any "feature", or combination of features, of a market operating in whole or in part in the UK prevents, restricts or distorts competition in connection with the supply or acquisition of goods or services in the UK. Relevant market features are the structure of a market for good s or services, the conduct of persons supplying or acquiring goods or services in that market, and the conduct of their customers. Where the CC finds that such an adverse effect on competition exists, it is under a duty to take such remedial action within its powers as it considers reasonable and practicable.

170. Clause 60 enables the CAA to exercise the OFT's functions under Part 4 of the Enterprise Act 2002 in relation to airport operation services, except that, unlike the OFT, the CAA is neither obliged to keep a register of undertakings accepted and orders made (since this is the OFT’s exclusive responsibility under section 166 of the Enterprise Act 2002) nor is it obliged to issue guidance on the making of market references (under section 171 of that Act).

171. Subsections (1) and (2) of clause 61 are designed to prevent the exercise by both the CAA and the OFT of their concurrent powers under Part 4 of the Enterprise Act 2002 in relation to the same matter. These subsections place those bodies under a duty to consult each other before exercising any of their concurrent functions and prohibit them from exercising these functions in a case where the other has already done so.

172. Subsection (4) of clause 61 places the CAA under a duty, where it has referred a matter to the CC under the provisions of Part 4 of the Enterprise Act 2002, to provide the CC with any information relevant to the investigation in the CAA’s possession or control which is requested by the CC or which the CAA considers appropriate. Subsection (6) places a duty on the CC to take this information into account.

173. Subsection (5) of clause 61 places the CAA under a duty to provide any other assistance requested by the CC for the purpose of such a reference and which is in the CAA’s power to give.

174. Subsection (7) of clause 61 gives the Secretary of State the power to determine any question that arises as to whether the CAA must or may carry out any relevant function under the Enterprise Act 2002. However, subsection (8) also makes clear that no action taken by the CAA under Part 4 of the Enterprise Act 2002 is open to challenge on the grounds that such action should have been taken by the OFT (other than in relation to sections 166 and 171).

175. Subsection (9) of clause 61 enables the CAA, when carrying out its concurrent functions under Part 4 of the Enterprise Act 2002, to have regard to matters mentioned in subsections (1) to (3) of the CAA’s general duty, as set out in clause 1. Subsection (10) disapplies the CAA’s general objectives in section 4 of the CAA 1982 when carrying out relevant functions under the Enterprise Act 2002.


Clause 62 : Functions under Competition Act 1998 and Clause 63 : Competition Act 1998: Supplementary

176. These clauses provide for most of the functions of the OFT under Part 1 of the Competition Act 1998 (competition) to be held concurrently by the CAA, so far as they relate to the provision of airport operation services and to the things listed in subsection (3) of clause 62 . These things are restrictive agreements, concerted practices or decisions of associations of undertakings and abuse of a dominant position as prohibited by the Competition Act 1998 and/or Articles 101 and 102 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union of 30 March 2010 (the "TFEU"). This means that the CAA is able to exercise almost all of the functions of the OFT under Part 1 of the Competition Act 1998 in so far as they relate to activities connected with the provision of airport operation services.

177. The functions under Part 1 of the Competition Act 1998 which the CAA is not able to exercise are functions under:

  • section 31D, which requires the OFT to prepare and publish guidance as to the circumstances in which it may be appropriate to accept co m mitments from such person (or persons) concerned as it considers appropriate when the OFT has begun an investigation.
  • section 38, which requires the OFT to prepare and publish guidance as to the appropriate amount of any penalty under Part 1 of that Act.
  • section 51, which allows the OFT to make rules (currently in the form of the Competition Act 1998 (Office of Fair Trading's Rules) Order 2004 (SI 2004/2751)) setting out the procedures to be followed by the OFT, the sectoral regulators and third parties under Part 1 of that Act.

178. The Competition Act 1998 contains statutory prohibitions on anti-competitive behaviour applicable in the UK which are modelled on Articles 101 and 102 of the TFEU. It contains two prohibitions: first, it prohibits agreements which prevent, restrict or distort competition and which may affect trade within the United Kingdom (‘the Chapter I prohibition’); secondly, it prohibits conduct which amounts to an abuse of a dominant position in a market which may affect trade within the United Kingdom (‘the Chapter II prohibition’). The 1998 Act confers on the OFT powers to investigate and enforce against infringements of both the Chapter I and Chapter II prohibitions and the prohibitions set out in Articles 101 and 102 TFEU.

179. Examples of the functions in respect of which clause 62 gives the CAA concurrent jurisdiction include:

  • to investigate possible infringements of the Chapters I or II or Article 101/102 prohibitions, either on their own initiative or in response to complaints;
  • to impose financial penalties and/or to give directions to bring an infringement of any of the prohibitions to an end; and
  • to issue general advice and information on how the Competition Act 1998 applies to the airport operation services sector.

180. Further provision for the co-ordination of the performance by the OFT and sectoral regulators of concurrent functions under the 1998 Act is contained in the Competition Act 1998 (Concurrency) Regulations 2004 (SI 2004/1077).

181. The OFT and each regulator are also represented on the Concurrency Working Party which was formed in 1997 to ensure full co-ordination between regulators and the OFT and to ensure consistency of approach to casework.

182. The CAA and the OFT would be expected to consult each other before a decision is made as to who will deal with a case in respect of which there is concurrent jurisdiction. In general, anti-competitive agreements or abusive conduct that relate to airport operation services will be dealt with by the CAA (unless the OFT is better placed to do so).

183. Subsection (1) of clause 63 makes clear that no action taken by the CAA under Part 1 of the Competition Act 1998 is open to challenge on the grounds that such action should have been taken by the OFT.

184. Subsection (2) of clause 63 enables the CAA, when carrying out relevant functions under the Competition Act 1998, to have regard to matters mentioned in subsections (1) to (3) of the CAA’s general duty, as set out in clause 1. Subsection (3) disapplies the CAA’s general objectives in section 4 of the CAA 1982 when carrying out relevant functions under the Competition Act 1998.

Clause 64 : Review etc of airport operation services

185. This clause contains provisions designed to ensure that the markets relevant to airport operation services are kept under review by the CAA, and that the CAA has appropriate mechanisms to provide advice and assistance to the OFT, the Secretary of State and the wider public.

186. Subsection (1) places a qualified duty on the CAA to keep the provision of airport operation services in the UK under review and also to collect information about such provision to facilitate the CAA in carrying out its concurrent competition functions set out in this Chapter.

187. Subsection (2 ) places a duty on the CAA to provide information, advice and assistance to the Secretary of State and the OFT about any matter relating to its concurrent competition functions if it is requested to do so or thinks it is expedient to do so. Subsection (3) states that the CAA must supply information, advice or assistance , when requested by the Secretary of State or the OFT , only where it appears practicable to the CAA to do so.

188. Subsection (4) provides a power for the CAA to prepare and publish reports relating to airport operation services, which is intended to enable the CAA to publish market studies where it considers it appropriate. Subsection (5) gives the CAA the discretion to exclude commercial information or information relating to private affairs from the published document in certain circumstances.

189. Subsection (6) enables the CAA to carry out, commission or provide financial or other support for research under its functions for this clause.

Clause 65 : Power to modify CAA’s competition powers

190. The CAA only has concurrent functions in relation to "airport operation services", which are defined in clause 68. Clause 65 enables the Secretary of State, by regulations made by a statutory instrument that has been laid before, and approved by a resolution of, each House of Parliament, to modify the scope of the CAA’s concurrent powers; specifically, to narrow the scope by excluding certain types of airport operation services or to expand the scope by including particular services at an airport that are not airport operation services. Regulations under clause 65 may also make consequential amendments to Chapter 2 of Part 1 of the Bill.

191. Although the definition of "airport operation services" is also subject to changes in scope by regulations under clause 68, the power under clause 65 allows for some divergence between the coverage of economic regulation under Chapter 1 of Part 1 and concurrent competition powers under Chapter 2 of that Part.

chapter 3 – general provision

Interpretation

Clause 66 : Airports and Clause 67 : Airports: Supplementary

192. These clauses define what an airport is for the purposes of this Part of the Bill.

193. Clause 66 (1) states that an airport comprises an aerodrome (as defined in the CAA 1982 ) as well as other land , buildings and structures used for the purposes described in paragraphs (a) to (f).

194. Section 105(1) of t he CAA 1982 defines an aerodrome as "any area of land or water designed, equipped, set apart or commonly used for affording facilities for the landing and departure of aircraft and includes any area or space, whether on the ground, on the roof of a building or elsewhere, which is designed, equipped or set apart for affording facilities for the landing and departure of aircraft capable of descending or climbing vertically".

195. Clause 67 provides further clarification on what is and is not included in the definition of an airport. For example it states that a passenger (who has not arrived by air) arrives at the airport when they arrive at one of the following:

  • the terminal building;
  • the terminal forecourt; or
  • a car park with pedestrian access to the terminal.

Clause 68 : Airport operation services

196. The CAA’s primary duty (clause 1(1), which governs all its functions under Chapter 1 of Part 1) is to further the interests of users of air transport services regarding the range, availability, continuity, cost and quality of airport operation services.

197. Subsection (1) defines what services provided at an airport (as defined in clauses 66 and 67) comprise "airport operation services". Subsections (3) and (4) provide further clarification on what services are and are not included in the definition.

198. For the purposes of this Part of the Bill subsection (5) clarifies that "airport operation services" include permitting a person to access or use land. Clause 72(2) further clarifies that any reference to providing a service includes providing a facility. As a result the provision of space to retailers in the terminal building would be caught by the definition of airport operation services; however, due to clause 68(3)(c), the provision of retail services (for example duty free sales) would not.

Clause 69 : Air transport services

199. The CAA’s primary duty (clause 1(1), which governs all its functions under Chapter 1 of Part 1 ) is to further the interests of users of air transport services regarding the range, availability, continuity, cost and quality of airport operation services.

200. This clause defines "air transport service", "provider" and "user" of such services. Users comprise: current and future passengers of both commercial and private flights; and those with current and future property rights in cargo which is transported by air.

201. The definition of users of air transport services does not include airlines, pilots or other members of crew.

202. Flights to or from airports in the United Kingdom are covered by the definition.


Clause 71 : Connected persons

203. Clauses 3, 16, 21, 23 , 25, 44 and Schedule 2 refer to the concept of "connected persons". Clause 71 defines this concept for the purpose of Part 1 of the Bill. Connected persons are defined by reference to the Companies Act 2006 using the definition of "group undertaking" set out in section 1161 of that Act in order to cover any arrangements an operator may have within a company group. Subsection ( 3) enables the Secretary of State to modify the "connected persons" definition for the purposes of Part 1 .

Other general provision

Clause 76: Minor, consequential and transitional provision

204. This clause repeals Part 4 of the Airports Act 1986 and revokes Part 4 of the Airports (Northern Ireland ) Order 1994. It also gives effect to Schedule 8 (consequential amendments relating to the status of airport operators as statutory undertakers in Great Britain and Northern Ireland), Schedule 9 (other consequential amendments) and Schedule 10 (transitional provision).

Schedule 8: Status of Airport Oper ators as Statutory Undertakers e tc

205. Part 1 of Schedule 8 amends Part V of the Airports Act 1986 (the ‘1986 Act’) and Article 2 of the Airports (Northern Ireland) Order 1994 (the ‘1994 Order’) to make provision for conferring the status of statutory undertaker on certain airports.

206. Under the 1986 Act an airport has statutory undertaker status if it has or has a subsisting pending application for a permission to levy charges under Part IV of the Airports Act 1986 and it is not for these purposes an excluded airport under section 57(2) of that Act. Under section 37(2) of the 1986 Act permission to levy charges is necessary where the annual turnover of the airport is £1million per financial year in at least two of the last three financial years.

207. Part 1 of the Bill will repeal section 37 of the 1986 Act and this financial threshold will no longer be the determining factor as to whether an airport is regulated. Therefore consequential amendments are needed to the 1986 Act to enable the status of statutory undertaker to be conferred upon airports and preserve the position in respect of existing airports which have had such status conferred upon them.

208. Section 57 of the 1986 Act is substituted with 57A establishing that a relevant airport operator will have the status of a statutory undertaker where they have been granted a certificate. The CAA will grant such a certificate if the airport operator has applied for the certificate, accompanied by the relevant charge, and is eligible. An eligible airport will continue to be an airport where the annual turnover of the business carried on by the operator at the airport exceeds £1 million in at least two of the last three financial years.

209. Any airport owned solely or jointly by a principal council, an integrated Transport Authority in England or metropolitan county passenger transport authority in Scotland is not eligible.

210. A certificate may be withdrawn if the airport no longer meets the eligible annual turnover in the relevant financial years by the Secretary of State in England and Wales and Scottish Ministers in Scotland following consultation of the CAA and the airport operator. The withdrawal of the certificate does not affect the rights or liabilities of the airport during the period when a certificate had been granted.

211. The Secretary of State may make an order substituting a greater sum than £1 million.

212. Separate arrangements exist in Northern Ireland for the conferral of statutory undertaker status on airport operators. Part 2 of Schedule 8 makes amendments to the 1994 Order for airports in Northern Ireland to achieve a similar effect to the Great Britain arrangements.

Schedule 10: Regulation of Operators of Dominant Airports: Transitional Provision

213. Part 1 of Schedule 10 of the Bill contains the key elements for the transition to Part 1 of the Bill from the existing regulatory regime set out in Part 4 of the Airports Act 1986 (the ‘1986 Act’) and Part 4 of the Airports (Northern Ireland) Order 1994 (the ‘1994 Order’). Further transitional provision will be made in secondary legislation.

214. Part 1 of Schedule 1 establishes an interim period, which will run from the date of commencement of clause 3 ("the commencement day") until 31 March 2014, and makes provision about the operation of the 1986 Act, the 1994 Order and the Bill during that period.

215. Paragraphs 2 and 3 apply where an airport is designated under the 1986 Act or 1994 Order at the beginning of the interim period. There are currently three designated airports - Heathrow, Gatwick and Stansted – which are subject to price controls that expire on 31 March 2014. The Government has made a commitment not to disturb the current price control settlements for those airports.

216. Paragraph 2(3) provides that, on the commencement day, designated airports will be deemed to have passed the market power test set out in Part 1 of the Bill. Paragraph 2(4) has the effect that the CAA may not treat this determination as having been previously made for the purposes of clause 7(5). Therefore the CAA could not refuse a request from the operator of the airport area and/or other persons materially affected by the determination on the basis that there has been no material change of circumstances since clause 3 came into fo rce.

217. Paragraph 2(6) disapplies the right of appeal in relation to the market power determination which is treated as made under paragraph 2(3). But it does not remove the right of appeal under clause 13 and Schedule 1 where a market power determination is made in response to a request made after the commencement day. The CAA is obliged to respond to a request made by the operator of the airport area in question or a person whose interests would be materially affected by the determination (see clause 7).

218. Paragraph 3(2) provides an exemption during the interim period from the prohibition under clause 3. In brief, clause 3 prevents specified person from requiring others to pay relevant charges for airport operation services provided in an airport area if the operator of th e area does not have a licence. The exemption under paragraph 3(2) applies to any airport which is a designated airport on the commencement day.

219. Paragraph 4(1) provides that if a decision was made to designate an airport, or to confirm or revoke a designation, on or after 10 November 2011, the CAA can refuse to make a market power determination (if it is requested to do so) if it considers that there has not been a material change of circumstances since the previous decision. The Airport Charges Regulations 2011 came into force on 10 November 2011. They amended the 1986 Act and the 1994 Order to provide for mandatory procedures whereby the CAA examines whether airport operators have or are likely to acquire substantial market power.

220. Paragraph 4(2) provides for the handling of requests made before the commencement day for an order designating an airport or revoking its designation. If the Secretary of State (or the Department of the Environment in Northern Ireland) has not made such an order (or a decision not to make such an order) before the commencement day, the request will be treated as a request for a market power determination under the Bill.

221. Paragraph 5 provides that during the interim period no orders can be made designating an airport under the 1986 Act or the 1994 Order. If, during the interim period, a designated airport ceases to be a dominant airport for the purposes of Part 1 of the Bill, an order must be made revoking the designation. The decision on whether an airport is still dominant will be made by the CAA and, if the CAA’s decision is that the airport has ceased to be dominant, the Secretary of State (or the Department of the Environment in Northern Ireland) must then make an order revoking its designation. The Secretary of State is to have no discret ion when making such an order.

222. Paragraph 5(4) provides that where a request is made during the interim period for an order revoking an airport’s designation and the Secretary of State (or the Department of the Environment in Northern Ireland) has not made such an order before the end of this period, the request is to be treated as a request for a market power determination. The Secretary of State is to have no discretion when making such an order.

223. Paragraph 6 makes provision to address the different definitions of an "airport" under the 1986 Act or 1994 Order and clauses 66 to 72 of this Bill to ensure that the provisions in this Schedule are properly app lied during the interim period.

224. Paragraph 7 makes provision for the Secretary of State to amend Part 1 of Schedule 10 but provides that the power cannot be used to end the interim period before 31 March 2014. This prohibits any amendments which would in effect remove designated airports’ exemption from the prohibition before 31 March 2014. It does so in order to ensure that the current price controls affecting designated airports are not disturbed before 31 March 2014, unless the designations are revoked.

225. Part 2 of Schedule 10 makes transitional provision for airports that currently have the status of statutory undertakers by virtue of Part 5 of the 1986 Act.

226. Under the 1986 Act an airport has statutory undertaker status if it has, or has a pending application for, a permission to levy charges under Part 4 of that Act and it is not for those purposes an excluded airport described in section 57(2) of that Act. Excluded airports include airports owned by certain types of local authority. Under section 37(2) of the 1986 Act permission to levy charges is necessary where the annual turnover of the airport is £1million per financial year in at least two of the last three financial years.

227. Under new section 57A of the 1986 Act (to be inserted by Schedule 8), an airport will have statutory undertaker status by virtue of Part 5 of the 1986 Act if a certificate has been granted under that section in respect of the airport.

228. Paragraph 9 of Schedule 10 provides that, where a permission to levy charges is in force in respect of an airport immediately before the day on which Schedule 8 to the Bill comes into force, the permission is to be treated as if it were a certificate given under section 57A of the 1986 Act. So the airport’s status as a statutory un dertaker will be uninterrupted.

229. Paragraph 10 of Schedule 10 makes similar provision for cases in which an application under section 38 of 1986 Act for permission to levy charges is pending on the commencement day.

230. Separate arrangements exist in Northern Ireland for conferring statutory undertaker status on airports under the Airports (Northern Ireland) Order 1994. Paragraphs 14 to 18 of Schedule 10 make provision in relation to airports in Northern Ireland that achieves a similar effect to the Great Britain arrangements described above.

Clause 77: Crown application

231. This clause provides that Chapter 1 (other than clauses 50 to 52 on obtaining information), Chapter s 2 and Chapter 3 bind the Crown, subject to certain exceptions mentioned in or provided by the clause. It also provides that Chapters 1 and 3 do not affect Her Majesty in her private capacity.

232. Subsection (5) provides that nothing in Chapters 1 and 3 prevents a person from requiring payment of, or recovering, charges in respect of services provided in the course of carrying out exempt Crown functions (as defined in subsection (12) ) by or on behalf of the Crown. Subsection (6) provides that if the operator of an airport area exercises overall responsibility for its management in the course of carrying out exempt Crown functions, the absence of a licence in respect of the airport area does not prevent charges being imposed in respect of services provided at that area or another area in the same airport. Subsections (7) to (9) provide for services provided in an exempt Crown airport area to be excluded from the scope of economic regulation. "exempt Crown airport area" is defined in subsection (10) , which provides amongst other things that the area must be part of a small airport (an airport where the number of passenger movements did not exceed 5 million during the previous calendar year or the airport was not open to commercial traffic) and that it must be explicitly excluded from the scope of economic regulation through regulations made by the Secretary of State.

233. Subsection (6) provides that if the operator of an airport area exercises overall responsibility for its management in the course of carrying out exempt functions on behalf of the Crown, the absence of a licence in respect of the airport area does not prevent charges being imposed in respect of services provided at another area in the same airport. Subsections (7) to (9) provide for services provided in an exempt Crown airport area to be excluded from the scope of economic regulation. " e xempt Crown airport area" is defined in subsection (10) , which provides amongst other things that the area must be part of a small airport (an airport where the number of passenger movements did not exceed 5 million during the previous calendar year or the airport was not open to commercial traffic) and that it must be explicitly excluded from the scope of economic regulation through regulations made by the Secretary of State.

part 2 – other aviation matters

Aviation security

Clause 78: Aviation security directions etc.

234. C lause 78 amends Part 2 of the ASA 1982 by inserting a number of new sections which confer various aviation security functions on the CAA. Clause 78 also gives effect to Schedule 11 ( aviation security directions etc : minor and consequential amendments ).

235. Subsection (2) inserts new section 14A (review by the CAA). The new section places a duty on the CAA to review aviation security directions that are currently in force and to make recommendations to the Secretary of State about those directions and about the giving of further directions . The Secretary of State may specify the form of the recommendations. Aviation security directions will continue to be made by the Secretary of State. The CAA’s role will be, for example, to prepare draft directions for the Secretary of State to make and to prepare guidance on directions.

236. Subsection (3) inserts new section 16A (directions requiring national security vetting). Aviation security directions specify certain aviation security activities that can only be carried out by individuals who have been vetted. This new section places a duty on the CAA to make arrangements for carrying out that vetting, including arrangements for renewing and withdrawing clearance and arrangements for appeals. This new section enables the Secretary of State to give directions to the CAA in connection with the vetting arrangements, which the CAA must comply with. Subsection (5) of new section 16A confirms that this provision does not remove or limit any other power under which national security vetting is exercised.

237. Subsection (4) of clause 78 inserts new section 23A (functions of CAA under this Part). New section 23A(1) places a duty on the CAA to carry out the functions conferred on it by or under Part 2 of the ASA 1982 with a view to achieving the purposes to which that Part applies. Part 2 of the ASA 1982 is broadly concerned with the protection of civil aviation against acts of violence: see section 10 of that Act. New section 23A(2) requires the CAA to consult the Secretary of State if it considers there to be a conflict between its duty under new section 23A(1) and its duty under section 4 of the CAA 1982, which, amongst other things, includes securing a high standard of safety. The CAA must resolve the conflict in the manner directed by the Secretary of State and, in so doing, is to be treated as being in compliance with new section 23A(1) and section 4 of the CAA 1982.

238. Subsection (5) of clause 78 amends the definition of an "authorised person" in section 24A (interpretation of Part 2) of the ASA 1982 so that it can mean a person authorised in writing by the Secretary of State or the CAA. Authorised persons have the power to inspect aircraft and aerodromes and other connected powers as set out in Part 2 of the ASA 1982. This will mean that such persons will be able to be appointed by the CAA, as well as the Secretary of State.

239. Subsection (6) gives effect to Schedule 11.

Schedule 11: Aviation security directions etc: minor and consequential amendments

240. Schedule 11 contains amendments to Part 1 of the CAA 1982 and Part 2 of the ASA 1982 which are consequential upon the provisions of clause 78 .

241. Paragraph 2 amends section 11 of the CAA 1982 (charges by CAA) by inserting a new subsection (8) which provides that references in section 11 to functions of the CAA include functions conferred by or under Part 2 of the ASA 1982 on authorised person (as defined in that Part) authorised by the CAA. This enables the CAA to charge for the cost of authorised persons authorised by the CAA.

242.
Paragraph 3 amends section 20 of the CAA 1982 (supplementary provisions with respect to functions of the CAA) by inserting a new subsection (5) which provides that references in section 20 to functions of the CAA include functions conferred by or under Part 2 of the ASA 1982 on authorised persons (as defined in that Part) to the extent that the functions are carried out by persons authorised by the CAA. This enables the CAA to have the power to do anything which is calculated to facilitate, or is conducive or incidental to, the performance of any of the functions of authorised persons authorised by the CAA.

243. Paragraph 6 amends section 11 of the ASA 1982 to provide that the Secretary of State and the CAA are a "relevant authority" for the purposes of section 11. These amendments enable the CAA, in addition to the Secretary of State, to require information be provided in connection with the exercise of its functions conferred by or under Part 2 of the ASA 1982.

244. Paragraph 8 amends section 11A of the ASA 1982 (designation of security restricted area) by inserting new subsection (4A) which requires the Secretary of State to consult the CAA before approving an application without modifications to designate a security restricted area. It also adds the CAA to the list of persons to whom the Secretary of State shall consult before approving an application with modifications and to whom the Secretary of State shall give notice of any designation under section 11A.

245. Paragraph 12 inserts new section 17A (copies of directions etc for CAA) into the ASA 1982. New section 17A requires the Secretary of State to give the CAA a copy of each aviation security direction, each direction varying or revoking such a direction and each notification made by the Secretary of State, in relation to directions and notifications given on or after the coming into force of this paragraph.

246. Paragraph 13 deletes subsection (3) of section 18A of the ASA 1982 and inserts new subsections (4) and (5). These new subsections require, respectively, that where a person authorised by the Secretary of State issues an enforcement notice the Secretary of State must give a copy of the notice to the CAA, and where a person authorised by the CAA issues an enforcement notice the CAA must give the Secretary of State a copy.

247. Paragraph 14 amends section 18D (objections to enforcement notices) of the ASA 1982. Paragraph 14(2) inserts new subsection (3A). New subsection (3A) requires that, where an objection to an enforcement notice has been received, the Secretary of State must give a copy of the objection to the authorised person who served the enforcement notice and the CAA, consider the objection and allow the objector and the authorised person an opportunity to make written or oral representations to the Secretary of State or a person appointed by the Secretary of State. It also requires the Secretary of State to give a decision notice (defined by section 18D(4), as amended by paragraph 14(3 ) to the person who made the objection and to give a copy of the decision notice to the authorised person who served the enforcement notice and the CAA.

248. Paragraph 15 amends section 20B (detention directions) of the ASA 1982. Paragraph 15(2) inserts new subsections (2A) and (2B). These subsections require, respectively, that where a person authorised by the Secretary of State gives a detention direction the Secretary of State must give the CAA a copy and where a person authorised by the CAA gives a detention direction, the CAA must give the Secretary of State a copy. Paragraph 15(3)(a) inserts new paragraph (za) into subsection (5) which requires the Secretary of State to give a copy of an objection to a detention direction to the authorised person who gave the direction and the CAA. Paragraph 15(3)(d) adds new paragraph (e) to subsection (5) of section 20B which requires the Secretary of State to give a copy of the notice of the Secretary of State’s decision to the authorised person who gave the direction and the CAA.

249. Paragraph 16 amends subsection (7) of section 21 (application of provisions to air navigation installations) by inserting references to new sections 14A, 16A and 17A of the ASA 1982 to ensure that references to directions in these sections are construed as including references to directions that may be given in respect of air navigation installations.

250. Paragraph 17 amends subsections (1) and (2) of section 21G (duty to report certain occurrences). The amendment provides that regulations made under that section may require reports of certain occurrences to be made to the Secretary of State or the CAA. It also adds the CAA to the list of persons to be consulted by the Secretary of State before making regulations requiring persons to report certain occurrences.

251. Part 3 of the RESA 2008 (civil sanctions) allows for civil sanctions to be applied to the offences in Part 2 of the ASA 1982. Paragraph 18 provides that offences under section 11 of the ASA 1982 (power to require information) as amended by this Schedule are to be treated as if they had been in force immediately before the day on which the RESA 2008 was passed, and are therefore to be capable of being dealt with by way of civil sanction s as provided for by Part 3 of that Act .

Clause 79: Approved providers of aviation security services

252. Clause 79 makes a number of amendments to section 20A of the ASA 1982. Section 20A confers a power enabling the Secretary of State to make regulations about approved providers of aviation security services. Subsection (2) of clause 79 amends section 20A (2) so as to enable the regulations made under that section to provide for the CAA, rather than the Secretary of State, to maintain a list of persons who are approved by it for the provision of a particular aviation security service.

253. Subsection (3) of clause 79 amends section 20A (3) so as to enable regulations made under section 20A to provide for approval to be given, and persons to be listed, generally or only at a particular location; factors to be taken into account when deciding whether to grant an application; employees of listed persons to be treated as listed in respect of the provision of that service generally or at that location (as appropriate) in specified circumstances; and other conditions applying to a listing.

254. Subsection (4) inserts new subsection (3A) into section 20A, which provides that regulations must include provision for appeals against the refusal of applications for inclusion in a list and removal from a list, and, where appropriate, appeals against conditions.

255. Subsection (5) inserts new subsection (5A) , which defines "listed person" in relation to an aviation security service, as meaning a person who is listed in respect of the provision of that service generally or at the relevant location.

Clause 80: Advice and assistance in connection with aviation security

256. C lause 80 inserts new sections 21H (provision of advice and assistance to the Secretary of State) and 21I (provision of advice and assistance to other persons) . Subsection (1) of new section 21H places a duty on the CAA to provide advice and assistance to the Secretary of State in connection with matters relevant to the purposes of Part 2 of ASA 1982 ( the protection of civil aviation against acts of violence ) . Subsection (2) of new section 21H provides that the provision of advice and assistance may be operated as a continuing requirement on the CAA. Subsection (3) make s clear that nothing in new section 21H affects the general provision made by section 16 of the CAA 1982.

257. New section 21I places a duty on the CAA to provide such advice and assistance to the persons listed in subsection (3) of that section (for example, managers of UK aerodromes and operators of aircraft registered or operating in the UK) as the CAA considers appropriate having regard to the purposes to which Part 2 of the ASA 1982 applies. Subsection (4) of new section 21 I ensures that the Secretary of State retains the power to provide advice and assistance to the persons listed in subsection (3) of the new section, having regard to the purposes to which Part 2 of the ASA 1982 applies and any advice and assistance provided to those persons by the CAA.

Clause 81: Power to modify functions of CAA etc. relating to aviation security

258. Clause 81 inserts new section 21J into the ASA 1982 (power to modify functions of CAA etc relating to aviation security) that enables the Secretary of State to modify, by regulations, the aviation security functions of the CAA and the functions of authorised persons who are authorised by the CAA. This new section provides that before making any such regulations, the Secretary of State must consult the CAA.

Clause 82: Transfer schemes

259. Clause 82 enables the Secretary of State to make schemes to transfer to the CAA rights, powers, duties and liabilities of the Crown in connection with individuals employed in the civil service of the Crown and other property, rights and liabilities of the Crown.

260. It provides that a scheme may transfer only such property, rights, powers, duties and liabilities as the Secretary of State considers appropriate having regard to the functions conferred on the CAA by or under Part 2 of the ASA 1982, as amended by this Bill, and the functions of persons authorised by the CAA.

261. Subsection (3) requires the Secretary of State to consult the CAA before making a transfer scheme.

262. Subsection (4) gives effect to Schedule 12 which makes further provision about transfer schemes, made under clause 82, in connection with the CAA’s aviation security functions.

Schedule 12 : Aviation security: further provision about transfer schemes

263. Paragraph 1 provides that a transfer scheme may make provision for the transfer of property, rights and liabilities that would not otherwise be capable of transfer.

264. It also enables the creation of rights or imposition of liabilities over transferred property, the creation of new rights and liabilities as between the Crown and the CAA and the apportionment of property, rights and liabilities between the Crown and the CAA.

265. Sub-paragraph (3) allows a transfer scheme to include consequential, incidental, supplementary, transitional, transitory and savings provision.

266. Paragraph 2 makes provision in relation to rights, powers, duties and liabilities relating to an individual’s contract of employment where they are transferred by means of a transfer scheme. It provides that the continuity of the individual’s employment is not broken by the transfer of employment under a transfer scheme. The contract of employment will continue as if it had been made between the individual and the CAA, and the individual will not be regarded as having been dismissed by reason of redundancy because of the transfer.

267. Paragraph 3 sets out what happens if an individual objects to the transfer of their employment contract under a transfer scheme before it takes effect. The contract of employment will be terminated immediately before the point the transfer would have taken place but the employee is not to be considered to have been dismissed for any purpose. Sub-paragraph (5) preserves an individual’s right to terminate their contract of employment where there is a substantial detrimental change in the individual’s working conditions, other than the change of employer.

268. Paragraph 4 provides that a transfer scheme may include provision with respect to the individual’s eligibility to become a member of a pension scheme by virtue of employment with the CAA. The transfer scheme may also include provision with respect to the rights of, or rights or liabilities in respect of, the individual under a pension scheme of which the individual may become a member by virtue of employment with the CAA, or a pension scheme of which the individual is a member by virtue of employment immediately before the transfer.

269. Paragraph 5 makes provision in relation to employment in the civil service of the Crown, for the purposes of this Schedule. Where an individual holds such employment, the individual is deemed to be employed under a contract of employment on the terms of employment in the civil service of the Crown.

270. Paragraph 6 confirms that a certificate issued by the Secretary of State that any property, rights, powers, duties or liabilities have been transferred to the CAA under a transfer scheme is to be taken as conclusive evidence of that fact. The certificate is evidence that a transfer has taken place.

271. Paragraph 7 ensures that anything done by the Crown before the time of transfer is still valid after transfer.

272. P aragraph 8 ensures that things done by or in relation to the Crown with respect to anything transferred under a transfer scheme are to be treated as though they had been done by or in relation to the CAA or its members or employees, or continued by or in relation to the CAA or its members or employees. Sub-paragraph (2) provides that a transfer scheme may, in particular, make provision about the continuation of legal proceedings, and make provision for references to the Crown in documents to be treated as references to the CAA.

Provision of information about aviation services

Clause 83 : Information for benefit of users of air transport services

273. The provisions of clause 83 are designed to assist users (passengers and freight service users) or potential users of aviation services and facilities to compare service standards and make a more informed choice. The clause imposes a duty on the CAA to publish, or arrange for the aviation industry to publish in a form that the CAA considers approp r iate , such information and advice as the CAA considers appropriate to assist users to compare aviation services and facilities. The duty does not apply to information which the CAA could refuse to disclose in response to a request made under the Freedom of Information Act 2000 . The CAA may also publish guidance and advice for the aviation industry to improve service standards. The CAA must where practicable keep under review the information, guidance and advice that are published under this clause. The CAA may conduct or commission research in support of these functions.


Clause 84 : Environmental information

274. The provisions of clause 84 are designed to raise awareness of the environmental effects in the UK of civil aviation, their impact on human health and safety and measures taken to limit the adverse environmental effects. Environmental effects are wide-ranging and include, for example, noise, vibration, emissions and visual disturbance from aircraft as well as the effects from services and facilities provided at civil airports. The clause imposes a duty on the CAA to publish, or arrange for the aviation industry to publish in a form that the CAA considers appropriate , such environmental information and advice as the CAA considers appropriate. The duty does not apply to information which the CAA could refuse to disclose in response to a request made under the Freedom of Information Act 2000 . The CAA may also publish guidance and advice with a view to limiting the adverse environmental impacts of the aviation sector. The CAA must where practicable keep under review the information, guidance and advice published under this clause. The CAA may conduct or commission research in support of these functions.

Clause 85 : Power to obtain information

275. Clause 85 provides that the CAA may by notice in writing require a person to provide information that the CAA reasonably requires to exercise its functions under clause s 83 and 84 . As a result of subsection ( 6 ) , information obtained using this power which relates to the affairs of an individual or to a particular business must not be disclosed unless this is permitted under Schedule 6.

Clause 86 : Enforcement of information notice

276. Clause 86 provides that when a person fails without reasonable excuse to comply with a notice issued under clause 85 , the CAA may impose a penalty, or enforce the duty to comply in civil proceedings for an injunction, or both . The amount of the penalty as determined by the CAA must be appropriate and proportionate to the offence and may be either a fixed amount of up to £50,000 or a daily amount of up to £5,000 (or both). The Secretary of State may vary the maximum fixed and daily amounts by regulations which must be approved in each House of Parliament.

Clause 87 : Penalty for providing false information, destroying documents etc

277. Clause 87 provides that the CAA may impose a penalty if a person deliberately or recklessly provides false or misleading information in response to a notice under clause 85 or knowing that the CAA is likely to use the information to carry out its functions under clause 83 or 84 . The CAA may also impose a penalty when a person intentionally alters or destroys information required by a notice under clause 85 . The amount of a penalty imposed under clause 87 must be appropriate and proportionate.

Clause 88 : Procedure before imposing penalty

278. Clause 88 provides the procedure which the CAA must follow before imposing a penalty under clause 86 or 87 . The CAA must give the person a notice including the proposed amount of the penalty, reasons for imposing it and, in the case of a daily penalty, when it would begin and when, or in what circumstances, it would cease to accumulate. The CAA must consider any representations made about the proposed penalty within the period specified in the notice (which must be at least 21 days beginning with the day on which the notice was given). The same process applies before the CAA can vary the proposed amount of the penalty or the day on which daily amounts would begin to accumulate or the day on which, or circumstances in which, they would cease to accumulate. The clause also provides that the CAA may, by notice, withdraw a penalty. The CAA must publish any notice under clause 88 as soon as practicable.

Clause 89 : Procedure after imposing penalty

279. Clause 89 provides the procedure which the CAA must follow after imposing a penalty including giving notice to the person on whom the penalty is imposed and publishing the notice.

Clause 90 : Appeals and Schedule 13 : Appeals against penalties

280. Clause 90 and Schedule 13 provide the grounds on which a person may appeal to the Competition Appeal Tribunal against a penalty imposed under clause s 86 and 87 . A person may appeal against the imposition of the penalty or its amount, duration or payment period. The Competition Appeal Tribunal may confirm or set aside a penalty or give such directions as it considers appropriate to the CAA. A further appeal to the courts may be made on a point of law arising from the decision of the Competition Appeal Tribunal with the permission of the appropriate court or the Competition Appeal Tribunal.

Clause 91 : Payment of penalties

281. Clause 91 provides for the calculation of interest on unpaid penalty balances and the recovery of unpaid penalties as a debt due to the CAA. Any penalties or debt recovered by the CAA must be paid into the Consolidated Fund.

Clause 92 : Statement of policy

282. Clause 92 provides that the CAA must prepare and publish a statement of its policy on: the exercise of its functions under clause s 83 and 84 ; imposing penalties under clause s 86 and 87 ; and determining the amount of such penalties. When preparing or revising this policy the CAA must have regard to the principle that the benefits of carrying out its functions under clause 83 and 84 should outweigh any adverse effects. When imposing a penalty under clause 86 or 87 , or determining its amount, the CAA must have regard to the last statement of policy published before the act or omission in respect of which the penalty is to be imposed. The CAA must consult those persons it considers appropriate on the preparation or revision of its statement of policy. It must also publish any revisions to its statement of policy.

Regulation of provision of flight accommodation

Clause 94: Regulation of provision of flight accommodation

283. Clause 94 amends section 71 of the CAA 1982 to broaden the Secretary of State's powers to regulate the provision of flight accommodation, the legal basis for the Air Travel Organisers' Licensing (ATOL) scheme. The amendments enable the Secretary of State to make regulations requiring airlines to h old and act in accordance with a licence when making available flight accommodation except where they are doing so on a flight - only basis on aircraft which they operate. The amendments also enable the making of regulations requiring businesses acting as an agent for another person in procuring flight accommodation to be licensed, unless exempted by the regulations . Clause 94 further amends section 71 by adding a power for the Secretary of State to make regulations imposing statutory obligations on licence holders and conferring rights of action for contravention of those regulations, as well as imposing criminal sanctions for their breach. It also removes elements of the current regulation - making power that are no longer required.

CAA Membership

Clause 95 : CAA membership

284. Clause 95 amends section 2 of, and Schedule 1 to, the CAA 1982 so that the Secretary of State is responsible for the appointment of the chair of the CAA and the other non-executive members, and the non-executive members are responsible for the appointment of the chief executive with the approval of the Secretary of State. The chief executive is to appoint the other executive members with the approval of the chair and at least one other non-executive member. This clause further provides that the CAA is to consist of between 7 and 16 members, and that non-exec utive members should exce ed executive members in number.

Clause 96 : Non-executive members of CAA

285. Clause 96 amends Schedule 1 to the CAA 1982 to reflect the fact that the Secretary of State is only responsible for the appointment or removal of non-executive members. It updates the circumstances in which the Secretary of State may remove a non-executive member from office. It removes the requirement for HM Treasury’s consent to levels of remuneration for non-executive members. It also ensures that non-executive members are not entitled to the payment of a CAA pension as they are not employees of the CAA.

Clause 97 : Executive members of CAA

286. This clause inserts provisions into Schedule 1 to the CAA 1982 on the terms and conditions of employment of executive members, which are to be determined:

- (i) in the case of the chief executive, by the non-executive members; and

- (ii) in the case of the executive members, by the chief executive with the approval of the chair and at least one other non-executive member.

287.
It also makes amendments to the CAA 1982 so as to draw a distinction between executive members and other employees of the CAA where necessary in the Act.

Clause 98 : CAA’s air navigation functions

288. Clause 98 amends section 66 of the TA 2000 so as to replace the Secretary of State's power to nominate a member to perform certain of the CAA's air navigation functions with a duty for the chief executive to consult the Secretary of State before nominating, with the approval of the chair and at least one other non-executive member, another executive member to perform such of the CAA's air navigation functions as the Secretary of State may specify. It also amends section 67 of the TA 2000 to ensure that the Secretary of State may only nominate a non-executive member to perform the national security functions in section 67.

Clause 99 : Transitional and saving provision and Schedule 14 : CAA membership: transitional and saving provision

289. Clause 99 gives effect to Schedule 14 , which makes transitional provision about serving members of the CAA, in particular for determining whether such a member is to be an executive or non-executive member of the CAA after Royal Assent for the purposes of section 2 of , and Schedule 1 to, the CAA 1982 as amended by the Bill . It also provides for the continuation of their terms and conditions. The CAA must continue to make provision for the payment of pensions to current and former members. The existing n omination of a member made under sections 66 and 67 of the TA 2000 will also continue.

Further provision about CAA

Clause 100 : CAA charges

290. Clause 100 amends section 11 of the CAA 1982 , which makes provision about charging schemes and regulations in respect of the performance of functions of the CAA . The amend ments to section 11 require the CAA to consult first those affected by a charging scheme and then the Secretary of State. New charging schemes are to come into force no earlier than 14 days after publication of the scheme, instead of no earlier than 60 days after publication (as currently provided by section 11) .

291. Section 11(3) provides that the Secretary of State may make regulations to override any charging scheme made by the CAA. Clause 100 adds new subsections (3A) and (3B). These subsections require the Secretary of State to consult persons likely to be affected by regulations before making them , unless such consultation is thought unnecessary by the Secretary of State in view of consultation carried out by the CAA.

292. The clause also amends sections 16 and 17 of the CAA 1982 so as to provide that the CAA cannot recover from the Secretary of State any expense it incurs in providing assistance or advice under section 16 or in providing information under section 17 in connection with any exercise of the Secretary of State’s power to make regulations under section 11(3). This is because the Secretary of State would only need to use that power in the unlikely event of disagreement between the Secretary of State and the CAA on the appropriateness of the charging scheme.

Clause 101 : Criminal proceedings

293. Clause 101 amends section 20 of the CAA 1982 (supplementary provisions with respect to the functions of the CAA) to make explicit that the power conferred on the CAA to do anything which facilitates, or is conducive or incidental to, the performance of any of its functions includes the power to institute and carry on criminal proceedings in England and Wales or Northern Ireland. The power to do anything which facilitates, or is conducive or incidental to, the performance of the CAA’s functions applies in respect of Scotland but criminal proceedings there are instituted and carried out by Procurators Fiscal.

Clause 102: Civil sanctions

294. Clause 102 amends Part 3 (civil sanctions) of RESA 2008 to add the CAA to the list of designated regulators in Schedule 5 to that Act. This enables an order to be made so as to give the CAA access to a range of civil sanctions provided for by Part 3 of the 2008 Act, which could be used in relation to the enforcement of breaches of civil aviation law. These sanctions would sit alongside the existing sanctions available to the CAA and would provide it with an alternative to relying on criminal prosecutions. Clause 102 also adds particular provisions of the CAA 1982 , including section 71 as amended by clause 94 ( r egulation of provision of flight accommodation) of the Bill, to the list of enactments in Schedule 7 to the 2008 Act. This has the effect of extending an existing power to create criminal offences by subordinate legislation, so as to include the power to confer on the CAA the civil sanctions provided for by Part 3 of the Act.

Clause 103: Regulatory burdens

295. This clause imposes a duty on the CAA not to impose or maintain unnecessary burdens. The duty applies to all of the CAA’s functions under Chapter 1 of Part 1 of the Bill and also applies to the CAA’s regulation of air traffic services under Chapter 1 of Part 1 of the TA 2000 .

Clause 104: Disclosure of medical information

296. This clause amends section 23 of the CAA 1982 by inserting new subsections (4A), (4B) and (7). The amendments allow the CAA to disclose anonymised medical information relating to flight crew and air traffic controllers received by it in pursuance of a provision of an Air Navigation Order. In addition to the anonymisation safeguard, this clause also provides that:

  • the disclosure must be for medical research purposes, approved by a research ethics committee (as defined in new subsection (7) );
  • the CAA must consider that the research is likely to improve the understanding of health risks to individuals required to provide medical information to them under an Air Navigation Order; and
  • the CAA must consider that it would be difficult or expensive to take the steps necessary to enable disclosure in reliance on section 23(1) of all of the information which is to be disclosed. One of the steps which would enable information to be disclosed in reliance on section 23(1) is obtaining the written consent to disclosure of each person to whom the information relates.

Miscellaneous

Clause 105 : Dangerous flying

297. Clause 105 repeals section 81 of the CAA 1982 which makes dangerous flying of an aircraft an offence. It also has the effect of removing references to the offence elsewhere in that Act. The repeal is made as prosecutions for endangerment are brought by the CAA under the Air Navigation Order 2009 and not under section 81 of the Civil Aviation Act.

Clause 106 : Offences under Civil Aviation Act 1982

298. Clause 106 contains amendments to section 99 of the CAA 1982 . Subsection (2) adds to section 99(4) of the CAA 1982 a reference to an offence under an Air Navigation Order, so that such an offence is covered by the provision made by section 99(1) and (2), relating to cases where an offence is committed by a body corporate. Subsection (3) removes references in section 99(5) of the CAA 1982 to sections 62 and 63 of that Act, which were repealed by the TA 2000 .

part 3 – final provisions

Clause 107: Power to make consequential and transitional provision

299. Clause 107 enables the Secretary of State to make regulations making consequential, transitional, transitory or saving provision in relation to any provision of the Bill.

Clause 108: Financial provision

300. This clause makes financial provision for the Bill.

Clause 109 : Commencement

301. Clause 109 provides for commencement of the Bill’s provisions. Most of the provisions of the Bill are to come into force on a day appointed by order of the Secretary of State.

302. Clauses 83 to 93 and Schedule 13 , clause 94 , clauses 95 to 99 and Schedule 14, clause 101 and clauses 104 to 106 come into force at the end of the period of two months beginning with the day Royal Assent is given. Part 3 comes into force on Royal Assent.

Clause 1 10 : Extent

303. This Bill extends to the United Kingdom as a whole.

Clause 1 11 : Channel Islands, Isle of Man and British overseas territories

304. Subsection (1) provides that the powers in section 108(1) of the CAA 1982 (power to extend to Channel Islands, Isle of Man and British Overseas Territories) are exercisable in relation to the amendments of that Act made by or under this Bill.

305. Subsection (2) provides that the powers in section 39(3) of the ASA 1982 (extension outside the UK) are exercisable in relation to the amendments of that Act made by or under this Bill.

306. Subsection (3) provides that the power in section 107 of the TA 2000 (extension outside the United Kingdom) is exercisable in relation to the amendments of provisions listed in section 107(2) of that Act made by or under the Bill.

Financial effects

307. The costs and savings (to both public and private expenditure) associated with the reforms proposed in the Bill are outlined in the Impact Assessment summary below, and fully detailed in the Impact Assessments. The package of reforms, including improved regulatory efficiency through both the operation of the regulator and the airport economic regulation proposed licensing regime; increased passenger access to information and conferring certain aviation security functions on the expert regulator is expected to represent an overall saving to public expenditure. The Regulatory Policy Committee has approved the assessment that the Bill represents an overall reduction in regulatory burden, with the majority of benefits being realised by private expenditure. The best estimate of the impact on public expenditure gives expected savings i n the order of £5. 4 m per annum.

308. The most likely reform to affect the National Loans Fund is the transfer of certain aviation security functions to the CAA , where transitional costs of approximately £1.5m are anticipated. There will also be costs beyond the transition stage as the CAA will be responsible for upgrading systems in perpetuity. There may, therefore, be an increase in loans. For example, it is likely that the CAA may borrow from the National Loans Fund to fund IT improvements.


Public sector manpower

309. The Bill will allow for the transfer from DfT to the CAA of around 85 aviation security posts, representing an estimated reduction in DfT’s staffing costs of around £3.6m per annum. These DfT posts are those involving the review and upkeep of aviation security regulations, and the monitoring and enforcement of industry’s compliance with aviation security requirements. The manpower costs and liabilities of the CAA do not fall within the scope of the DfT nor any of its agencies.

310. The full costs and benefits of this transfer are outlined in the Impact Assessment.

summary of the impact assessment

311. The overall package of measures contained in the Bill, detailed in the overarching impact assessment, and outlined below, represent a net benefit of approximately £150m (present value terms over 20 years for the economic regulation of airports, and 10 years for all other policies). The overall costs per annum are estimated at close to £9m and the benefits at £10m.

312. For the proposals to reform the framework for the economic regulation of airports, the impact assessment estimates that these reforms will deliver net benefits of around £160m (present value terms over 20 years). The proposals are estimated to deliver benefits of £13.7m per annum with costs of £2.4m per annum.

313. For the proposals to confer certain aviation security functions on the CAA , the cost to the CAA is estimated at £5.0 m per annum. The benefit (from a reduction in public e xpenditure) is estimated at £4.5 m per annum. Taking into account the non-monetised benefits resulting from the removal of distortions and the synergies from having a single aviation regulator looking after security, safety and economic regulation, the overall total benefits (monetised plus non monetised) is expected to exceed the total costs.

314. For the proposals to reform the legislative framework of the CAA, the costs for the information publication powers proposal are estimated to be £0.7m per annum. The benefits are unquantifiable but are expected to exceed the costs.

315. For the remainder of the reforms to the CAA’s legislative framework, the impact assessment estimates that these reforms will deliver a small net cost of £0.002m (present value terms over 10 years). The total benefits (monetised and non-monetised) over the ten year appraisal period are expected to far outweigh these small monetised costs. The monetised costs and benefits are both expected to amount to around £1m per annum.

European Convention on Human Rights

316. The Government considers that the Civil Aviation Bill is compatible with the European Convention on Human Rights ("ECHR"). Accordingly, the Rt. Hon Theresa Villiers MP has made a statement under section 19(1)(a) of the Human Rights Act 1998 ("HRA 1998") to this effect.

317. Further explanation of key human rights issues is provided. References to articles are to articles of the ECHR.

Chapter 1 of Part 1 - regulation of operators of d ominant a irports

Prohibition and dominant airports

318. The provisions in clauses 3 to 13 establish a prohibition on charging in respect of airport operation services following a determination of dominance of an airport or area within the airport by the CAA may engage Article 1 Protocol 1 (A1P1) and Article 6.

319. If A1P1 is engaged it is the Government’s view that such interference would be in the public interest and prescribed by law. The aim of these provisions is to protect users of air transport services against market abuses or the risk of market abuses by dominant airport operators where competition law is insufficient. Such dominance undermines competition and can harm users of an airport through reducing output, higher prices, lower quality of services and depressing innovation. A market power determination means the CAA can impose licence conditions to curtail potential abuses and promote competition. In addition, under Clause 8 , any determination on market power expressly requires the CAA to ensure that the benefits of regulation are likely to outweigh the adverse effects. This will ensure any regulatory controls are both justified and proportionate.

320. Although a market power determination may also engage Article 6, the Government considers the Bill is compliant. There will be sufficient protection because such CAA decisions can be reviewed by the Competition Appeal Tribunal, an independent and impartial body, which will be able to consider a right of appeal against a determination based on error in the fact, wrong in law or wrong exercise of discretion. These appeal rights extend not just to the operator but also to any other person whose interests are materially affected by the determination.

321. An operator of a dominant area at a ‘dominant airport’ must not levy a ‘relevant charge’ unless it has a licence issued by the CAA. Clause 3(5) of the Bill therefore makes provision to enable the operator to recover any charges for services provided prior to a final determination. The Government does not believe this engages A1P1. It considers that the State is not generally responsible for the regulation of private law rights unless it has used its governmental authority in some way to affect the exercise of those rights, for example, by bringing in legislation which changed the terms of a contract agreed between the parties prior to commencement of the legislation (see Bramelid and Malmstrom v Sweden App Nos 8588/79 and 8589/79, H v UK App No. 10000/82 and DP v UK App No. 11949/86). The charges levied by the operator on the service users are essentially a matter for agreement between those parties and they will know that when a CAA market power determination is made any charges levied in reliance on the determination will be recoverable from the service users unless and until the determination is overturned. The fact the CAA is involved in determining whether the operator needs a licence should not make the State responsible for any interference with the property rights of the parties as a result of that determination. Even if A1P1 is engaged any such interference would be in accordance with the law and there are strong public interest reasons (such as avoiding the closure of major UK airports) for such interference.

Licence conditions

322. The CAA will have a wide discretion to impose under clauses 15 to 21 (or subsequently modify under clauses 22 to 23) licence conditions on the operator of a dominant airport or area including price controls and be able to revoke a licence. T hus both Article 6 and A1P1 are engaged.

323. However, the holder of the licence or any provider of air transport services (e.g. an airline) whose interests are materially affected can appeal to the Competition Commission (‘CC’). The CC will be empowered to review the inclusion, or non-inclusion, of a condition in a licence. The CC is then entitled to reach its own decision to eithe r quash the decision, remit the matter to the CAA with any directions or reconsideration or substitute its own decision (see clause 27). There are various procedural safeguards including time limits as well as possibility for oral hearings, written evidence and expert evidence. It is an independent and impartial body and can consider an appeal against the CAA on the basis of legal or factual errors or the wrong exercise of discretion (see clause 26[223A]). The Government therefore consider the use of the CC as an appeal mechanism to be compliant with Article 6.

324. The imposition of licence conditions by the CAA could affect the purchase, use, disposal and control of property at an airport and therefore the power potentially engages A1P1. The Government considers that such interference would be in the public interest. First, the interference has a legitimate aim to regulate airports with substantial market power and for which competition law is unlikely to be sufficient to address the potential risks of abuse of market position, which can cause detriment to airport users. Secondly, the use of a licensing system is proportionate means to achieve these public interest aims. It is a flexible system, with appropriate checks and balances, which will allow the CAA to target through licence conditions areas where there are concerns about the abuse of substantial market power.

325. There is an additional requirement and safeguard in restricting the power of the CAA to modify licence conditions relating to certain financial arrangements set out in clause 23. This imposes a restriction on the modification of ring-fence licence conditions by the CAA by requiring a twofold test to be met before removing a derogation where the underlying financial arrangements necessitating that derogation were entered into before clause 3 came into force. This means that the CAA must be satisfied that (i) there has been a material change in circumstances, and (ii) the benefits of the proposed modification outweigh any adverse effects.

326. The Government considers that this mechanism provides a further safeguard for any A1P1 rights because it is a targeted approach with an inbuilt proportionality test having regard to the operator’s interests and the public interest. Therefore the Government considers that any interference is justified and proportionate.

Enforcement of licence conditions

327. The provisions under clauses 31 to 47 create an enforcement regime to enable the CAA to deal with non-compliance of licence conditions, including the issuing of an enforcement order, the imposition of financial penalties and, ultimately, the revocation of a licence. A1P1 is engaged because decisions in relation to licences where they interfere with business or the value of commercial goodwill are generally be characterised as controls on the use of property (see Tre Trakt ö rer Aktiebolag v Sweden (1989) 13 EHRR 309 and Fredin v Sweden (1991|) EHRR 784) .

328. The Government considers that any interference with property rights is justified and proportionate in that the provisions strike a fair balance between the commercial interests of the licence holder and the need for competitive markets and appropriate consumer protection.

329. The Government is of the view that the new powers will not only ensure the CAA can take proportionate and dissuasive action to address failures to comply with regulatory requirements but also that the procedural requirements to be followed in relation to enforcement action and penalties ensure that the subject of an order or penalty has access to the independent Competition Appeals Tribunal to fully review the decision, which the Government considers is compliant with Article 6.

330. The publication of an enforcement notice is also likely to engage Article 8. The scope of this Article is applicable to business activities (see Niemietz v Germany (1993) 16 EHRR 97). The Government considers that such interference with the right is justified and necessary in the interests of economic well being and the protection of others rights and freedoms, particularly the users of airport services. Moreover, it will increase public awareness of the CAA’s disciplinary and enforcement action and is likely to have a strong deterrent effect. It also serves an essential purpose in informing others that there has been a contravention, which is important for any person affected by a contravention as they have a right of action for breach of duty (under clause 38 (j315)) where they have sustained loss or damage as a result. As the State has a wide margin of appreciation as to what is required particularly where there is a balance between competing interests or Convention rights (see, for example, Evans v UK (2008) 46 EHRR 34), the Government considers that these provisions are compatible with Article 8.

Revocation of licence

331. A decision to revoke a licence will be a determination of a civil right within the meaning of Article 6(1), insofar as it encompasses the ability to engage in commercial activity. However, the Government is of the view that the Bill provides sufficient safeguards including access to an appeal to the Competition Appeal Tribunal (who have powers to review, confirm or set aside the CAA decision or give directions as to how they act) which ensures compliance with Article 6.

Obtaining information and disclosure of information

332. The CAA may require information only if it reasonably requires such information for carrying out its functions (see clause 50(2)). The provision includes clear safeguards (see clause 59) against disclosure of information that is sensitive, personal or might significantly harm legitimate business or individual interests. In addition, the CAA will be obliged to act in a manner compatible with Convention rights and will be bound by the Data Protection Act 1998. If the provisions do engage the rights protected under Article 8, the Government considers they are justified and proportionate in ensuring that, as part of its regulatory functions, the CAA has the necessary information to perform effectively in pursuance of the broader public interest.

333. With regard to provision of information about aviation services, clause 83 requires the CAA to publish information for the purpose of assisting users of air transport services for the purpose of comparing relevant aviation services and facilities. Clause 84 relates to information for environmental purposes. The power to obtain such information may only be exercised in respect of information that the CAA reasonably requires for the purpose of carrying out its functions. The Government is of the view that while Article 8 is engaged in respect to its powers to collect and publish information provided by individuals and companies, it is justified and proportionate. The objective of these provisions is to obtain and disseminate information which benefits users of air transport services or relates to the environment. These powers are in the public interest in ensuring fair competition, consumer protection and better understanding of environmental issues. In addition, the CAA must prepare and consult a statement of policy (see clause 92) about how it will use the powers including the type of information it will publish and any penalties it may imposed. More broadly the CAA will have to have regard to whether information should not be disclosed by reference to the Freedom of Information Act 2000 (including the safeguards under the Data Protection Act 1998).

334. While the imposition of a penalty for non-compliance is likely to engage Article 6, an appeal to the Competition Commission is available ensuring the protection of such rights.


Chapter 2 of Part 1 Competition

335. This Bill allows the CAA to exercise competition powers under Part 1 of the Competition Act 1998 (the 1998 Act) and Part 4 of the Enterprise Act 2002 (the 2002 Act) concurrently with the Office of Fair Trading (OFT), in so far as they relate to airport operation services as defined in clause 68. A number of regulators of regulated industries (including the CAA) already have concurrent powers with the OFT in respect of markets which fall within their responsibility. These provisions are intended to prevent and remedy anti-competitive behaviour.

336. The range of powers in respect of which CAA will acquire concurrent jurisdiction under the Competition Act 1998 and Enterprise Act 2002 may engage Article 6, Article 8 and A1P1 convention rights .

337. Article 6 may be engaged because the outcome of such proceedings would decisively determine private rights and obligations of operators through the use of investigation and resulting decisions by the CAA. However a full merits based appeal to the Competition Appeal Tribunal and the procedural safeguards enshrined in the Competition Act 1998 (including the conduct of investigations) in the Government’s view satisfies the requirements of Article 6.

338. The investigatory powers under the Competition Act 1998 have the potential to interfere with Article 8 rights to a private life. However the Government considers they are justified and proportionate. They are designed to protect consumers and other players in the relevant markets for airport operation services from anti-competitive behaviour and ultimately are in the interests of the economic well-being of the UK. They can only be exercised where there are reasonable grounds for suspecting an infringement of the competition rules and are subject to judicial scrutiny.

339. A1P1 rights are, in the Government’s view, likely to be engaged as these powers can control the use of property. However, such interference is justified as the aim of the competition regime is to protect consumers and airport users against anti-competitive behaviour in markets related to the supply of airport operation services where the CAA reasonably believes there has been an infringement of competition rules .

Part 2 - Other Aviation Matters

Functions of the CAA relating to aviation security

340. Various aviation security functions are to be conferred on the CAA under clause 78, including a duty to make arrangements for the vetting of those carrying out certain aviation security activities (as specified in directions). The need to scrutinise the personal backgrounds of some people and the sharing of this information is likely to engage Article 8 and also Article 6 because successful completion of vetting arrangements may determine whether certain activities can be carried out by a person.

341. The Government considers that any interference is justified under Article 8(2) given the wider risks to other people at an airport and is proportionate as the level of security clearance required will be relevant to the nature of the security risk of the particular role.

342. In respect of Article 6, the Government considers that an internal appeals procedure to be established by the CAA and access to other review and appeal mechanisms, such as on data protection and discrimination, mean the provisions are compliant with Article 6.

Regulation of provision of flight accommodation

343. The power under section 71 of the CAA 1982 does not, in itself, engage any convention rights.

344. However, when used the Government considers it may engage the Article 1 Protocol 1 rights of those persons who become subject to a licence by constituting a control on the use of their property. This is because ATOL licence holders are required to make a financial contribution per passenger (currently £2.50) into the Air Travel Trust Fund.

345. The Government considers that use of such power will be in accordance with the general interest and is also proportionate. Its objective is to create parity to ensure all businesses are treated in a similar way. It is rare for tour operators and airlines to fail but the nature of the business means there can often be a significant time between paying for a holiday and actually going on it, potentially putting the holidaymaker's money at risk in this period. If a tour operator fails while a holiday is in progress there can be further substantial risks to holidaymakers from having to rearrange and pay for flights home and accommodation while abroad. This risk can be made worse if a large tour operator fails in peak season when only limited alternative seat capacity is available. The Fund meets the costs of refunds and repatriations when the operator goes bust. An extension of the ATOL scheme, and with it the requirement to make contributions into the Fund, in the Government’s view strike a fair balance between the rights of the licensed persons and the general interest by ensuring all persons providing such services pool the risks.

346. Article 6 may be also be engaged to the extent that a breach of regulations made under section 71 may lead to criminal or civil liability. However, the Government is of the view that Article 6 rights are properly protected by the procedural and substantive guarantees provided by the UK criminal and civil Courts.

Disclosure of medical information

347. Clause 104 will provide an exception to the general prohibition on the CAA disclosing medical information obtained through their process of licensing flight crew and air traffic controllers for research purposes. As this will permit the disclosure of medical data it potentially engages Article 8.

348. On one hand, as this information will be fully anonymised before it is disclosed the Government notes there are strong arguments that Article 8(1) is not engaged. In R (on the application of Department of Health) v Information Commissioner [2011] EWHC 1430 (Admin), Mr Justice Cranston held that the Information Tribunal was not wrong to conclude that the risk of individual identification was "so remote" that the right under Article 8(1) was not engaged. On the other, given the sensitive nature of personal medical data , the Government considers that the substantial safeguards contained in the clause are such that any interference with an individual’s private life will be limited and clearly justified and proportionate .

349. The safeguards are considerable, and in the DfT’s view if Article 8 is engaged there are effective and adequate safeguards against abuse which would comply with the ECHR requirements (see Z v Finland (1998) 25 EHRR 371). The medical research envisaged here is likely to improve the understanding of health risks to pilots and other air navigators as well as, in the Government’s view, lead to a better understanding of risks to public safety . The provision is a proportionate means of achieving that legitimate aim. As any interference with Article 8(1) rights would be minimal, the Government considers that this provision is justified under Article 8(2) and proportionate.

COMMENCEMENT

350. Details of the commencement dates are provided above in the commentary on clause 109.

Prepared 19th January 2012