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Criminal Justice and Courts BillPage 40

(3) The Commission may not grant a certificate under this section if the
final determination is made by the Commission in Scotland.

(4) The conditions in this subsection are that a point of law of general
public importance is involved in the final determination and that point
5of law is—

(a) a point of law that—

(i) relates wholly or mainly to the construction of an
enactment or statutory instrument, and

(ii) has been fully argued in the proceedings on the appeal
10or review to which the final determination relates and
fully considered in the judgment of the Commission, or

(b) a point of law—

(i) in respect of which the Commission is bound by a
decision of the appropriate appeal court or the Supreme
15Court in previous proceedings, and

(ii) that was fully considered in the judgments given by the
appropriate appeal court or, as the case may be, the
Supreme Court in those previous proceedings.

(5) The conditions in this subsection are that a point of law of general
20public importance is involved in the final determination and that—

(a) the proceedings entail a decision relating to a matter of national
importance or consideration of such a matter,

(b) the result of the proceedings is so significant (whether
considered on its own or together with other proceedings or
25likely proceedings) that, in the opinion of the Commission, a
hearing by the Supreme Court is justified, or

(c) the Commission is satisfied that the benefits of earlier
consideration by the Supreme Court outweigh the benefits of
consideration by the Court of Appeal.

(6) 30No appeal lies against the grant or refusal of a certificate under
subsection (1).

7C Appeals to Supreme Court: permission to appeal

(1) If the Special Immigration Appeals Commission grants a certificate
under section 7B in relation to a final determination, a party to the
35appeal or review to which the final determination relates may apply to
the Supreme Court for permission to appeal directly to the Supreme
Court.

(2) An application under subsection (1) must be made—

(a) within one month from the date on which that certificate is
40granted, or

(b) within such time as the Supreme Court may allow in a
particular case.

(3) If on such an application it appears to the Supreme Court to be
expedient to do so, the Supreme Court may grant permission for such
45an appeal.

(4) If permission is granted under this section—

(a) no appeal from the final determination to which the certificate
relates lies to the appropriate appeal court, but

Criminal Justice and Courts BillPage 41

(b) an appeal lies from that determination to the Supreme Court.

(5) An application under subsection (1) is to be determined without a
hearing.

(6) Subject to subsection (4), no appeal lies to the appropriate appeal court
5from a final determination of the Commission in respect of which a
certificate is granted under section 7B until—

(a) the time within which an application can be made under
subsection (1) has expired, and

(b) where such an application is made, that application has been
10determined in accordance with this section.

7D Appeals to Supreme Court: exclusions

(1) No certificate may be granted under section 7B in respect of a final
determination of the Special Immigration Appeals Commission where,
by virtue of any enactment (other than sections 7B and 7C), no appeal
15would lie from that decision of the Commission to the appropriate
appeal court, with or without the leave or permission of the
Commission or the appropriate appeal court.

(2) No certificate may be granted under section 7B in respect of a final
determination of the Commission where, by virtue of any enactment,
20no appeal would lie from a decision of the appropriate appeal court on
that determination of the Commission to the Supreme Court, with or
without the permission or leave of the appropriate appeal court or the
Supreme Court.

(3) Where no appeal would lie to the appropriate appeal court from a final
25determination of the Commission except with the leave or permission
of the Commission or the appropriate appeal court, no certificate may
be granted under section 7B in respect of a final determination unless it
appears to the Commission that it would be a proper case for granting
leave to appeal to the appropriate appeal court.

(4) 30No certificate may be granted under section 7B in respect of a decision
or order of the Commission made by it in the exercise of its jurisdiction
to punish for contempt.

(3) In section 1(4) (challenges to decisions of the Commission), after “section 7”
insert “and sections 7B to 7D”.

(4) 35In section 7(3) (appeals from the Commission: definition of “the appropriate
appeal court”), after “In this section” insert “and sections 7B to 7D”.

(5) In section 8 (procedure on applications for leave to appeal)—

(a) in subsection (1), at the end insert “or for the grant of a certificate under
section 7B”, and

(b) 40in subsection (2), omit “for leave to appeal”.

(6) In the heading of section 8, after “leave to appeal” insert “etc”.

Criminal Justice and Courts BillPage 42

Costs in civil proceedings

36 Wasted costs in certain civil proceedings

(1) Section 51 of the Senior Courts Act 1981 (costs in civil division of Court of
Appeal, High Court, family court and county court) is amended as follows.

(2) 5After subsection (7) (wasted costs) insert—

(7A) Where the court exercises a power under subsection (6) in relation to
costs incurred by a party, it must inform such of the following as it
considers appropriate—

(a) an approved regulator;

(b) 10the Director of Legal Aid Casework.

(3) After subsection (12) insert—

(12A) In subsection (7A)—

Contempt of court

37 Strict liability: limitations and defences in England and Wales

(1) 20The Contempt of Court Act 1981 is amended as follows.

(2) In section 2 (limitation of scope of strict liability)—

(a) after subsection (2) insert—

(2A) In England and Wales, the strict liability rule applies to a
publication only if the proceedings in question are active within
25the meaning of this section at a time when the publication is
available to the public or a section of the public., and

(b) in subsection (3), at the beginning insert “In Scotland and Northern
Ireland,”.

(3) In section 3 (defence of innocent publication or distribution), at the end insert—

(5) 30In England and Wales, where a person—

(a) makes matter available to the public, or a section of the public,
continuously over a limited or unlimited period, and

(b) at the beginning of the period, has a defence under subsection
(1) or (2) as regards the making available of the matter at that
35time,

the person continues to have that defence as regards the making
available of the matter until (and only until) the person has relevant
knowledge or a reason to have a relevant suspicion.

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(4) In section 4 (contemporary reports of proceedings), at the end insert—

(5) In England and Wales, a person has a defence under this section only
in respect of a contempt of court under the strict liability rule arising in
connection with—

(a) 5the proceedings that are the subject of the report, or

(b) any other legal proceedings that are active within the meaning
of section 2 when the report is first published.

(5) After section 4 insert—

4A Conduct begun before relevant proceedings: England and Wales

(1) 10This section applies where—

(a) a person makes matter available to the public, or a section of the
public, continuously over a period, and

(b) during the period, legal proceedings become active within the
meaning of section 2.

(2) 15In England and Wales, in making the matter available over the period,
the person is not guilty of a contempt of court under the strict liability
rule in connection with those proceedings, subject to subsection (3).

(3) If the Attorney General gives the person a notice in respect of the matter
and the proceedings, the person does not have a defence under
20subsection (2) in connection with the proceedings as regards the
making available of the matter after the date specified in the notice.

(4) The Secretary of State may by regulations make provision about the
giving of a notice under this section, including provision about the
information to be included in a notice.

(5) 25Regulations under this section are to be made by statutory instrument.

(6) A statutory instrument containing regulations under this section is
subject to annulment in pursuance of a resolution of either House of
Parliament.

(7) If, over a period, a person makes the same matter available to the
30public, or a section of the public, in different forms or by different
means, this section applies separately to the making available of the
matter in each of those forms or by each of those means.

(8) In this section—

(a) references to making matter available to the public are to doing
35so as publisher, as distributor or otherwise;

(b) references to a period are to a limited or unlimited period.

(6) In section 21 (extent etc)—

(a) after subsection (3) insert—

(3A) Section 2(3) does not extend to England and Wales.,

(b) 40in subsection (4) (provisions that do not extend to Scotland), after
“Sections” insert “2(2A), 3(5), 4(5), 4A,”, and

(c) in subsection (5) (provisions that do not extend to Northern Ireland),
after “sections” insert “2(2A), 3(5), 4(5), 4A,”.

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38 Strict liability: appeal against injunction

In section 159(1) of the Criminal Justice Act 1988 (Crown Court proceedings:
orders restricting or preventing reports or restricting public access), before
paragraph (a) insert—

(za) 5an injunction granted under section 45(4) of the Senior Courts
Act 1981 in respect of contempt of court under the strict liability
rule (as defined in section 1 of the Contempt of Court Act
1981);.

Juries and members of the Court Martial

39 10Upper age limit for jury service to be 75

(1) The Juries Act 1974 is amended as follows.

(2) In section 1(1)(a) (qualification for jury service) for the words from “and” to the
end substitute “and aged eighteen or over but under seventy six”.

(3) In section 3(1) (electoral register as basis of jury selection), for “less than
15eighteen or more than seventy years of age” substitute

(a) aged under eighteen, or

(b) aged seventy six or over.

40 Jurors and electronic communications devices

In the Juries Act 1974, after section 15 insert—

15A 20Surrender of electronic communications devices

(1) A judge dealing with an issue may order the members of a jury trying
the issue to surrender any electronic communications devices for a
period.

(2) An order may be made only if the judge considers that—

(a) 25the order is necessary or expedient in the interests of justice, and

(b) the terms of the order are a proportionate means of
safeguarding those interests.

(3) An order may only specify a period during which the members of the
jury are—

(a) 30in the building in which the trial is being heard,

(b) in other accommodation provided at the judge’s request,

(c) visiting a place in accordance with arrangements made by the
court, or

(d) travelling to or from a place mentioned in paragraph (b) or (c).

(4) 35An order may be made subject to exceptions.

(5) It is a contempt of court for a member of a jury to fail to surrender an
electronic communications device in accordance with an order under
this section.

(6) Proceedings for a contempt of court under this section may only be
40instituted on the motion of a court having jurisdiction to deal with it.

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(7) In this section, “electronic communications device” means a device that
is designed or adapted for a use which consists of or includes the
sending or receiving of signals that are transmitted by means of an
electronic communications network (as defined in section 32 of the
5Communications Act 2003).

41 Jurors and electronic communications devices: powers of search etc

(1) Part 4 of the Courts Act 2003 (court security officers) is amended as follows.

(2) After section 54 insert—

54A Powers in relation to jurors’ electronic communications devices

(1) 10This section applies where an order has been made under section 15A
of the Juries Act 1974 (surrender of electronic communications devices
by jurors) in respect of the members of a jury.

(2) A court security officer acting in the execution of the officer’s duty
must, if ordered to do so by a judge, search a member of the jury in
15order to determine whether the juror has failed to surrender an
electronic communications device in accordance with the order.

(3) Subsection (2) does not authorise the officer to require a person to
remove clothing other than a coat, jacket, headgear, gloves or footwear.

(4) If the search reveals a device which is required by the order to be
20surrendered—

(a) the officer must ask the juror to surrender the device, and

(b) if the juror refuses to do so, the officer may seize it.

(5) In this section, “electronic communications device” means a device that
is designed or adapted for a use which consists of or includes the
25sending or receiving of signals that are transmitted by means of an
electronic communications network (as defined in section 32 of the
Communications Act 2003).

(3) In section 55 (powers to retain articles surrendered or seized)—

(a) after subsection (1) insert—

(1A) 30Subject to subsection (2), a court security officer may retain an
article which was—

(a) surrendered in response to a request under section
54A(4)(a), or

(b) seized under section 54A(4)(b),

35until the end of the period specified in the relevant order under
section 15A of the Juries Act 1974., and

(b) in subsection (2), for paragraph (a) substitute—

(a) the time specified in subsection (1) or (1A) (as
appropriate), or.

(4) 40In section 56(1)(a) (regulations about retention of articles)—

(a) in sub-paragraph (i), after “54(1)” insert “or 54A(4)(a)”, and

(b) in sub-paragraph (ii), after “54(2)” insert “or 54A(4)(b)”.

Criminal Justice and Courts BillPage 46

42 Research by jurors

(1) The Juries Act 1974 is amended as follows.

(2) For the heading of section 20 substitute “Offences: failure to attend, serving
while disqualified etc”.

(3) 5After section 20 insert—

20A Offence: research by jurors

(1) It is an offence for a member of a jury that tries an issue in a case before
a court to research the case during the trial period, subject to the
exceptions in subsections (6) and (7).

(2) 10A person researches a case if (and only if) the person—

(a) intentionally seeks information, and

(b) when doing so, knows or ought reasonably to know that the
information is or may be relevant to the case.

(3) The ways in which a person may seek information include—

(a) 15asking a question,

(b) searching an electronic database, including by means of the
internet,

(c) visiting or inspecting a place or object,

(d) conducting an experiment, and

(e) 20asking another person to seek the information.

(4) Information relevant to the case includes information about—

(a) a person involved in events relevant to the case,

(b) the judge dealing with the issue,

(c) any other person involved in the trial, whether as a lawyer, a
25witness or otherwise,

(d) the law relating to the case,

(e) the law of evidence, and

(f) court procedure.

(5) “The trial period”, in relation to a member of a jury that tries an issue,
30is the period—

(a) beginning when the person is sworn to try the issue, and

(b) ending when the judge discharges the jury or, if earlier, when
the judge discharges the person.

(6) It is not an offence under this section for a person to seek information if
35the person needs the information for a reason which is not connected
with the case.

(7) It is not an offence under this section for a person—

(a) to attend proceedings before the court on the issue;

(b) to seek information from the judge dealing with the issue;

(c) 40to do anything which the judge dealing with the issue directs or
authorises the person to do;

(d) to seek information from another member of the jury, unless the
person knows or ought reasonably to know that the other
member of the jury contravened this section in the process of
45obtaining the information;

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(e) to do anything else which is reasonably necessary in order for
the jury to try the issue.

(8) A person guilty of an offence under this section is liable, on conviction
on indictment, to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 2 years or a
5fine (or both).

(9) Proceedings for an offence under this section may only be instituted by
or with the consent of the Attorney General.

43 Sharing research with other jurors

In the Juries Act 1974, after section 20A insert—

20B 10Offence: sharing research with other jurors

(1) It is an offence for a member of a jury that tries an issue in a case before
a court intentionally to disclose information to another member of the
jury during the trial period if—

(a) the member contravened section 20A in the process of obtaining
15the information, and

(b) the information has not been provided by the court.

(2) Information has been provided by the court if (and only if) it has been
provided as part of—

(a) evidence presented in the proceedings on the issue, or

(b) 20other information provided to the jury or a juror during the trial
period by, or with the permission of, the judge dealing with the
issue.

(3) A person guilty of an offence under this section is liable, on conviction
on indictment, to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 2 years or a
25fine (or both).

(4) Proceedings for an offence under this section may not be instituted
except by or with the consent of the Attorney General.

(5) In this section, “the trial period” has the same meaning as in section
20A.

44 30Jurors engaging in other prohibited conduct

In the Juries Act 1974, after section 20B insert—

20C Offence: jurors engaging in other prohibited conduct

(1) It is an offence for a member of a jury that tries an issue in a case before
a court intentionally to engage in prohibited conduct during the trial
35period, subject to the exceptions in subsections (4) and (5).

(2) “Prohibited conduct” means conduct from which it may reasonably be
concluded that the person intends to try the issue otherwise than on the
basis of the evidence presented in the proceedings on the issue.

(3) An offence under this section is committed whether or not the person
40knows that the conduct is prohibited conduct.

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(4) It is not an offence under this section for a member of the jury to
research the case (as defined in section 20A(2) to (4)).

(5) It is not an offence under this section for a member of the jury to
disclose information to another member of the jury.

(6) 5A person guilty of an offence under this section is liable, on conviction
on indictment, to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 2 years or a
fine (or both).

(7) Proceedings for an offence under this section may not be instituted
except by or with the consent of the Attorney General.

(8) 10In this section, “the trial period” has the same meaning as in section
20A.

45 Disclosing jury’s deliberations

(1) In the Juries Act 1974, after section 20C insert—

20D Offence: disclosing jury’s deliberations

(1) 15It is an offence for a person intentionally—

(a) to disclose information about statements made, opinions
expressed, arguments advanced or votes cast by members of a
jury in the course of their deliberations in proceedings before a
court, or

(b) 20to solicit or obtain such information,

subject to the exceptions in sections 20E and 20F.

(2) A person guilty of an offence under this section is liable, on conviction
on indictment, to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 2 years or a
fine (or both).

(3) 25Proceedings for an offence under this section may not be instituted
except by or with the consent of the Attorney General.

20E Offence of disclosing jury’s deliberations: initial exceptions

(1) It is not an offence under section 20D for a person to disclose
information in the proceedings mentioned in section 20D(1) for the
30purposes of enabling the jury to arrive at their verdict or in connection
with the delivery of that verdict.

(2) It is not an offence under section 20D for the judge dealing with those
proceedings to disclose information—

(a) for the purposes of dealing with the case, or

(b) 35for the purposes of an investigation by a relevant investigator
into whether an offence or contempt of court has been
committed by or in relation to a juror in the proceedings
mentioned in section 20D(1).

(3) It is not an offence under section 20D for a person who reasonably
40believes that a disclosure described in subsection (2)(b) has been made
to disclose information for the purposes of the investigation.

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(4) It is not an offence under section 20D to publish information disclosed
as described in subsection (1) or (2)(a) in the proceedings mentioned in
section 20D(1).

(5) It is not an offence under section 20D to solicit a disclosure described in
5subsections (1) to (4).

(6) It is not an offence under section 20D to obtain information—

(a) by means of a disclosure described in subsections (1) to (4), or

(b) from a document that is available to the public or a section of the
public.

(7) 10In this section—

(8) The Lord Chancellor must obtain the consent of the Lord Chief Justice
20before making regulations under this section.

(9) A statutory instrument containing regulations under this section is
subject to annulment in pursuance of a resolution of either House of
Parliament.

20F Offence of disclosing jury’s deliberations: further exceptions

(1) 25It is not an offence under section 20D for a judge of the Court of Appeal
or the registrar of criminal appeals to disclose information for the
purposes of an investigation by a relevant investigator into—

(a) whether an offence or contempt of court has been committed by
or in relation to a juror in connection with the proceedings
30mentioned in section 20D(1), or

(b) whether conduct of a juror in connection with those
proceedings may provide grounds for an appeal against
conviction or sentence.

(2) It is not an offence under section 20D for a judge of the Court of Appeal
35or the registrar of criminal appeals to disclose information to—

(a) a person who was the defendant in the proceedings mentioned
in section 20D(1), or

(b) a legal representative of such a person,

for the purposes of considering whether conduct of a juror in
40connection with those proceedings may provide grounds for an appeal
against conviction or sentence.

(3) It is not an offence under section 20D for a person to disclose
information for a purpose mentioned in subsection (1) or (2) to—

(a) a judge of the Court of Appeal,

(b) 45the registrar of criminal appeals,

(c) a judge of the court where the proceedings mentioned in section
20D(1) took place, or

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