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Written Answers to Questions

Wednesday 13 June 1990

THE ARTS

Departmental Achievements

Mr. David Shaw : To ask the Minister for the Arts if he will make a statement on the major achievements of his Department in the last four years.

Mr. Luce [holding answer 11 June 1990] : The Government's achievements in the arts in the last four years have been numerous and varied. Among the most important I would list the following : The maintenance of central Government support for arts activities, and the introduction of measures to encourage greater self-reliance among arts institutions--the arts budget for this financial year stands at£494 million, and will rise by 22 per cent. by 1992-93. The establishment of a three-year programme of funding for the arts, to give arts bodies a firmer base from which to plan their activities.

The introduction of corporate planning for the national museums and galleries and other non-departmental bodies, linked to the three-year funding programme.

The major expansion schemes at some national museums and galleries, including the Clore gallery at the Tate, the new Tate gallery in Liverpool, the redevelopment of the imperial war museum, and the opening of the Victoria and Albert museum's theatre museum at Covent Garden. The building and maintenance grants to the national museums and galleries have increased by 15 per cent. in real terms over the past four years, and in December 1989 an incentive funding initiative was launched to help these institutions get their fabric into prime condition by the year 2000.

The participation of over 2,000 museums in the Museums Year celebrations in 1989, with visitor numbers reaching over 100 million in that year.

The Government's support for the development strategies designed to give the regions a larger share of arts spending facilities and to increase access to the arts.

New initiatives to encourage arts bodies to market themselves more professionally and to improve the quality of their management. The significant and continuing upsurge in business sponsorship of the arts, encouraged by the business sponsorship incentive scheme through which nearly £33 million of new money for the arts has been raised.

The development of incentive funding schemes for the performing arts and for public libraries, designed to encourage subsidised bodies to become more self-reliant in their development and growth. The maintaining of the public lending right scheme introduced in 1981, by which authors are paid for the borrowing of their books from public libraries. This year, the PLR provision is £3.5 million, and it will rise to £4.5 million in 1991-92.


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The very substantial progress that has been made with the British Library's St. Pancras project, the first phase of which is on schedule for completion in 1993, still within its budget of £300 million. This will bring together most of the Library's London- based collections and reading rooms on a single site, and provide much- improved storage conditions.

The publication of the consultative paper "Financing the Public Library Service : Four subjects for debate" prompting possibly the widest debate on the service this century, and resulting in the protection of the core of the free public library service, through the Local Government and Housing Act 1989.

The continuing commitment to preserving the nation's heritage. Over £105 million of public money has gone into the national heritage memorial fund since it was established in 1980.

The growth in the use of the acceptance in lieu of tax provisions. In 1989- 90, a record level of tax was satisfied in this way, with over £11.5 million satisfied by 14 offers.

NATIONAL FINANCE

ECOFIN Council

Mr. Jack : To ask the Chancellor of the Exchequer if he will make a statement on the outcome of the latest meeting of the European Community's Economic and Finance Council.

Mr. Major : The ECOFIN Council met in Luxembourg on 11 June. The Paymaster General and I represented the United Kingdom. Future progress towards economic and monetary union was discussed and oral reports were heard from the chairmen of the central bank governors, monetary and economic policy committees and from President Delors. The Council agreed that it was important to ensure that stage 1 was successful and that more work was needed in how the Community might progress beyond that stage. It was agreed that Finance Ministers should be involved in the forthcoming intergovernmental conference on EMU. The presidency will submit a progress report to the European Council before its meeting on 25 to 26 June.

Political agreement was reached on a package of three corporate tax measures to encourage cross-border co-operation. When finally implemented, these measures will end the double taxation of subsidiaries which transfer dividends to a parent company in another member state and will remove the tax disincentive to cross border mergers. This is a very welcome step forward and will be of real benefit to British industry.

The Council also welcomed a report from the Commission on the main features of its new proposals for a system of VAT control and for the collection of intra-EC trade statistics after 1992. The raising of travellers' allowance was also discussed. It was agreed that the Court of Auditors report on export refunds should be submitted to the Committee of Permanent Representatives for urgent further consideration. The investment services directive was also discussed, and it was concluded that the Council should aim to reach a common position on the directive by 31 December 1990.


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TRANSPORT

Protected Countryside

Ms. Walley : To ask the Secretary of State for Transport what is his policy concerning the avoidance of motorway and major road construction through designated protected countryside ; and if he will make a statement.

Mr. Parkinson : There has been no change in the Government's longstanding policy, which is to keep roads away from protected areas like areas of outstanding natural beauty and sites of special scientific interest wherever possible. Special attention is also paid to the effects of new roads on inalienable land owned by the National Trust. In national parks, the Government are committed to ensuring that no new trunk route will be constructed or an existing road upgraded unless there is a compelling need which cannot be met by any reasonable alternative means.

Carbon Canisters

Ms. Walley : To ask the Secretary of State for Transport what information he has about the relative cost implications to the motor industry of fitting large or small carbon canisters to motor vehicles ; and if he will make a statement.

Mr. Atkins : Carbon canisters are used to control evaporative emissions from motor vehicles. The component cost is likely to range between £15 and £40. The cost of installation is difficult to estimate, but is likely to be higher for the larger canisters that are designed to capture refuelling emissions, because they are more sophisticated and require electronic controls.

Tachographs

Mr. David Marshall : To ask the Secretary of State for Transport what evidence he has of tachograph discs in heavy goods vehicles being discarded when used up and being replaced with new ones so as to allow a further nine hours' driving time ; what steps he intends taking to prevent this from happening ; and if he has any plans to introduce a system of serialised tachograph discs.

Mr. Atkins : The Department carries out checks on tachographs of heavy goods vehicles both at the roadside and at operators' premises. These can detect the person who drives for a period and then inserts a new chart. There is no evidence that this practice is common. I will write to the hon. Member shortly about the serialisation of tachograph discs.

Pedestrian Crossings

Mr. Cohen : To ask the Secretary of State for Transport how many pedestrians were (a) killed and (b) injured, while using zebra or pelican crossings in 1989.

Mr. Atkins : Provisional estimates are that 109 persons were killed and a further 4,978 persons injured while crossing the road using pedestrian crossings during 1989.

Mr. Cohen : To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department how many prosecutions there have been for failure to stop for pedestrians at a zebra crossing, since the introduction in the current year of the spot fine.


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Mr. John Patten : The information collected centrally does not separately identify fixed penalty notices issued for the offence of failing to give precedence to pedestrians at a zebra crossing.

Motor Vehicles (Roadworthiness)

Mr. Illsley : To ask the Secretary of State for Transport on how many occasions in the last five years vehicle examiners from the Department of Transport have carried out checks on the roadworthiness of motor cars on garage forecourts in accordance with the Road Traffic Acts ; and how many prosecutions have been successfully instituted.

Mr. Atkins : The vehicle inspectorate has not hitherto maintained separate statistics of such inspections, but is now starting to do so. Any subsequent prosecutions would normally be pursued by local authority trading standards officers.

Jet Engines (Exhaust Fumes)

Mr. Simon Hughes : To ask the Secretary of State for Transport if he has made an assessment of the potential damage being caused to the ozone layer as a result of exhaust fumes from jet engines ; and if he will make a statement.

Mr. McLoughlin : For the most part, aircraft operate in the troposphere. Increasingly, however, they are reaching into the lower stratosphere and the Warren Spring laboratory has been asked to consider what contribution they might make to stratospheric ozone depletion. This is an issue that is also the subject of an extensive three-year programme of research by NASA in connection with possible future supersonic transport development programmes. These are important studies, and the results could have a bearing on future policy decisions with regard to aircraft engine emission standards.

M11 Link Road

Mr. Cohen : To ask the Secretary of State for Transport whether the inspector in the M11 link road public inquiry has submitted his report ; and if he will make a statement.

Mr. Atkins : The report has been received and is under consideration together with all the objections and representations made. The Secretaries of State for the Environment and for Transport will announce their decisions as soon as possible.

Channel Tunnel

Mr. Teddy Taylor : To ask the Secretary of State for Transport (1) if he has received from Messrs. Eurotunnel details of the inspection procedures which will be made on cars and other vehicles before they enter the channel tunnel ; and if, in particular, any progress has been made in providing X-ray machines for vehicles as referred to in the debate on 3 February 1987, Official Report , column 943 ; (2) if the intergovernmental commission and safety authority has reported to him on the safety arrangements for inspecting vehicles going into the proposed channel tunnel ; and if it has indicated whether it is satisfied with the arrangements.

Mr. Freeman : I refer my hon. Friend to the answer I gave to the hon. Member for Southport (Mr. Fearn) on 11


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June at column 62. Eurotunnel's designs and operating procedures in relation to safety and security are being considered in accordance with the arrangements specified in the treaty and concession agreement. Further work remains to be done before final approval can be given.

Mr. Teddy Taylor : To ask the Secretary of State for Transport what is the latest estimate he has received of the number of vehicles which are likely to go through the proposed channel tunnel each day.

Mr. Freeman : A joint working group, representing the Department of Transport, Kent county council and Eurotunnel, has forecast that an average of 10,000 vehicles per day will use the tunnel in 1993, rising to 14,000 in 2008.

Motorways

Mr. Tom Arnold : To ask the Secretary of State for Transport what is his latest estimate of the number of miles of new motorways completed since 1979.

Mr. Atkins : Since 1979, 285 miles of new motorway have been completed, and 30 miles of existing motorway widened.

Danbury Bypass

Mr. Burns : To ask the Secretary of State for Transport if he will bring forward proposals to build a bypass around Danbury ; and if he will make a statement.

Mr. Atkins [holding answer 12 June 1990] : This is a matter for Essex county council as local highway authority.

HOME DEPARTMENT

Mr. Alexander Bora

Mr. Galloway : To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department if he will now allow Mr. Alexander Bora, a United States citizen, to enter the United Kingdom ; and if he will make a statement.

Mr. Peter Lloyd : Mr. Bora was refused leave to enter the United Kingdom by an immigration officer at Gatwick airport on 12 March 1987.

So far as I am aware, Mr. Bora has not sought admission since that date. Should he do so, his case would be given full consideration in the normal way.

Obscene Telephone Calls

Mr. Lewis : To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department what has been the total number of prosecutions under section 43 of the Telecommunications Act 1984.

Mr. John Patten : It is not possible from the information held centrally to identify offences under section 43 of the

Telecommunications Act 1984 from others under the aforesaid Act.

Civil Defence

Mr. Redmond : To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department if he will make a statement on nationally recommended minimum standards to maintain civil defence cover.


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Mr. John Patten : There are no nationally recommended minimum standards for civil defence.

Arson (Wales)

Mr. Wigley : To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department what representations he has received from the National Association of Probation Officers concerning his Meibion Glyndwr police investigations ; and if he will make a statement.

Mr. Peter Lloyd : My right hon. and learned Friend has received a letter from the National Association of Probation Officers calling for an independent inquiry into recent arrests by north Wales police. He replied on 11 May confirming that the chief constable had decided that the circumstances of the arrests should be investigated by a senior officer from another force under the supervision of the Police Complaints Authority.

Mr. Wigley : To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department what are the terms of reference of the investigation being conducted by Lancashire police into the way in which North Wales police have undertaken action relating to the arson campaign in Wales ; whether the investigation is into the entire sequence of police action since the arson campaign first started ; and if he will make a statement.

Mr. Peter Lloyd : The investigation relates only to certain arrests, the circumstances of which were referred to the Police Complaints Authority by the chief constable of North Wales under section 88 of the Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984. The authority approved the appointment of an investigating officer from the Lancashire constabulary and is supervising the investigation. I understand that the terms of reference are :

To enquire into the circumstances leading to and surrounding the arrest of Bryn Fon, Anna Wynne-Williams, Henryd Myrddin Jones and Dyfed Wyn Thomas, to determine whether or not the police action was proper and reasonable.

Sunday Trading

Mr. Robert G. Hughes : To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department which groups concerned with reforming the law on Sunday trading he has met ; and if he will make a statement.

Mr. Mellor : Since 1986 my ministerial colleagues and I have met individuals and groups with widely differing views on the subject. In the past year these have included representatives of OPEN (previously, the Community Shops Group), the British Hardware Federation, Keep Sunday Special Campaign, the Association of District Councils, the British Videogram Association, the Retail Consortium and the Shopping Hours Reform Council. No proposal to reform the law has yet been put forward which seems likely to command sufficient support to provide the basis for legislation.

Chinese Refugees

Mr. Vaz : To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department how many representations he has received concerning the refusal to grant asylum to Chinese refugees ; and if he will make a statement.

Mr. Peter Lloyd : Representations have been received in respect of one Chinese national who was refused asylum


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here but was granted exceptional leave to remain. We have also received some 20 representations about the decision not to consider the asylum applications from 33 Chinese nationals who came here from Panama. This group has failed to comply with their terms of temporary admission and their cases will be further considered when they are traced.

Police Buildings

Sir John Wheeler : To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department what approval he has given for the acquisition or building of new police headquarters and at what cost in England and Wales since 1980.

Mr. Peter Lloyd : The information for force headquarters buildings is as follows :


                                                |£ million          

--------------------------------------------------------------------

1982                                                                

Avon and Somerset force headquarters-purchase                       

 of site and preparatory works                  |0.974              

                                                                    

1983                                                                

Metropolitan police-Bessborough street and                          

 Vauxhall Bridge road adaptations work (lease                       

 rental £1.175 million per annum)               |1.28               

Metropolitan police-Drummond gate adaptations                       

 work (lease rental £1.795 million per annum)   |1.64               

                                                                    

1984                                                                

Leicestershire force headquarters-phase 1       |3.655              

Dyfed Powys force headquarters                  |5.9                

                                                                    

1989                                                                

Thames Valley force headquarters-acquisition of                     

 site                                           |1.1                

Avon and Somerset force headquarters-phase 1    |4.772              

Avon and Somerset force headquarters-phase 1A   |1.5                

Sir John Wheeler : To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department what proposals he has to value the


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police estate in England and Wales, and for the more effective management of police buildings, within the 43 Home Office inspected forces.

Mr. Peter Lloyd : The ownership of the police estate is vested in police authorities, or, in the case of the Metropolitan police, the Receiver for the Metropolitan Police District.

Home Office circular No. 32/1987, issued in May 1987, asked the authorities to review their management of the police estate with a view to identifying accommodation and sites which are surplus to requirements, either for disposal or, where appropriate, to meet emerging new needs for accommodation. The procedures for reviewing the estate are matters for the police authorities themselves, but Her Majesty's inspectorate of constabulary has generally expressed its satisfaction with the arrangements which have been made.

A proposal to carry out a valuation of the Metropolitan police estate on commercially accepted principles and updating the information on a continuing basis is being considered.

Trafalgar Square (Incident)

Mr. Nellist : To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department if he will call for a report from the Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis on those detained, following the 31 March incident in Trafalgar square, as to those (a) released without charge, and (b) charged, by offence, and by age, sex and place of residence.

Mr. Peter Lloyd : I am informed by the Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis that by 8 June 471 people have been arrested in connection with the disorder which occurred during and following the demonstration against the community charge which took place in London on 31 March. Of these, 58 were subsequently released without charge. The information readily available about the charges preferred and the age and sex of those charged with these offences is set out in table 1 :


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|c|Table 1|c|                                                                

                      Age                                                    

Charge               |14-20  |21-25  |26-30  |31-35  |Over 35|Total          

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Males                                                                        

Riot                 |-      |4      |-      |-      |-      |4              

Violent disorder     |19     |37     |20     |7      |6      |89             

Affray               |7      |10     |8      |-      |-      |25             

Public Order Act                                                             

  Section 4          |21     |45     |17     |6      |2      |91             

  Section 5          |10     |18     |11     |2      |-      |41             

Grievous bodily harm |1      |2      |-      |1      |-      |4              

Other assaults       |6      |22     |8      |3      |2      |41             

Burglary             |12     |8      |3      |3      |1      |27             

Theft                |12     |8      |3      |-      |-      |23             

Dishonest handling   |10     |2      |4      |-      |-      |16             

Criminal damage      |4      |15     |6      |1      |2      |28             

Arson                |1      |1      |-      |-      |-      |2              

Enclosed premises    |1      |-      |-      |-      |-      |1              

Obstructing police   |6      |11     |5      |-      |1      |23             

Highway obstruction  |8      |8      |4      |1      |1      |22             

Drunk and disorderly |-      |1      |1      |-      |3      |5              

Drugs                |1      |3      |2      |-      |-      |6              

                     |-------|-------|-------|-------|-------|-------        

Total                |119    |195    |92     |24     |18     |<1>448         

                                                                             

Females                                                                      

Riot                 |-      |-      |1      |-      |-      |1              

Violent disorder     |4      |4      |3      |-      |-      |11             

Affray               |-      |-      |1      |-      |-      |1              

Public Order Act                                                             

  Section 4          |4      |3      |1      |-      |-      |8              

  Section 5          |3      |-      |-      |-      |-      |3              

Grievous bodily harm |-      |-      |-      |-      |-      |-              

Other assaults       |2      |4      |2      |-      |-      |8              

Burglary             |7      |-      |-      |1      |-      |8              

Theft                |3      |2      |-      |-      |-      |5              

Dishonest handling   |1      |-      |-      |-      |-      |1              

Criminal damage      |1      |-      |-      |-      |1      |2              

Arson                |-      |-      |-      |-      |-      |-              

Enclosed premises    |-      |-      |-      |-      |-      |-              

Obstructing police   |2      |3      |3      |-      |-      |8              

Highway obstruction  |1      |3      |1      |-      |1      |6              

Drunk and disorderly |-      |-      |-      |-      |-      |-              

Drugs                |-      |1      |-      |-      |-      |1              

                     |-------|-------|-------|-------|-------|-------        

Total                |28     |20     |12     |1      |2      |<1>63          

<1> Some individuals may be charged with more than one offence.              

The stated place of residence of those arrested (including those subsequently released without charge) is set out in table 2 :


|c|Table 2|c|                      

                   |Numbers        

-----------------------------------

London             |245            

No Fixed Abode     |31             

Essex              |21             

Hampshire          |15             

Avon and Somerset  |15             

Surrey             |16             

Kent               |14             

Hertfordshire      |9              

Sussex             |9              

Yorkshire          |8              

Nottinghamshire    |8              

Berkshire          |7              

Greater Manchester |6              

Lancashire         |5              

West Midlands      |5              

Cambridgeshire     |4              

Merseyside         |5              

Buckinghamshire    |4              

Dyfed              |3              

Humberside         |3              

Leicestershire     |3              

Suffolk            |3              

Oxfordshire        |3              

Wiltshire          |3              

Eire               |3              

Channel Islands    |2              

Cleveland          |2              

Dorset             |2              

Spain              |1              

Malta              |1              

Derbyshire         |1              

Devon              |1              

Gloucestershire    |1              

Norfolk            |1              

Northamptonshire   |1              

Staffordshire      |1              

Warwickshire       |1              

Worcestershire     |1              

Glamorgan          |1              

Dumfries           |1              

Shropshire         |1              

France             |1              

Strathclyde        |1              

Rosshire           |1              

Gwent              |1              

                   |--             

Total              |471            


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Animal Experiments

Mr. Kirkwood : To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department what steps he proposes to review the effectiveness of the current provisions to prevent undue pain and suffering in experimentation on live animals.

Mr. Peter Lloyd : My right hon. and learned Friend has no such plans.

Mr. Kirkwood : To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department if he will list in the Official Report the annual number of lethal dose toxicity tests permitted over the last five years for which figures are available.

Mr. Peter Lloyd : Lethal dose toxicity tests have been separately identified in the statistics since 1987. The numbers of such tests carried out in 1987 and 1988 are published in table 14--columns 8 and 9--of the annual "Statistics of Scientific Procedures on Living Animals, Great Britain" for 1987 and 1988, Cm. 515 and 743. Copies of these publications are in the Library.

Mr. Kirkwood : To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department (1) what representations he has made to the pharmaceutical and other commercial companies undertaking tests on live animals to move towards alternative methods of testing ;

(2) what further steps he proposes to encourage provision for alternative methods for use in basic research in toxicity testing and drug development to replace experimentation on live animals ; and if he will make a statement.

Mr. Peter Lloyd : It is a fundamental principal of the Animal (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986 that animals are used in scientific procedures, for whatever purposes, only where there are no alternatives to their use. All applicants for a project licence issued under the Act must satisfy the Home Office that they have given thorough consideration to the scope for using alternative methods not involving animals.

While the use of animals for research and safety testing will remain necessary for the foreseeable future, those involved in animal procedures are well aware of the need to move towards non-animal techniques whenever possible. Work involving living animals is not permitted where alternatives exist.

Mr. Kirkwood : To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department if he will list in the Official Report those


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organisations which have received grants from Her Majesty's Government for research into replacement alternatives to experimentation on live animals indicating the amount of the grant in each case.

Mr. Peter Lloyd : In 1984 financial assistance was provided to two organisations concerned with animals in research. Some £185,000 was given to the fund for the replacement of animals in medical experiments (FRAME) to help with three projects : a feasibility study of validation of in vitro techniques which might replace animal experiments ; work on a possible database of tissue culture techniques ; and on examination of the use of human tissue cultures instead of animals in medical research and toxicity testing. Some £30,000 was given to the universities federation for animal welfare (UFAW) to support an evaluation of the effects of various cage sizes and social groupings on the well-being of laboratory rats. With the passing of the Animal (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986, the Home Office established a scheme which is administered by a sub- committee of the Animal Procedures Committee to grant aid research to reduce, refine or replace the use of living animals in scientific procedures. The Home Office also funds research concerned with the welfare of laboratory animals. In 1988-89, the first year of the operation of the scheme, it was decided to fund the following four projects :

(i) Dr. P. A. Botham and Dr. G. J. A. Oliver, ICI Central Toxicology Laboratory. "Validation of an enucleated eye model" (£26, 700 over two years)

(ii) Dr. A. F. Bristow and Dr. S. Poole, National Institute for Biological Standards and Control. "Assay of Pyrogens measuring lymphokine production in vitro". (£72,700 over three years) (iii) Dr. A. Robinson, Public Health Laboratory Service "Alternative potency tests for cellular pertenssis". (£9,800 over three years)

(iv) Dr. R. M. Stagg, Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Scotland "Fish cell culture for toxicity assessment". (£25,700 over two years)

In 1989-90 it was decided to fund the following projects : (i) Dr. M. E. G. Boursell, AFRC Institute for Animal Health. "Recombinant vaccine against infectious burial disease virus". (£77, 700 over three years)

(ii) Dr. M. Ferguson, National Institute for Biological Standards and Control. "The use of in vitro assays for the potency of rabies vaccines". (£10,000 over two years)

(iii) Mr. A. Knight, Wellcome Research Laboratories. "A replacement for the clostridium chauvoei vaccine potency test". (£67,000 over three years).

(iv) Professor D. B. Morton, University of Birmingham. "Evaluation of welfare in the husbandry of laboratory rabbits". (£59,900 over three years).

In addition, on the advice of the Animal Procedures Committee research sub- committee, the Home Office commissioned a report of an investigation into antibody production. The Home Office has also supported, and part-funded, international work on acute toxicity testing aimed at further reducing the need for formal LD50 tests.

Mr. Kirkwood : To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department if he will list in the Official Report the number of experiments on live animals carried out in each year since the 1986 provisions took effect, showing how many animals were used for scientific testing in each year.

Mr. Peter Lloyd : The information is published in table 18 of "Statistics of Scientific Procedures on Living Animals, Great Britain, 1988", Cm. 743, a copy of which is in the Library.


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Mr. Colin Wallace

Mr. Dalyell : To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department if he will make a statement on his consideration of the representations made on behalf of Mr. Colin Wallace concerning his conviction, referred to in a letter of 4 June from Mr. J. H. Miller, Private Secretary to the Minister of State for the Armed Forces, to Mr. Wallace.

Mr. John Patten : We hope to be able to reply shortly to the latest representations made on Mr. Wallace's behalf regarding the safety of his conviction.

Plutonium Contamination

Mr. Chris Smith : To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department what information he has on plans or studies that assess the measures that would have to be taken by the police or civil defence authorities in the event of widespread contamination by airborne plutonium resulting from a nuclear weapons accident aboard a Royal Navy ship docked at Greenwich.


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