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(8) Notification under subsection (6)(a) must be in the prescribed form and
manner.

22 Eligibility period

(1) An eligibility period in relation to a limited right occupier is established if the
5prescribed requirements are complied with in relation to the occupier.

(2) An eligibility period established under subsection (1) may be renewed (on one
or more occasions) by complying with the prescribed requirements again.

(3) But an eligibility period in relation to a limited right occupier is only
established or renewed under this section at any time if it reasonably appears
10from the information obtained in complying with the prescribed requirements
at that time that the occupier is a person with a limited right to rent.

(4) The length of an eligibility period established or renewed under this section in
relation to a limited right occupier is the longest of the following periods—

(a) the period of one year beginning with the time when the prescribed
15requirements were last complied with in relation to the occupier;

(b) so much of any leave period as remains at that time;

(c) so much of any validity period as remains at that time.

(5) In subsection (4)—

(6) In subsection (5) “immigration document” means a document of a prescribed
25description which—

(a) is issued as evidence that a person who is not a national of an EEA state
or Switzerland is entitled to enter or remain in the United Kingdom by
virtue of an enforceable EU right or of any provision made under
section 2(2) of the European Communities Act 1972, or

(b) 30grants to the holder a right to enter or remain in the United Kingdom
for such period as the document may authorise.

23 Penalty notices: general

(1) The Secretary of State may give a penalty notice—

(a) to a landlord under section 18 without having established whether the
35landlord is excused from paying the penalty under section 19;

(b) to an agent under section 20 without having established whether the
agent is excused from paying the penalty under section 21.

(2) A penalty notice must—

(a) be in writing,

(b) 40state why the Secretary of State thinks the recipient is liable to the
penalty,

(c) state the amount of the penalty,

(d) specify a date, at least 28 days after the date specified in the notice as
the date on which it is given, before which the penalty must be paid,

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(e) specify how a penalty must be paid,

(f) explain how the recipient may object to the penalty or make an appeal
against it, and

(g) explain how the Secretary of State may enforce the penalty.

(3) 5A separate penalty notice may be given in respect of each adult disqualified by
their immigration status in relation to whom there is a contravention of section
17.

(4) Where a penalty notice is given to two or more persons who jointly constitute
the landlord or agent in relation to a residential tenancy agreement, those
10persons are jointly and severally liable for any sum payable to the Secretary of
State as a penalty imposed by the notice.

(5) A penalty notice may not be given in respect of any adult if—

(a) the adult has ceased to occupy the premises concerned, and

(b) a period of 12 months or more has passed since the time when the adult
15last occupied the premises,

but this subsection is not to be taken as affecting the validity of a penalty notice
given before the end of that period.

(6) Subsection (5) does not apply to a penalty notice given after the end of the 12
month period mentioned in that subsection if—

(a) 20it is a new penalty notice given by virtue of section 24(6)(b) on the
determination of an objection to another penalty notice, and

(b) that other penalty notice was given before the end of the period.

Objections, appeals and enforcement

24 Objection

(1) 25The recipient of a penalty notice (“the recipient”) may object on the ground
that—

(a) the recipient is not liable to the imposition of the penalty,

(b) the recipient is excused by virtue of section 19 or 21, or

(c) the amount of the penalty is too high.

(2) 30An objection must be made by giving a notice of objection to the Secretary of
State.

(3) A notice of objection must—

(a) be in writing,

(b) give the reasons for the objection,

(c) 35be given in the prescribed manner, and

(d) be given before the end of the prescribed period.

(4) In considering a notice of objection to a penalty the Secretary of State must have
regard to the code of practice under section 27.

(5) On considering a notice of objection the Secretary of State may—

(a) 40cancel the penalty,

(b) reduce the penalty,

(c) increase the penalty, or

(d) determine to take no action.

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(6) After reaching a decision as to how to proceed under subsection (5) the
Secretary of State must—

(a) notify the recipient of the decision (including the amount of any
increased or reduced penalty) before the end of the prescribed period
5or such longer period as the Secretary of State may agree with the
recipient, and

(b) if the penalty is increased, issue a new penalty notice under section 18
or (as the case may be) section 20.

25 Appeals

(1) 10The recipient may appeal to the court on the ground that—

(a) the recipient is not liable to the imposition of a penalty,

(b) the recipient is excused payment as a result of section 19 or 21, or

(c) the amount of the penalty is too high.

(2) The court may—

(a) 15allow the appeal and cancel the penalty,

(b) allow the appeal and reduce the penalty, or

(c) dismiss the appeal.

(3) An appeal is to be a re-hearing of the Secretary of State’s decision to impose a
penalty and is to be determined having regard to—

(a) 20the code of practice under section 27 that has effect at the time of the
appeal, and

(b) any other matters which the court thinks relevant (which may include
matters of which the Secretary of State was unaware).

(4) Subsection (3) has effect despite any provisions of rules of court.

(5) 25An appeal may be brought only if the recipient has given a notice of objection
under section 24 and the Secretary of State—

(a) has determined the objection by issuing to the recipient the penalty
notice (as a result of increasing the penalty under section 24(5)(c)),

(b) has determined the objection by—

(i) 30reducing the penalty under section 24(5)(b), or

(ii) taking no action under section 24(5)(d), or

(c) has not informed the recipient of a decision before the end of the period
that applies for the purposes of section 24(6)(a).

(6) An appeal must be brought within the period of 28 days beginning with the
35relevant date.

(7) Where the appeal is brought under subsection (5)(a), the relevant date is the
date specified in the penalty notice issued in accordance with section 24(6)(b)
as the date on which it is given.

(8) Where the appeal is brought under subsection (5)(b), the relevant date is the
40date specified in the notice informing the recipient of the decision for the
purposes of section 24(6)(a) as the date on which it is given.

(9) Where the appeal is brought under subsection (5)(c), the relevant date is the
date on which the period that applies for the purposes of section 24(6)(a) ends.

(10) In this section “the court” means—

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(a) the county court, if the appeal relates to a residential tenancy
agreement in relation to premises in England and Wales;

(b) the sheriff, if the appeal relates to a residential tenancy agreement in
relation to premises in Scotland;

(c) 5a county court in Northern Ireland, if the appeal relates to a residential
tenancy agreement in relation to premises in Northern Ireland.

26 Enforcement

(1) This section applies where a sum is payable to the Secretary of State as a
penalty under this Chapter.

(2) 10In England and Wales the penalty is recoverable as if it were payable under an
order of the county court in England and Wales.

(3) In Scotland the penalty may be enforced in the same manner as an extract
registered decree arbitral bearing a warrant for execution issued by the sheriff
court of any sheriffdom in Scotland.

(4) 15In Northern Ireland the penalty is recoverable as if it were payable under an
order of a county court in Northern Ireland.

(5) Where action is taken under this section for the recovery of a sum payable as a
penalty under this Chapter, the penalty is—

(a) in relation to England and Wales, to be treated for the purposes of
20section 98 of the Courts Act 2003 (register of judgments and orders etc)
as if it were a judgment entered in the county court;

(b) in relation to Northern Ireland, to be treated for the purposes of Article
116 of the Judgments Enforcement (Northern Ireland) Order 1981 (S.I.
1981/226 (N.I. 6)) (register of judgments) as if it were a judgment in
25respect of which an application has been accepted under Article 22 or
23(1) of that Order.

(6) Money paid to the Secretary of State by way of a penalty must be paid into the
Consolidated Fund
.

Codes of practice

27 30General matters

(1) The Secretary of State must issue a code of practice for the purposes of this
Chapter.

(2) The code must specify factors that the Secretary of State will consider when
determining the amount of a penalty imposed under this Chapter.

(3) 35The code may contain guidance about—

(a) factors that the Secretary of State will consider when determining
whether—

(i) a residential tenancy agreement grants a right of occupation of
premises for residential use, or

(ii) 40a person is occupying premises as an only or main residence;

(b) the reasonable enquiries that a landlord should make to determine the
identity of relevant occupiers in relation to a residential tenancy
agreement (so far as they are not named in the agreement);

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(c) any other matters in connection with this Chapter that the Secretary of
State considers appropriate.

(4) Guidance under subsection (3)(a) may in particular relate to the treatment for
the purposes of this Chapter of arrangements that are made in connection with
5holiday lettings or lettings for purposes connected with business travel.

(5) The Secretary of State must from time to time review the code and may revise
and re-issue it following a review.

(6) The Secretary of State must lay the code, and any revision of the code, before
Parliament.

28 10Discrimination

(1) The Secretary of State must issue a code of practice specifying what a landlord
or agent should or should not do to ensure that, while avoiding liability to pay
a penalty under this Chapter, the landlord or agent also avoids contravening—

(a) the Equality Act 2010, so far as relating to race, or

(b) 15the Race Relations (Northern Ireland) Order 1997 (S.I. 1997/869S.I. 1997/869 (N.I.
6)).

(2) The Secretary of State must from time to time review the code and may revise
and re-issue it following a review.

(3) Before issuing the code (or a revised code) the Secretary of State must consult—

(a) 20the Commission for Equality and Human Rights,

(b) the Equality Commission for Northern Ireland, and

(c) such persons representing the interests of landlords and tenants as the
Secretary of State considers appropriate.

(4) After consulting under subsection (3) the Secretary of State must—

(a) 25publish a draft code, and

(b) consider any representations made about the published draft before
issuing the code (with or without modifications to reflect the
representations).

(5) A breach of the code—

(a) 30does not make a person liable to civil or criminal proceedings, but

(b) may be taken into account by a court or tribunal.

(6) The Secretary of State must lay the code, and any revision of the code, before
Parliament.

General

29 35Prescribed requirements

An order prescribing requirements for the purposes of this Chapter may, in
particular, require a landlord or agent to—

(a) obtain a document of a prescribed description from relevant occupiers
before or during the course of a residential tenancy agreement;

(b) 40obtain one document of each of a number of prescribed descriptions
from relevant occupiers before or during the course of a residential
tenancy agreement;

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(c) take steps to verify, retain, copy or record the content of a document
obtained in accordance with the order;

(d) take such other steps before or during the course of a residential
tenancy agreement as the order may specify.

30 5Transitional provision

(1) This Chapter does not apply in relation to a residential tenancy agreement
entered into before the commencement day.

(2) This Chapter does not apply in relation to a residential tenancy agreement
entered into on or after the commencement day (“the renewed agreement”)
10if—

(a) another residential tenancy agreement was entered into before the
commencement day between the same parties (“the original
agreement”), and

(b) the tenant has always had a right of occupation of the premises leased
15under the renewed agreement since entering into the original
agreement.

(3) In this section “the commencement day” means such day as the Secretary of
State may by order appoint; and different days may be appointed for different
purposes or areas.

31 20Crown application

This Chapter binds the Crown, except where the Crown is the responsible
landlord for the purposes of section 18.

32 Interpretation

(1) In this Chapter—

(2) For the purposes of this Chapter a residential tenancy agreement grants a
person a right to occupy premises if—

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(a) the agreement expressly grants that person the right (whether or not by
naming the person), or

(b) the person is permitted to occupy the premises by virtue of an express
grant given to another person,

5and references to a person occupying premises under an agreement are to be
read accordingly.

(3) A reference in this Chapter to the “prescribed requirements”, in connection
with compliance with the requirements at a particular time, is a reference only
to such of the requirements as are capable of being complied with at that time.

(4) 10Where two or more persons jointly constitute the landlord in relation to a
residential tenancy agreement—

(a) the references to the landlord in—

(i) section 17(6)(a),

(ii) section 19(5), (6)(a) and (7), and

(iii) 15section 21(6)(a) and (7)(b),

are to be taken as references to any of those persons;

(b) any other references to the landlord in this Chapter are to be taken as
references to all of those persons.

(5) Where two or more persons jointly constitute the agent in relation to a
20residential tenancy agreement—

(a) the references to the agent in section 21(5), (6)(a) and (7) are to be taken
as references to any of those persons;

(b) any other references to the agent in this Chapter are to be taken as
references to all of those persons.

(6) 25The Secretary of State may by order prescribe cases in which—

(a) a residential tenancy agreement is, or is not, to be treated as being
entered into for the purposes of this Chapter;

(b) a person is, or is not, to be treated as occupying premises as an only or
main residence for the purposes of this Chapter.

(7) 30An order under subsection (6) prescribing a case may modify the application
of this Chapter in relation to that case.

(8) The cases mentioned in subsection (6)(a) include, in particular, cases where—

(a) an option to renew an agreement is exercised;

(b) rights of occupation under an agreement are varied;

(c) 35an agreement is assigned (whether by the landlord or the tenant);

(d) a periodic tenancy arises at the end of a fixed term;

(e) an agreement grants a right of occupation on satisfaction of a condition;

(f) there is a change in the persons in occupation of the premises leased
under the agreement or in the circumstances of any such person.

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CHAPTER 2 Other services etc

National Health Service

33 Immigration health charge

(1) The Secretary of State may by order provide for a charge to be imposed on—

(a) 5persons who apply for immigration permission, or

(b) any description of such persons.

(2) “Immigration permission” means—

(a) leave to enter or remain in the United Kingdom for a limited period,

(b) entry clearance which, by virtue of provision made under section 3A(3)
10of the Immigration Act 1971, has effect as leave to enter the United
Kingdom for a limited period, or

(c) any other entry clearance which may be taken as evidence of a person’s
eligibility for entry into the United Kingdom for a limited period.

(3) An order under this section may in particular—

(a) 15impose a separate charge on a person in respect of each application
made by that person;

(b) specify the amount of any charge (and different amounts may be
specified for different purposes);

(c) make provision about when or how a charge may or must be paid to the
20Secretary of State;

(d) make provision about the consequences of a person failing to pay a
charge (including provision for the person’s application to be refused);

(e) provide for exemptions from a charge;

(f) provide for the reduction, waiver or refund of part or all of a charge
25(whether by conferring a discretion or otherwise).

(4) In specifying the amount of a charge under subsection (3)(b) the Secretary of
State must (among other matters) have regard to the range of health services
that are likely to be available free of charge to persons who have been given
immigration permission.

(5) 30Sums paid by virtue of an order under this section must—

(a) be paid into the Consolidated Fund, or

(b) be applied in such other way as the order may specify.

(6) In this section—

and the references to applying for leave to enter or remain for a limited period
include references to applying for a variation of leave to enter or remain which
40would result in leave to enter or remain for a limited period.

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34 Related provision: charges for health services

(1) A reference in the NHS charging provisions to persons not ordinarily resident
in Great Britain or persons not ordinarily resident in Northern Ireland includes
(without prejudice to the generality of that reference) a reference to—

(a) 5persons who require leave to enter or remain in the United Kingdom
but do not have it, and

(b) persons who have leave to enter or remain in the United Kingdom for
a limited period.

(2) The “NHS charging provisions” are—

(a) 10section 175 of the National Health Service Act 2006 (charges in respect
of persons not ordinarily resident in Great Britain);

(b) section 124 of the National Health Service (Wales) Act 2006 (charges in
respect of persons not ordinarily resident in Great Britain);

(c) section 98 of the National Health Service (Scotland) Act 1978 (charges
15in respect of persons not ordinarily resident in Great Britain);

(d) Article 42 of the Health and Personal Social Services (Northern Ireland)
Order 1972 (S.I. 1972/1265 (N.I. 14)S.I. 1972/1265 (N.I. 14)) (provision of services to persons
not ordinarily resident in Northern Ireland).

Bank accounts

35 20Prohibition on opening current accounts for disqualified persons

(1) A bank or building society (B) must not open a current account for a person (P)
who is within subsection (2) unless—

(a) B has carried out a status check which indicates that P is not a
disqualified person, or

(b) 25at the time when the account is opened B is unable, because of
circumstances that cannot reasonably be regarded as within its control,
to carry out a status check in relation to P.

(2) A person is within this subsection if he or she—

(a) is in the United Kingdom, and

(b) 30requires leave to enter or remain in the United Kingdom but does not
have it.

(3) For the purposes of this section—

(a) carrying out a “status check” in relation to P means checking with a
specified anti-fraud organisation or a specified data-matching
35authority whether, according to information supplied to that
organisation or authority by the Secretary of State, P is a disqualified
person;

(b) a “disqualified person” is a person within subsection (2) for whom the
Secretary of State considers that a current account should not be
40opened by a bank or building society;

(c) opening an account for P includes—

(i) opening a joint account for P and others;

(ii) opening an account in relation to which P is a signatory or is
identified as a beneficiary;

(iii) 45adding P as an account holder or as a signatory or identified
beneficiary in relation to an account.

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(4) In subsection (3)(a)

(5) 10Subsection (1)(b) does not apply where—

(a) a bank or building society is required to pay a reasonable fee for
carrying out status checks, and

(b) its inability to carry out a status check is due to its failure to pay the fee.

(6) A bank or building society that refuses to open a current account for someone
15on the ground that he or she is a disqualified person must tell the person, if it
may lawfully do so, that that is the reason for its refusal.

36 Regulation by Financial Conduct Authority

(1) The Treasury may make regulations to enable the Financial Conduct Authority
to make arrangements for monitoring and enforcing compliance with the
20prohibition imposed on banks and building societies by section 35.

(2) The regulations may (in particular)—

(a) provide for the Financial Conduct Authority to be given free access to
the information to which banks and building societies are given access
when carrying out status checks under section 35;

(b) 25apply, or make provision corresponding to, any of the provisions of the
Financial Services and Markets Act 2000, including in particular those
mentioned in subsection (3), with or without modification.

(3) The provisions are—

(a) provisions about investigations, including powers of entry and search
30and criminal offences;

(b) provisions for the grant of an injunction (or, in Scotland, an interdict) in
relation to a contravention or anticipated contravention;

(c) provisions giving the Financial Conduct Authority powers to impose
disciplinary measures (including financial penalties) or to give
35directions;

(d) provisions giving a Minister of the Crown (within the meaning of the
Ministers of the Crown Act 1975) or the Financial Conduct Authority
powers to make subordinate legislation;

(e) provisions for the Financial Conduct Authority to charge fees.

37 40“Bank” and “building society”

(1) In sections 35 and 36 “bank” means an authorised deposit-taker that has its
head office or a branch in the United Kingdom.

This is subject to subsection (4).

This is subject to subsection (4).

(2) 45In subsection (1) “authorised deposit-taker” means—

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