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Enterprise and Regulatory Reform BillPage 180

have had power to make and which it would otherwise have intended to
make”.

24 (1) Section 157 (interim undertakings: Part 4) is amended as follows.

(2) In subsection (1)(b), after “143(3)” insert “or (as the case may be) 143A(3)”.

(3) 5In subsection (6)—

(a) in the definition of “pre-emptive action”, for “or (as the case may be)
147(2)” substitute “, 147(2) or (as the case may be) 147A(2)”, and

(b) for the definition of “relevant authority” substitute—

25 In section 158 (interim orders: Part 4), in subsection (1)(b), after “143(3)”
insert “or (as the case may be) 143A(3)”.

26 15In section 159 (final undertakings: Part 4), in subsection (2), after “147” insert
“or (as the case may be) 147A”.

27 (1) Section 160 (order-making power where final undertakings not fulfilled:
Part 4) is amended as follows.

(2) In subsection (2), for “or (as the case may be) 147(2)” substitute “, 147(2) or
20(as the case may be) 147A(2)”.

(3) In subsection (3), for “or (as the case may be) 147” substitute “or 147 or (as
the case may be) subsections (3) and (4) of section 147A”.

28 In section 161 (final orders: Part 4), in subsection (2), after “147” insert “or (as
the case may be) 147A”.

29 25In section 169 (certain duties of relevant authorities to consult: Part 4), in
subsection (6)—

(a) in the definition of “relevant authority”, at the end insert “or the
Secretary of State”,

(b) in the definition of “relevant decision”, in paragraph (b), after
30“appropriate Minister” (in the first place where it occurs) insert
“(other than the Secretary of State acting alone)”, and

(c) also in that definition, after paragraph (b) insert—

(ba) in the case of the Secretary of State, any decision by
the Secretary of State—

(i) 35to make a reference under section 132;

(ii) to vary under section 135 such a reference;

(iii) in a case where the Secretary of State is
required to make a reference under section
140A, whether to make a reference under
40subsection (4) or (5) of that section; or

(iv) to vary under section 140B a reference made
under section 140A(5).

30 (1) Section 172 (further publicity requirements: Part 4) is amended as follows.

(2) In subsection (1), in paragraph (a), after “section 131” insert “, other than a
45reference treated as so made by virtue of section 140A(4)(b)”.

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(3) In subsection (2), omit paragraph (d).

(4) In subsection (3)—

(a) after paragraph (d) insert—

(da) any reference made by him under section 140A(4) or
5(5);

(db) any variation made by him under section 140B of a
reference under section 140A(5);, and

(b) in paragraph (e), after “147(2)” insert “or (as the case may be)
147A(2)”.

(5) 10In subsection (7A) (inserted by Schedule 12), at the end insert “or (3)(da)”.

(6) In subsection (8), in paragraph (a), after “146(2)” insert “or 146A(2)”.

(7) In subsection (10), after “147(2)” insert “or 147A(2)”.

31 In section 177 (excisions from reports: Part 4), in subsection (5), omit “, 143(2)
and (5) to (7), 148(3) to (5)”.

32 (1) 15Section 183 (interpretation: Part 4) is amended as follows.

(2) In subsection (3), in paragraph (a), for the words before sub-paragraph (i)
substitute “where the reference is made under section 131 or 132—”.

(3) In that subsection, in paragraph (b)—

(a) for the words before sub-paragraph (i) substitute “where the
20reference is a restricted PI reference or a full PI reference—”,

(b) in sub-paragraph (i), after “143(1) or (3)” insert “or (as the case may
be) 143A(2) or (3)”,

(c) in sub-paragraph (ii), omit “(disregarding the fact that the notice was
given)”,

(d) 25in sub-paragraph (iii), after “143(1)” insert “or (as the case may be)
143A(2)”,

(e) in sub-paragraph (iv), omit “(disregarding the fact that the notice
was given)”,

(f) for sub-paragraph (v) substitute—

(v) 30the Secretary of State has failed to make and
publish a decision under subsection (2) of
section 146 within the period permitted by
subsection (3) of that section or (as the case
may be) under subsection (2) of section 146A
35within the period permitted by subsection (6)
of that section and the reference is finally
determined under paragraph (a) above;,

(g) in sub-paragraph (vi), omit “(disregarding the fact that the notice
was given)”,

(h) 40after sub-paragraph (vi) insert—

(via) the Secretary of State has made no finding at
all under section 146A(2) and the reference is
finally determined under paragraph (a)
above;,

(i) 45omit the “or” after sub-paragraph (vii),

Enterprise and Regulatory Reform BillPage 182

(j) after sub-paragraph (vii) insert—

(viia) the Secretary of State has made an adverse
public interest finding under section 146A(2)
but has decided under section 147A(2) neither
5to accept an undertaking under section 159
nor to make an order under section 161;, and

(k) after sub-paragraph (viii) insert ; or—

(ix) the Secretary of State has made an adverse
public interest finding under section 146A(2)
10and has accepted an undertaking under
section 159 or made an order under section
161.

(4) In subsection (4)(c), for “or (b)(viii)” substitute “, (b)(viii) or (ix)”.

(5) In subsection (5), for “or (vi)” substitute “(vi) or (via)”.

(6) 15In subsection (6), for “and (b)(viii)” substitute “, (b)(viii) and (ix)”.

33 (1) Section 184 (index of defined expressions in Part 4) is amended as follows.

(2) After the entry in the table for “Adverse effect on competition” insert—

Adverse public interest finding Section 146A(3).

(3) After the entry in the table for “Final determination of market investigation
20reference” insert—

Full PI reference Section 140A(10).

(4) After the entry in the table for “Public interest consideration being finalised”
insert—

Public interest expert Section 141B(4).

(5) 25Before the entry in the table for “subordinate legislation” insert—

Restricted PI reference Section 140A(10).

Section 28(8)

SCHEDULE 11 Markets: investigation powers

Enforcement of investigation powers

1 30After section 174 of the 2002 Act insert—

174A Enforcement of powers under section 174: general

(1) Where the CMA considers that a person has, without reasonable
excuse, failed to comply with any requirement of a notice under
section 174, it may impose a penalty in accordance with section 174D.

(2) 35The CMA may proceed (whether at the same time or at different
times) under subsection (1) and section 138A(3) in relation to the
same failure.

(3) Where the CMA considers that a person has intentionally obstructed
or delayed another person in the exercise of its powers under section
40174(7), it may impose a penalty in accordance with section 174D.

(4) A person commits an offence if the person intentionally alters,
suppresses or destroys any document which the person has been
required to produce by a notice under section 174.

(5) But a person does not commit an offence under subsection (4) in
45relation to any act which constitutes a failure to comply with a notice
under section 174 if the CMA has proceeded against the person
under subsection (1) in relation to that failure.

(6) A person who commits an offence under subsection (4) is liable—

(a) on summary conviction, to a fine not exceeding the statutory
50maximum;

(b) on conviction on indictment, to imprisonment for a term not
exceeding 2 years or to a fine or to both.

(7) The CMA shall not proceed against a person under subsection (1) in
relation to an act which constitutes an offence under subsection (4) if
55that person has been found guilty of that offence.

(8) In deciding whether and, if so, how to proceed under subsection (1)
or (3) or section 138A(3), the CMA shall have regard to the statement
of policy which was most recently published under section 174E at
the time the failure or (as the case may be) the obstruction or delay
60concerned occurred.

(9) In this section—

(a) the reference to the production of a document includes a
reference to the production of a legible and intelligible copy
of information recorded otherwise than in legible form; and

(b) 65the reference to suppressing a document includes a reference
to destroying the means of reproducing information
recorded otherwise than in legible form.

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174B Restriction on powers to impose penalties under section 174A

(1) No penalty shall be imposed by virtue of section 174A(1) or (3) if
more than 4 weeks have passed since the day which is the relevant
day in the case in question; but this subsection shall not apply in
5relation to any variation or substitution of the penalty which is
permitted by virtue of this Part.

(2) In the following provisions of this section, “the section 174 power”
means the power under section 174 to which the failure or (as the
case may be) the obstruction or delay in question relates.

(3) 10Where the section 174 power is exercised for the purpose mentioned
in section 174(1)(a), the relevant day is the day when the CMA finally
concludes the carrying out of its section 5 functions.

(4) Where the section 174 power is exercised in connection with an
enforcement function (within the meaning of that section), the
15relevant day is the day when the enforcement undertaking
concerned is superseded or released or (as the case may be) the
enforcement order concerned is revoked.

(5) Except where subsection (3) or (4) applies, the relevant day is the day
determined in accordance with the following provisions of this
20section.

(6) Where the section 174 power is exercised for the purpose mentioned
in section 174(1)(b) in connection with a matter that is the subject of
a possible reference under section 131, the relevant day is the day
when the CMA finally decides whether to make the reference.

(7) 25Where the section 174 power is exercised for the purpose mentioned
in section 174(1)(b) in connection with a matter that is the subject of
a reference under section 131 or 132, the relevant day is the day when
the reference is finally determined (see section 183).

(8) Where the section 174 power is exercised for the purpose mentioned
30in section 174(1)(c) in connection with a matter that is the subject of a
possible reference under section 140A(4) or (5), the relevant day is
the day when the Secretary of State makes the reference.

(9) Where the section 174 power is exercised for the purpose mentioned
in section 174(1)(c) in connection with a matter that is the subject of a
35reference under section 140A(5), the relevant day is the day when the
reference is finally determined (see section 183).

174C Section 174B: supplementary provision

(1) For the purpose of section 174B(3), the CMA finally concludes the
carrying out of its section 5 functions if—

(a) 40the CMA publishes the market study report under section
131B(4) or (as the case may be) gives it to the Secretary of
State under section 140A(2); or

(b) the period permitted for the preparation by the CMA of the
market study report and for the report to be published under
45section 131B(4) or (as the case may be) given to the Secretary
of State under section 140A(2) expires and no such report has
been so prepared or no such action has been taken.

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(2) For the purpose of section 174B(3), the time when the CMA finally
concludes the carrying out of its section 5 functions is—

(a) in a case falling within subsection (1)(a), the publication of
the report or (as the case may be) the giving of it to the
5Secretary of State;

(b) in a case falling within subsection (1)(b), the expiry of the
period concerned.

(3) For the purpose of section 174B(6), the CMA finally decides whether
to make a reference under section 131 if—

(a) 10the CMA makes such a reference;

(b) the CMA accepts an undertaking under section 154 instead of
making such a reference;

(c) the CMA publishes notice that it has otherwise decided not to
make such a reference; or

(d) 15the period permitted for the preparation by the CMA of a
market study report in relation to the matter and for the
report to be published under section 131B(4) has expired and
no such report has been so prepared or published.

(4) For the purpose of section 174B(6), the time when the CMA finally
20decides whether to make a reference under section 131 is—

(a) in a case falling within subsection (2)(a), the making of the
reference;

(b) in a case falling within subsection (2)(b), the acceptance of the
undertaking concerned;

(c) 25in a case falling within subsection (2)(c), the publication of the
notice concerned;

(d) in a case falling within subsection (2)(d), the expiry of the
period concerned.

(5) In subsection (4)(b) the reference to the acceptance of the
30undertaking concerned shall, in a case where the CMA has accepted
a group of undertakings under section 154, be treated as a reference
to the acceptance of the last undertaking in the group; but
undertakings which vary, supersede or revoke earlier undertakings
shall be disregarded for the purposes of subsections (2)(b) and
35(4)(b).”

174D Penalties

(1) A penalty imposed under section 174A(1) or (3) shall be of such
amount as the CMA considers appropriate.

(2) In the case of a penalty imposed under section 174A(1), the amount
40may be—

(a) a fixed amount;

(b) an amount calculated by reference to a daily rate; or

(c) a combination of a fixed amount and an amount calculated
by reference to a daily rate.

(3) 45In the case of a penalty imposed under section 174A(3), the amount
shall be a fixed amount.

(4) A penalty imposed under section 174A(1) shall not—

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(a) in the case of a fixed amount, exceed such amount as the
Secretary of State may by order specify;

(b) in the case of an amount calculated by reference to a daily
rate, exceed such amount per day as the Secretary of State
5may so specify; and

(c) in the case of a fixed amount and an amount calculated by
reference to a daily rate, exceed such fixed amount and such
amount per day as the Secretary of State may so specify.

(5) A penalty imposed under section 174A(3) shall not exceed such
10amount as the Secretary of State may by order specify.

(6) An order under subsection (4) or (5) shall not specify—

(a) in the case of a fixed amount, an amount exceeding £30,000;

(b) in the case of an amount calculated by reference to a daily
rate, an amount per day exceeding £15,000; and

(c) 15in the case of a fixed amount and an amount calculated by
reference to a daily rate, a fixed amount exceeding £30,000
and an amount per day exceeding £15,000.

(7) Before making an order under subsection (4) or (5), the Secretary of
State shall consult—

(a) 20the CMA; and

(b) such other persons as the Secretary of State considers
appropriate.

(8) In imposing a penalty by reference to a daily rate—

(a) no account is to be taken of any days before the service on the
25person concerned of notice of the penalty under section 112
(as applied by subsection (10)); and

(b) unless the CMA determines an earlier date (whether before
or after the penalty is imposed), the amount payable ceases to
accumulate at the beginning of the earliest of the days
30mentioned in subsection (9).

(9) Those days are—

(a) the day on which the requirement of the notice concerned
under section 174 is satisfied;

(b) the day which is the relevant day in the case in question for
35the purposes of section 174B.

(10) Sections 112 to 115 apply in relation to a penalty imposed under section
174A(1) or (3) as they apply in relation to a penalty imposed under section
110(1) or (3)
.

174E Statement of policy on penalties

(1) 40The CMA shall prepare and publish a statement of policy in relation
to the enforcement of notices given under section 174.

(2) The statement shall, in particular, include a statement about the
considerations relevant to the determination of the nature and
amount of any penalty imposed under section 174A(1) or (3).

(3) 45The CMA may revise its statement of policy and, where it does so, it
shall publish the revised statement.

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(4) The CMA shall consult such persons as it considers appropriate
when preparing or revising its statement of policy.

Investigation powers: miscellaneous consequential amendments

2 Part 4 of the 2002 Act (market investigations) is amended as follows.

3 5Omit section 175 (enforcement of powers under section 174: offences).

4 Omit section 176 (investigation powers of the Commission).

5 In section 179 (review of decisions under Part 4), in subsection (2)(a), for
“section 110(1) or (3) as applied by section 176” substitute “section 174A(1)
or (3)”.

6 (1) 10Section 181 (orders under Part 4) is amended as follows.

(2) In subsection (4), for the words from “or 161,” to “section 176” substitute “,
161, 174D(4) or (5), or under section 114(3)(b) or (4)(b) as applied by section
174D”.

(3) In subsection (10)—

(a) 15omit “111(4) or (6) or”, and

(b) for “176” substitute “174D”.

Section 30

SCHEDULE 12 Markets: time-limits

Market studies and decisions whether to make a reference under section 131

1 20Before section 131 of the 2002 Act (power of OFT to make market
investigation references) insert—

Market studies

130A Duty to publish market study notice

(1) Where the CMA is proposing to carry out its functions under section
255 in relation to a matter for the purposes mentioned in subsection (2),
the CMA must publish a notice under this section (referred to in this
Part as a “market study notice”).

(2) The purposes are—

(a) to consider the extent to which a matter in relation to the
30acquisition or supply of goods or services of one or more than
one description in the United Kingdom has or may have
effects adverse to the interests of consumers; and

(b) to assess the extent to which steps can and should be taken to
remedy, mitigate or prevent any such adverse effects.

(3) 35A market study notice shall, in particular, specify—

(a) the matter in relation to which the CMA is proposing to carry
out its functions under section 5;

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(b) the period during which representations may be made to the
CMA in relation to the matter; and

(c) the dates by which the CMA is required to comply with the
requirements imposed on it by sections 131A and 131B.

2 5After section 131 of that Act insert—

131A Decisions about references under section 131: consultation

(1) This section applies to a case where the CMA has published a market
study notice and—

(a) the CMA is proposing to make a reference under section 131
10in relation to the matter specified in the notice; or

(b) a representation has been made to the CMA within the period
specified in the notice under section 130A(3)(b) to the effect
that such a reference should be made but the CMA is
proposing not to make such a reference.

(2) 15The CMA shall—

(a) publish notice of the proposal concerned; and

(b) consult the relevant persons about the proposal, in such
manner as it considers practicable, before deciding whether
to make a reference.

(3) 20The CMA may, for the purposes of subsection (1), ignore any
representation which it considers to be frivolous or vexatious.

(4) For the purposes of subsection (2), a person is a “relevant person” if
the CMA considers that its decision whether to make a reference is
likely to have a substantial impact on the person’s interests.

(5) 25In consulting a person for the purposes of this section, the CMA
shall, so far as practicable, give its reasons for the proposal.

(6) In considering what is practicable for the purposes of this section, the
CMA shall, in particular, have regard to—

(a) the restrictions imposed by the time-table for making the
30decision (see section 131B); and

(b) any need to keep what is proposed, or the reasons for it,
confidential.

131B Market studies and the making of decisions to refer: time-limits

(1) Where the CMA has published a market study notice in a case to
35which section 131A applies, the CMA shall, within the period of 6
months beginning with date on which it publishes the notice—

(a) publish the notice under section 131A(2)(a); and

(b) begin the process of consultation under section 131A(2)(b)
(but the CMA need not complete the process within that
40period).

(2) Subsection (3) applies where—

(a) the CMA has published a market study notice;

(b) no representation has been made to the CMA within the
period specified in the notice under section 130A(3)(b) to the
45effect that a reference under section 131 should be made in
relation to the matter specified in the notice; and

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(c) the CMA has decided not to make such a reference.

(3) The CMA shall, within the period of 6 months beginning with the
date on which it publishes the market study notice, publish notice of
the decision not to make a reference.

(4) 5Where the CMA has published a market study notice it shall, within
the period of 12 months beginning with the date on which it
publishes the notice, prepare and publish a report (referred to in this
Part as a “market study report”) which sets out—

(a) the findings of the CMA in relation to the matter specified in
10the notice; and

(b) the action (if any) which the CMA proposes to take in relation
to the matter.

(5) In a case to which section 131A applies, the market study report
shall, in particular, contain—

(a) 15the decision of the CMA to make a reference under section
131 in relation to the matter specified in the market study
notice, the decision to accept an undertaking under section
154 instead of making such a reference or (as the case may be)
the decision otherwise not to make such a reference;

(b) 20the CMA’s reasons for the decision; and

(c) such information as the CMA considers appropriate for
facilitating a proper understanding of its reasons for the
decision.

(6) Where a market study report contains a decision of the CMA to make
25a reference under section 131 in relation to a matter, the CMA shall,
at the same time as it publishes the report, make the reference.

(7) This section is subject to section 140A (duty of Secretary of State to
refer in public interest intervention cases).

131C Time-limits under section 131B: supplementary

(1) 30The Secretary of State may by order amend section 131B so as to alter
one or more of the following periods—

(a) the period of 6 months mentioned in subsection (1) or (3) or
any period for the time being mentioned in either of those
subsections in substitution for that period;

(b) 35the period of 12 months mentioned in subsection (4) or any
period for the time being there mentioned in substitution for
that period.

(2) But no alteration may be made by virtue of subsection (1) which
results in—

(a) 40the period for the time being mentioned in subsection (1) or
(3) exceeding 6 months; or

(b) the period for the time being mentioned in subsection (4)
exceeding 12 months.

(3) Before making an order under this section the Secretary of State shall
45consult the CMA and such other persons as the Secretary of State
considers appropriate.

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Market investigations and reports

3 (1) Section 137 of the 2002 Act (time-limits for market investigations and
reports) is amended as follows.

(2) In subsection (1), for “two years” substitute “18 months”.

(3) 5After subsection (2) insert—

(2A) The CMA may extend, by no more than 6 months, the period within
which its report under section 136 is to be prepared and published if
it considers that there are special reasons for doing so.

(2B) An extension under subsection (2A) shall come into force when
10published under section 172.

(2C) No more than one extension is possible under subsection (2A).

(4) For subsection (3) substitute—

(3) The Secretary of State may by order amend this section so as to alter
one or more of the following periods—

(a) 15the period of 18 months mentioned in subsection (1) or any
period for the time being there mentioned in substitution for
that period;

(b) the period of 6 months mentioned in subsection (2A) or any
period for the time being there mentioned in substitution for
20that period.

(5) For subsection (4) substitute—

(4) But no alteration shall be made by virtue of subsection (3) which
results in—

(a) the period for the time being mentioned in subsection (1)
25exceeding 18 months; or

(b) the period for the time being mentioned in subsection (2A)
exceeding 6 months.

Remedies implementation

4 In section 138 of the 2002 Act (duty to remedy adverse effects), in subsection
30(2), after “shall,” insert “within the period permitted by section 138A,”.

5 After section 138 of that Act insert—

138A Time-limits for discharging duty under section 138

(1) The CMA shall discharge its duty under section 138(2) within the
period of 6 months beginning with the date on which it publishes the
35report concerned under section 136.

(2) The CMA may extend, by no more than 4 months, the period within
which its duty under section 138(2) is required to be discharged if it
considers that there are special reasons for doing so.

(3) The CMA may extend the period within which its duty under section
40138(2) is required to be discharged if it considers that—

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