Clean Air (Human Rights) Bill (HL Bill 21)

Clean Air (Human Rights) BillPage 10

(e) rectification at source, which means that environmental damage
should, as a priority, be remedied at its source;

(f) integration, which means that environmental protection requirements
should be integrated into the definition and implementation of all
5policies and activities, in particular with a view to promoting
sustainable development;

(g) conservation of the ecosystem structure and functioning, in order to
maintain ecosystem services;

(h) anticipation, prevention or minimisation of the causes of climate
10change and mitigation of its adverse effects; and

(i) sustainability, which means to take into account the health of present
generations and the needs of future generations.

17 Interpretation

In this Act—

  • 15“the Aarhus Convention” means the Convention on Access to
    Information, Public Participation in Decision-Making and Access to
    Justice in Environmental Matters, adopted on 25 June 1998;

  • in Schedule 3, “AOT40” is the accumulated amount of ozone over the
    threshold value of 40 parts per billion;

  • 20“the clean air enactments” are those enactments listed in Schedule 6 as
    amended from time to time;

  • “indoor air” refers to the quality of air in buildings;

  • “limits” means the concentrations, emissions or exposures as set out in
    Schedules 1 to 4;

  • 25“pollutants causing primarily environmental harm” includes those
    causing acidification, eutrophication, haze or smog as listed in
    Schedule 3;

  • “national authorities” has the meaning given in section 1;

  • “long-term” means a period of time of a calendar year or more;

  • 30“medium-term” means a period of time of more than 24 hours and less
    than a calendar year;

  • “short-term” means a period of time less than or equal to 24 hours; and

  • “units” are the maximum permitted mathematical mean for the averaging
    period defined.

18 35Extent, commencement and short title

(1) This Act extends to England and Wales only.

(2) This section and sections 1, 2, 4 to 10, 15 and 16 come into force on the day this
Act is passed.

(3) All other sections come into force on such day as the Secretary of State may by
40regulations appoint.

(4) This Act may be cited as the Clean Air (Human Rights) Act 2019.

Clean Air (Human Rights) BillPage 11

SCHEDULES

Section 1

SCHEDULE 1 Pollutants relating to local and atmospheric pollution

1 Pollutant concentrations

Pollutant Unit 5Averaging period
Black carbon 6 μg/m3 24 hours (35 permitted
exceedances each year)
3 μg/m3 1 year
Benzene (C6H6) 3.5 μg/m3 1 year
101, 3 Butadiene 2.25 μg/m3 1 year
Formaldehyde
(HCHO)
8.6 μg/m3 1 year
Ground-level ozone
(O3)
240 μg/m3 (alert
threshold)
1 hour
15180 μg/m3
(information
threshold)
1 hour
100 μg/m3 Running 8 hours (10
permitted exceedances
20each year)
Lead 0.25 μg/m3 1 year
Nitrogen dioxide
(NO2)
200 μg/m3 1 hour (18 permitted
exceedances each year)
40 μg/m3 1 year

Clean Air (Human Rights) BillPage 12

Pollutant Unit Averaging period
Particulate matter
(PM1,PM2.5 and PM10)
PM1: 18.5 μg/m3 24 hours (35 permitted
exceedances each year)
PM1: 7.5 μg/m3 1 year
PM2.5: 100 μg/m3 (alert
level)
5Running 8 hours
PM2.5: 25 μg/m3 24 hours (35 permitted
exceedances each year)
PM2.5: 10 μg/m3 1 year
PM10: 50 μg/m3 1024 hours (35 permitted
exceedances each year)
PM10: 20 μg/m3 1 year
Polycyclic Aromatic
Hydrocarbons
15expressed as
concentration of
benzo(a)pyrene
0.25 ng/m3 1 year

Sulphur dioxide (SO2) 500 μg/m3 10 minutes (24
permitted
20exceedances each year)
20 μg/m3 24 hours (3 permitted
exceedances each year)

2 Pollutant exposures

Pollutant Unit Averaging period
25Particulate matter
(PM2.5)
PM2.5: 6.5 μg/m3
(population
weighted exposure
within
each zone and
30agglomeration)
5 percent per calendar
year until the limit is
reached

Section 1

SCHEDULE 2 Indoor air pollutants

1 25Biological indoor air pollutants (dampness and mould)

Clean Air (Human Rights) BillPage 13

Pollutant Concentration Averaging period
Dampness Zero n/a
Mould Zero n/a

2 Pollutant-specific guidelines (chemical pollution)

Pollutant Unit 5Averaging period
Benzene (C6H6) 3.5 μg/m3 1 year
1, 3 Butadiene 2.25 μg/m3 1 year
Carbon monoxide (CO) 7 mg/m3 24 hours
Formaldehyde
(HCHO)
8.6 μg/m3 1 year
10
Hydrogen sulphide
(H2S)
7 μg/m3 30 minutes
0.15 μg/m3 24 hours
Nitrogen dioxide
(NO2)
200 μg/m3 1 hour (no
exceedances)
1540 μg/m3 1 year
Naphthalene 0.01 mg/m3 1 year
Polycyclic aromatic
hydrocarbons (PAHs)
expressed as
20concentration
of benzo(a)pyrene
Zero n/a
Radon 100 becquerels/m3 3 months
Tetrachloroethylene 0.25 mg/m3 1 year
Trichloroethylene Zero n/a

3 25Pollutants from indoor combustion of fuels

Clean Air (Human Rights) BillPage 14

Pollutant Unit Averaging period
Particulate matter
(PM1,
PM2.5 and PM10)
PM1: 18.5 μg/m3 24 hours (35 permitted
exceedances each year)
PM1: 7.5 μg/m3 1 year
PM2.5: 25 μg/m3 524 hours (35 permitted
exceedances each year)
PM2.5: 10 μg/m3 1 year
PM10: 50 μg/m3 24 hours (35 permitted
exceedances each year)
10PM10: 20 μg/m3 1 year

4 Infiltration of outdoor air into indoor environments

Pollutant Unit Averaging period
Particulate matter
(PM2.5 andPM10)
PM2.5: 12.5 μg/m3 24 hours (35 permitted
exceedances each year)
15PM2.5: 5 μg/m3 1 year
PM10: 25 μg/m3 24 hours (35 permitted
exceedances each year)
PM10: 10 μg/m3 1 year

Section 1

SCHEDULE 3 20Pollutants causing primarily environmental harm

1 Pollutant concentrations

Pollutant Unit Calendar year
Ammonia (NH3) 3 μg/m3 1 year
Ground-level ozone
25(O3)
AOT40 (calculated
from 1
hour values)
6,000 μg/m3 hours
Summer (1 April to 30
September)
Nitrogen oxides (NOx)(expressed as NO2) 75 μg/m3 24 hours
30µg/m3 Calendar year

Clean Air (Human Rights) BillPage 15

Pollutant Unit Calendar year
Sulphur dioxide (SO2) 20µg/m3 Calendar year and
winter (1 October to 31
March)

2 5Pollutant emissions

Pollutant Unit Calendar year
Ammonia (NH3) 283 kilotonnes 2020
271 kilotonnes 2025
258 kilotonnes 2030
Non-methane volatile
organic compounds
(NMVOCs)
689 kilotonnes 102020
671 kilotonnes 2025
654 kilotonnes 2030
Oxides of nitrogen
15(NOx)
724 kilotonnes 2020
579 kilotonnes 2025
434 kilotonnes 2030
Particulate matter
(PM2.5)
79 kilotonnes 2020
70 kilotonnes 202025
61 kilotonnes 2030
Sulphur dioxide (SO2) 292 kilotonnes 2020
188 kilotonnes 2025
85 kilotonnes 2030

Section 1

25SCHEDULE 4 Pollutants causing climate change

1 Non-fluorinated gases

Clean Air (Human Rights) BillPage 16

Pollutant or measure MtCO2e Period or calendar year
“Net UK carbon
account” as defined in
section 27 of the
Climate Change Act
2008
2,544 2018 to 2022 (3rd
budget)
51,950 2023 to 2027 (4th
budget)
1,725 2028 to 2032 (5th
budget)
156 2050
10Methane (CH4) Reduce emissions by
around 19% below
2015 levels
2030

Nitrous oxide (N2O) Reduce emissions by
around 19% below
152015 levels
2030

2 Fluorinated gases

Pollutant MtCO2e Calendar year
Hydrofluorocarbons Reduce emissions by at
least 79% below 2015
20levels
2030
Reduce emissions by at
least 86% below 2015
levels
2036

Nitrogen trifluoride Reduce emissions by at
25least 68% below 2016
levels
2030

Perfluorocarbons Reduce emissions by at
least 68% below 2016
levels
2030
30Sulphur hexafluoride Reduce emissions by at
least 68% below 2016
levels
2030

Clean Air (Human Rights) BillPage 17

Section 4

SCHEDULE 5 The Protocols to the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe’s
Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution

1 The 1984 Geneva Protocol on Long-Term Financing of the Cooperative
5Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-range Transmission
of Air Pollutants in Europe (EMEP).

2 The 1985 Helsinki Protocol on the Reduction of Sulphur Emissions or their
Transboundary Fluxes by at least 30 per cent.

3 The 1988 Protocol concerning the Control of Nitrogen Oxides or their
10Transboundary Fluxes.

4 The 1991 Geneva Protocol concerning the Control of Emissions of Volatile
Organic Compounds or their Transboundary Fluxes.

5 The 1994 Oslo Protocol on Further Reduction of Sulphur Emissions.

6 The 1998 Aarhus Protocol on Heavy Metals, as amended on 13 December
152012.

7 The 1998 Aarhus Protocol on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), as
amended on 18 December 2009.

8 The 1999 Gothenburg Protocol to Abate Acidification, Eutrophication and
Ground-level Ozone, as amended on 4 May 2012.

Section 4

20SCHEDULE 6 The clean air enactments

Health

1 The clean air enactments related to health are—

(a) the Public Health Act 1925;

(b) 25the Public Health Act 1936;

(c) the Public Health Act 1961;

(d) the Noise and Statutory Nuisance Act 1993;

(e) the Health and Social Care Act 2012;

(f) the Well-being of Future Generations (Wales) Act 2015.

30Pollution and air quality

2 The clean air enactments related to clean air and pollution are—

(a) the Clean Air Act 1956;

(b) the Clean Air Act 1968;

(c) the Clean Air Act (Emission of Grit and Dust from Furnaces)
35Regulations 1971;

(d) the Control of Pollution Act 1974;

(e) the Clean Air Act 1993;

(f) the Motor Fuel (Composition and Content) Regulations 1999 (S.I.
1999/3107);

Clean Air (Human Rights) BillPage 18

(g) the Pollution Prevention and Control Act 1999;

(h) the Air Quality (England) Regulations 2000 (S.I. 2000/928);

(i) the Air Quality (Wales) Regulations 2000 (S.I. 2000/1940 (W.138));

(j) the Pollution Prevention and Control (England and Wales)
5Regulations 2000 (S.I. 2000/1973);

(k) the Sulphur Content of Liquid Fuels (England and Wales)
Regulations 2007 (S.I. 2007/79);

(l) the Air Quality Standards Regulations 2010 (S.I. 2010/1001);

(m) the Air Quality Standards (Wales) Regulations 2010 (S.I. 2010/1433
10(W.126));

(n) the Air Quality Standards (Amendment) Regulations 2016 (S.I. 2016/
1184);

(o) the Motor Fuel (Composition and Content) and Merchant Shipping
(Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships) (Amendment) Regulations
152010 (S.I. 2010/3035);

(p) the Ecodesign for Energy-Related Products Regulations 2010 (S.I.
2010/2617);

(q) the Clean Air (Miscellaneous Provisions) (England) Regulations 2014
(S.I. 2014/3318);

(r) 20the Sulphur Content of Liquid Fuels (England and Wales)
(Amendment) Regulations 2014 (S.I. 2014/1975);

(s) the Pollution Prevention and Control (England and Wales)
Regulations 2000 (S.I. 2000/1973);

(t) the Large Combustion Plants (England and Wales) Regulations 2002
25(S.I. 2002/2688);

(u) the Environmental Permitting (England and Wales) (Amendment)
Regulations 2018 (S.I. 2018/110).

Aviation

3 The clean air enactment related to aviation is the Civil Aviation Act 1982.

30Environment

4 The clean air enactments related to the environment are—

(a) the Environmental Protection Act 1990;

(b) the Environmental Protection (Prescribed Processes and Substances)
Regulations 1991 (S.I. 1991/472);

(c) 35the Environment Act 1995;

(d) the Local Government Act 2000;

(e) the Environmental Assessment of Plans and Programmes
Regulations 2004 (S.I. 2004/1633);

(f) the Clean Neighbourhoods and Environment Act 2005;

(g) 40the Environmental Permitting (England and Wales) (Amendment)
Regulations 2013 (S.I. 2013/390);

(h) the Environmental Permitting (England and Wales) (Amendment)
(No. 2) Regulations 2013 (S.I. 2013/766)

(i) the Environmental Permitting (England and Wales) Regulations
452016 (S.I. 2016/1154);

(j) the Environmental Permitting (England and Wales) (Amendment)
(No. 2) Regulations 2013 (S.I. 2016/000).

Clean Air (Human Rights) BillPage 19

Vehicles

5 The clean air enactments related to vehicles are—

(a) the Road Vehicles (Construction and Use) Regulations 1986 (S.I.
1986/1078);

(b) 5the Road Traffic Offenders Act 1988;

(c) the Road Traffic Reduction Act 1997;

(d) the Road Traffic (Vehicle Emissions) (Fixed Penalty) (England)
Regulations 2002 (S.I. 2002/1808);

(e) the Road Vehicles (Construction and Use) (Amendment)
10Regulations 2004 (S.I. 2004/1706);

(f) the Non-Road Mobile Machinery (Emission of Gaseous and
Particulate Pollutants) (Amendment) Regulations 2014 (S.I. 2014/
1309);

(g) the Road Vehicles (Construction and Use) (Amendment etc.) (No. 2)
15Regulations 2017 (S.I. 2017/1251).

Planning

6 The clean air enactments related to planning are—

(a) the Town and Country Planning Act 1990;

(b) the Planning Act 2008;

(c) 20the Localism Act 2011;

(d) the Neighbourhood Planning Act 2017.

Climate change

7 The clean air enactments related to climate change are—

(a) the Greater London Authority Act 1999;

(b) 25the Motor Fuel (Composition and Content) Regulations 1999 (S.I.
1999/3107);

(c) the Climate Change and Sustainable Energy Act 2006;

(d) the Persistent Organic Pollutants Regulations 2007 (S.I. 2007/3106);

(e) the Sulphur Content of Liquid Fuels (England and Wales)
30Regulations 2007 (S.I. 2007/79);

(f) the Climate Change Act 2008;

(g) the Promotion of the Use of Energy from Renewable Sources
Regulations 2011 (S.I. 2011/243);

(h) the Renewable Transport Fuel Obligations (Amendment) Order 2011
35(S.I. 2011/2937);

(i) the Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading Scheme Regulations 2012
(S.I. 2012/3038);

(j) the Motor Fuel (Road Vehicle and Mobile Machinery) Greenhouse
Gas Emissions Reporting Regulations 2012 (S.I. 2012/3030);

(k) 40the Offshore Combustion Installations (Pollution Prevention and
Control) Regulations 2013 (S.I. 2013/971);

(l) the Renewable Transport Fuel Obligations (Amendment) Order 2013
(S.I. 2013/816);

(m) the Fluorinated Greenhouse Gases Regulations 2015 (S.I. 2015/310);

(n) 45the Ozone-Depleting Substances Regulations 2015 (S.I. 2015/168);

(o) the Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Regulations 2017 (S.I. 2017/897).