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Mature Students Allowance

Mrs. Fyfe: To ask the Secretary of State for Education what estimate she has made of the savings which would arise from the abolition of the mature students' allowance.

Mr. Boswell: We estimate that savings will amount to £5 million, £20 million and £30 million in the 1995 96, 1996 97 and 1997 98 financial years respectively.

Grant-maintained Schools, Lancashire

Dame Elaine Kellett-Bowman: To ask the Secretary of State for Education if she will list the grant-maintained schools in Lancashire, giving in each case their location and their parliamentary constituency.

Mr. Robin Squire: The information requested is set out in the table:



Archbishop Temple School (Ex William   |Nigel Evans, Esq., MP,                       

  Temple), St. Vincent's Road,         |Ribble Valley                                

  Fulwood, Preston                                                                   


Bacup and Rawtenstall Grammar School   |Ms Janet Anderson,                           

  Glen Road, Waterfoot,                | MP, Rossendale and                          

  Rossendale                           |Darwen                                       


Baines School, Highcross Road,         |Keith Mans, Esq., MP,                        

  Poulton-le-Fylde                     |Wyre                                         


Clitheroe Royal Grammar School, York   |Nigel Evans, Esq., MP,                       

  Street, Clitheroe                    |Ribble Valley                                


Lancaster Girls Grammar School, Regent |Dame Elaine                                  

  Street, Lancaster                    |Kellett-Bowman, MP,                          



Lancaster Royal Grammar School, East   |Dame Elaine                                  

  Road, Lancaster                      |Kellett-Bowman, MP,                          



Leyland St. Mary's RC GM School,       |Robert Atkins, Esq.,                         

  Royal Avenue, Leyland, Preston       |MP, South Ribble                             


Newton Bluecoat C of E GM Primary      |Michael Jack, Esq.,                          

  School, School Lane, Newton          |MP, Fylde                                    

  Kirkham, Preston                                                                   


Salesbury CE Primary School, Lovely    |Nigel Evans, Esq., MP,                       

  Hall Lane, Salesbury, Blackburn      |Ribble Valley                                


St. Peter's CE Grant-Maintained        |Den Dover, Esq., MP,                         

  School, Eaves Lane, Chorley          |Chorley                                      


St. Wilfrid's CE High School,          |Jack Straw, Esq., MP,                        

  Shakespeare Streat, Blackburn        |Blackburn                                    

Schools, Shropshire

Mr. Biffen: To ask the Secretary of State for Education what were the aggregate financial balances held by schools in Shropshire at the latest available date, and for the corresponding date in 1994 and 1993.

Mr. Robin Squire: The figures are £4.574 million at 31 March 1994, the latest date for which the information is available: £5.339 million at 31 March 1993. These figures relate to primary and secondary schools which were covered at those dates by the local education authority's scheme for the local management of schools

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Information relating to financial balances held by grant-maintained schools is held by the Funding Agency for Schools. I have asked the chairman of the funding agency to write to my right hon. Friend.

College Funding

Ms Harman: To ask the Secretary of State for Education to what extent the funding formula for colleges takes into account the extra needs of inner-city students.

Mr. Boswell: The Further Education Funding Council's funding methodology currently allows colleges to claim full reimbursement from the council for the provision of free tuition to unemployed people, people on low incomes, and those taking programmes of English for speakers of other languages, or adult basic education. In 1995 96, the funding methodology will also recognise the additional needs of students on low incomes who have child care responsibilities.

Bradford University (Bursaries)

Mr. Madden: To ask the Secretary of State for Education, pursuant to his answer of 1 February, Official Report , column 727 , if he will place a copy of the survey together with replies, undertaken in 1994 in the Library.

Mr. Boswell: The survey undertaken in 1994 covered the academic year 1992 93. A copy of the letter to institutions seeking information about students on the courses supported through the Department's postgraduate scheme and tables summarising the responses have been placed in the Library.

William Morris Academy

Mr. Bryan Davies: To ask the Secretary of State for Education if she has asked the Further Education Funding Council to consider bringing forward proposals to incorporate the William Morris Academy into the further education sector.

Mr. Boswell: Yes.


Mr. Malcolm Bruce: To ask the Secretary of State for Education what was the total expenditure on all forms of advertising by his Department and its agencies for each year since 1979 in 1994 prices.

Mr. Forth: The expenditure figures for advertising, including press, television and radio, by the Department for the financial years since 1979 are provided in the table:

                  |Advertising      |At 1993-94 prices                  

Year              |£000             |£000                               


1979-80           |91.6             |224.9                              

1980-81           |8.9              |18.5                               

1981-82           |86.9             |164.4                              

1982-83           |6.0              |10.6                               

1983-84           |9.6              |16.2                               

1984-85           |18.5             |29.7                               

1985-86           |14.8             |22.5                               

1986-87           |532.0            |786.8                              

1987-88           |280.0            |393.2                              

1988-89           |515.0            |677.8                              

1989-90           |249.8            |307.3                              

1990-91           |2,604.0          |2,965.9                            

1991-92           |3,037.9          |3,255.5                            

1992-93           |1,086.4          |1,119.6                            

1993-94           |1,442.2          |1,442.2                            

1994-95           |<1>150.O         |147.1                              


<1> Estimate.                                                           

The Department's agencies are responsible for their own expenditure on advertising. Such information is not held centrally.

Southwark College

Ms Harman: To ask the Secretary of State for Education if she will make a statement about the funding of Southwark college.

Mr. Boswell: Southwark college was guaranteed core funding by the Further Education Funding Council of £10.266 million for 1994 95. The college's bid for an additional £0.650 million was allocated in full, giving a total recurrent funding allocation for 1994 95 for £10.916 million.


Aquifers, London

Mr. Spearing: To ask the Secretary of State for the Environment if he will state, or investigate, the extent to which water in the aquifers of the London geological syncline could be used in greater volumes, either in the public water supply or other purposes; what is the current cost of obtaining potable water from this source; and what capital and revenue costs would be incurred in using sufficient water for these uses so as to stabilise the height of the local water table.

Mr. Atkins: The National Rivers Authority has, at the request of the Department, improved the monitoring network of groundwater levels in the London area, and has worked closely with Thames Water Utilities Ltd. to investigate the potential of this resource to provide additional water for public supply. The TWUL is currently involved in several groundwater schemes in the London area including recharge and abstraction schemes in north London and south London and an exploratory scheme in central London.

In 1989, the Construction Industry Research and Information Association published a report "The Engineering Implications of rising groundwater levels in the deep aquifer beneath London", part-funded by the Department. Since that time, the TWUL has investigated 20 sites in central London. Of these, seven provided yields of sufficient quantity and quality to be of potential use for public supply. However, the development of this resource for public water supply is relatively expensive. I am informed that the TWUL is not likely to require it in the short or medium term because of the success of the north London recharge scheme, improved leakage control and the construction of the London ring main.

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Capital and operational costs for public water supplies are a matter for the water undertakers, within the price limits determined by the Director General of Water Supplies.

Single Regeneration Budget

Mr. Alton: To ask the Secretary of State for the Environment what funds were awarded under objective 1 to Liverpool during the past 12 months: how many bids were entered for this money; how many were accepted; what is the total amount of money used from the allocation; what is the residue; and how the residue is to be used.

Sir Paul Beresford: The objective 1 programme covers the five boroughs of Merseyside, including Liverpool. The first round of applications seeking £243 million grant were submitted in August 1994. Many applications, for example for business support services or for training schemes, were not targeted at Liverpool alone and it is therefore not possible to say how much funding was bid for the borough. Approvals in principle for the first round of successful applications involving grant of £175 million were announced in November 1994. This includes £36 million of ESF for training projects, of which a significant amount will benefit Liverpool, and over £12 million of ERDF to projects based in Liverpool.

Over £550 million of European funding remains for the rest of the programme up to 1999. It will be used in accordance with the single programme document. A second round of applications is currently under consideration.

Imperial War Museum, Hartlepool

Mr. Mandelson: To ask the Secretary of State for the Environment when he expects to give Treasury authorisation for the commencement of building the new Imperial war museum in Hartlepool.

Sir Paul Beresford: A proposal to construct the Imperial war museum for the north in Hartlepool has been submitted by Teesside development corporation and is under consideration.

Social Housing

Mr. Raynsford: To ask the Secretary of State for the Environment what figures have been prepared by his Department to estimate the need for new social housing provision in England on a framework for the investment programme set out in the 1995 96 budget.

Mr. Curry: I refer the hon. Member to the answer my hon. Friend the Under-Secretary gave to the hon. Member for Newham, North-East (Mr. Banks) on 1 February, Official Report, columns 685-86.


Mr. Redmond: To ask the Secretary of State for the Environment what compensation will be available under the Environment Bill to those affected by damage caused by underground water abstractions from boreholes.

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Mr. Atkins: The Environment Bill currently contains no provisions on this subject, although relevant amendments have been proposed in another place. Compensation for damage caused by water abstractions from boreholes is governed mainly by the common law and the provisions of chapter II of part II of the Water Resources Act 1991.

Sites of Special Scientific Interest

Mr. Hinchliffe: To ask the Secretary of State for the Environment (1) what assessment he has made of the impact of local authority highways department road building on sites of special scientific interest;

(2) what studies he has undertaken to monitor the impact of road building on sites of importance to wildlife, other than sites of special scientific interest.

Sir Paul Beresford: Comprehensive information about the effect of road building or widening programmes might have on wildlife sites is not held centrally and could not be obtained except at

disproportionate cost. All relevant considerations are taken into account in the planning process before final decisions are made.

Mr. Hinchliffe: To ask the Secretary of State for the Environment what steps are taken to monitor water tables in sites of special scientific interest and other areas of environmental sensitivity, where developments of roads could result in drainage changes.

Sir Paul Beresford: If necessary, conditions may be attached to a planning permission if there is likely to be a significant effect on drainage that would affect the integrity of the SSSI.

Roads (Wildlife)

Mr. Hinchliffe: To ask the Secretary of State for the Environment what assessment has been made of the effect of road development on (a) otter and (b) badger populations; and what record of road mortality is kept for these species.

Sir Paul Beresford: An assessment of the overall impact on these species and other wildlife is undertaken at the planning stage of road development and mitigating measures, for example fencing and tunnels, installed where appropriate and practicable. There are no records kept of species killed on roads, but it is estimated that some 47,000 badgers die each year from road accidents. This rate of loss is not considered to affect the conservation status of the species.

Mr. Hinchliffe: To ask the Secretary of State for the Environment what studies have been undertaken to identify the impact of road noise on (a) wildlife breeding success and (b) breeding distribution.

Sir Paul Beresford: None. However, I am advised by English Nature that during 1995 96 work is likely to be commissioned to review indirect effects such as noise and lighting.

Black Smoke Emissions

Mr. Hinchliffe: To ask the Secretary of State for the Environment what are the latest figures for black smoke emissions in the United Kingdom.

Mr. Atkins: Total national emissions of black smoke in 1992 were 457,000 tonnes.

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Nitrous Oxide Emissions

Mr. Hinchcliffe: To ask the Secretary of State for the Environment if he will list the 200 highest records for nitrous oxide emissions in the last year for which figures are available.

Mr. Atkins: The table below lists the UK 1993 NOx emissions from existing and new large combustion plants.

Emissions of NOx (in tonnes) from existing and new large                                        

combustion plant in the United Kingdom for 1993                                                 

Operator                               |Plant             |NOx (in tonnes)                      


Plant > 300 MWth                                                                                

National Power                         |Aberthaw A and B  |26,512                               

National Power                         |Agecroft          |280                                  

National Power                         |Blyth A and B     |12,700                               

National Power                         |Didcot            |28,303                               

National Power                         |Drax              |70,200                               

National Power                         |Eggborough        |23,546                               

National Power                         |Fawley            |1,630                                

National Power                         |Ironbridge        |19,990                               

National Power                         |Littlebrook       |4,971                                

National Power                         |Padiham           |1,728                                

National Power                         |Pembroke          |2,948                                

National Power                         |Rugeley A and B   |24,958                               

National Power                         |Skelton Grange    |1,980                                

National Power                         |Staythorpe        |5,515                                

National Power                         |Thorpe Marsh      |16,635                               

National Power                         |Tilbury           |18,385                               

National Power                         |Uskmouth          |1,050                                

National Power                         |West Burton       |29,916                               

National Power                         |West Thurrock     |2,980                                

National Power                         |Willington A and B|5,714                                

PowerGen                               |Castle Donington  |128                                  

PowerGen                               |Cottram           |40,859                               

PowerGen                               |Drakelow B        |79                                   

PowerGen                               |Drakelow C        |11,849                               

PowerGen                               |Ferrybridge C     |44,895                               

PowerGen                               |Fiddlers Ferry    |13,853                               

PowerGen                               |Grain             |1,485                                

PowerGen                               |High Marnham      |6,817                                

PowerGen                               |Ince              |8,222                                

PowerGen                               |Kingsnorth        |13,542                               

PowerGen                               |Ratcliffe         |43,464                               

PowerGen                               |Richborough       |2,334                                

SP                                     |Longannet         |23,690                               

SP                                     |Cockenzie         |7,840                                

SHE                                    |Peterhead         |18,616                               

NIE                                    |Belfast West      |2,992                                

NIE                                    |Ballylumford B    |6,487                                

NIE                                    |Coolkeeragh       |371                                  

NIE                                    |Kilroot           |8,310                                

BASF                                   |Seal Sands        |2,194                                

BP Chemicals                           |Baglan Bay        |4,737                                

British Alcan                          |Lynemouth         |11,555                               

British Steel                          |Llanwern          |350                                  

British Steel                          |Port Talbot       |842                                  

British Steel                          |Redcar            |461                                  

British Steel                          |Scunthorpe        |373                                  

Brunner Mond                           |Winnington        |1,880                                

Ford Motor Co                          |Dagenham          |291                                  

Grovenhurst Energy                     |Sittingbourne     |2,408                                

ICI                                    |Runcorn           |749                                  

ICI                                    |Wilton            |7,270                                

Phillips                               |Seal Sands        |220                                  

UML                                    |Bromborough       |650                                  


Total (53 plants)                                         |589,754                              



BP Oil                                 |Grangemouth       |2,794                                

BP Oil                                 |Llandarcy         |838                                  

Conoco                                 |South Killingholme|2,085                                

ELF                                    |Milford Haven     |971                                  

ESSO                                   |Fawley            |5,051                                

Gulf                                   |Milford Haven     |764                                  

Lindsey                                |Killingholme      |2,773                                

Mobil                                  |Coryton           |2,513                                

PIP                                    |North Tees        |299                                  

Shell                                  |Shell Stanlow     |4,655                                

Shell                                  |Shell Haven       |1,728                                

Texaco                                 |Pembroke          |3,070                                


Total (12 plants)                                         |27,541                               

Total all UK existing                                                                           

  combustion plant                                        |636,339                              


New Combustion Plant                                                                            

Albright and Wilson                    |Whitehaven        |91                                   

Slough Trading Estate                  |Slough            |88                                   

Glaxo                                  |Stevenage         |2                                    

BP                                     |Grangemouth       |70                                   


Total new plant                                           |251                                  


Total all UK existing combustion plant                    |636,339                              

Total new plant                                           |251                                  


Total                                                     |636,590                              

Mr. Hinchliffe: To ask the Secretary of State for the Environment if he will list nitrogen oxide emission sources by tonne within the United Kingdom, for each year since 1980.

Mr. Atkins: The list below gives estimated emissions of nitrogen oxides, by source, for 1980 1992.

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Estimated emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) by source category for 1980-1992                                   

Thousand tonnes                                                                                                 

                            |1980 |1981 |1982 |1983 |1984 |1985 |1986 |1987 |1988 |1989 |1990 |1991 |1992       


Power stations              |880  |839  |799  |787  |711  |775  |807  |826  |800  |769  |777  |718  |694        

Domestic                    |68   |68   |67   |67   |64   |72   |75   |74   |72   |68   |68   |75   |73         

Commercial/public service   |62   |61   |61   |62   |63   |64   |65   |61   |60   |55   |56   |60   |58         

Refineries                  |43   |38   |37   |36   |36   |34   |35   |33   |33   |35   |35   |37   |37         

Iron and steel              |44   |52   |47   |48   |48   |50   |45   |50   |54   |53   |51   |49   |47         

Other industrial combustion |211  |191  |186  |177  |164  |169  |171  |165  |168  |158  |156  |158  |152        

Non-combustion processes    |11   |12   |12   |13   |13   |13   |13   |13   |9    |9    |9    |9    |9          

Extraction and distribution                                                                                     

  of fossil fuels           |44   |50   |54   |59   |63   |66   |68   |73   |76   |78   |82   |85   |88         

Road transport              |839  |846  |867  |907  |974  |1,015|1,080|1,205|1,311|1,418|1,434|450  |1,398      

Railways                    |41   |39   |35   |37   |35   |37   |37   |35   |35   |32   |30   |31   |32         

Civil aircraft              |10   |9    |10   |10   |11   |11   |11   |12   |13   |14   |14   |14   |14         

Shipping                    |121  |104  |119  |111  |123  |116  |108  |101  |102  |127  |131  |133  |130        

Waste treatment and                                                                                             

  disposal                  |12   |12   |12   |12   |12   |12   |12   |12   |12   |12   |12   |12   |12         

Agriculture                 |5    |5    |5    |5    |5    |5    |5    |4    |4    |4    |4    |4    |4          


Total                       |2,392|2,328|2,312|2,332|2,321|2,438|2,533|2,664|2,749|2,842|2,860|2,835|2,750      


Digest of Environmental Protection and Water Statistics No. 16 1994.                                            

Local Government Reorganisation

Mr. Marlow: To ask the Secretary of State for the Environment if he will list in descending order of population those former county boroughs for which a recommendation of unitary status has not yet been made.

Mr. Robert B. Jones: The following former county borough areas have not been recommended for unitary status by the Local Government Commission for England:



Northampton        |187,244              

Warrington         |185,005              

Blackpool          |153,614              

Blackburn          |139,528              

Canterbury         |132,391              

Preston            |132,166              

Oxford             |131,967              

Norwich            |128,050              

Chester            |120,845              

Ipswich            |114,806              

Exeter             |105,087              

Gloucester         |104,805              

Carlisle           |102,878              

Great Yarmouth     |88,799               

Worcester          |87,638               

Eastbourne         |86,794               

Lincoln            |85,502               

Barrow in Furness  |73,299               

Burton on Trent<1> |60,000               

Population figures above are mid-1993    

resident populations.                    

<1> The former county borough of Burton  

on Trent is currently subsumed within    

the district of East Staffordshire which 

has a total population of 98,300.        

The Local Government Commission has recommended unitary status, within a larger unitary authority, for the areas of the former county boroughs of Brighton, Grimsby and Bath.

New Forest Heritage Area

Ms Ruddock: To ask the Secretary of State of the Environment what are the current boundaries of the New forest heritage area in which national park planning

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policies apply; and what proposals there are to change these boundaries.

Mr. Atkins: The New forest heritage area includes all the surrounding countryside which both has strong visual and historic links with the forest and provides off-forest grazing land needed to sustain commoning. The boundary as currently delineated has no statutory designation but was adopted in 1985 by the New Forest district council and is reflected in local development plans. The new planning regime will apply to the definition of the New forest heritage area as it emerges from the current process of preparing and adopting local plans.

Cleveland (Structural Change) Order 1994

Mr. Frank Cook: To ask the Secretary of State for the Environment what guidance he has issued to other Government Departments, regarding the meaning of article 12 of the Cleveland (Structural Change) Order; and if he will publish that guidance.

Mr. Robert B. Jones: None.

Water Companies

Mrs. Helen Jackson: To ask the Secretary of State for the Environment what is the value of the current five-year investment projections for each of the water companies; and what was the variation from the stated figure at the time the K factors were announced.

Mr. Atkins: Capital expenditure for individual water companies for the period 1995 2000 is shown in Ofwat's "Future Charges for Water and Sewerage Services" published in July 1994. The extent to which actual expenditure varies from these projections will be known only when returns of actual expenditure are available from individual water companies. This is monitored on an annual basis by the director general.


Mr. Malcolm Bruce: To ask the Secretary of State for the Environment what was the total expenditure on all forms of advertising by his Department and its agencies for each year since 1979, in 1994 prices.

Sir Paul Beresford: Advertising expenditure by my Department over the last five years was:

1989 90: £24,635,221

1990 91: nil

1991 92: £ 733,481

1992 93: £ 6,205,659

1993 94: £ 4,477,643

Expenditure by departmental agencies was nil with the exception of Ordnance Survey, which spent £24,378 in financial year 1990 91 and £213,736 in financial year 1991 92.

Figures are expressed at 1994 prices using the retail price index and are exclusive of VAT.

Information relating to the advertising spend alone for the financial years before 1989 90 cannot be obtained without disproportionate cost.

Office of Water Services

Mrs. Helen Jackson: To ask the Secretary of State for the Environment (1) how many staff are currently employed at present by the Office of Water Services; and

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what were the figures (a) 12 and (b) 24 months previously; (2) on what terms Credit Lyonnais has been appointed as consultant adviser to the water industry regulator.

Mr. Atkins: These are matters for the Director General of Water Services.

Housing Bond Guarantee Schemes

Mr. Hardy: To ask the Secretary of State for the Environment if he will approve and support the operation of housing bond guarantee schemes in 1995 96 and subsequently.

Mr. Robert B. Jones: If the hon. Member is referring to schemes under which local authorities provide rent deposits or equivalent indemnities to private sector landlords, the Government believe that they have a very useful role to play in helping people in housing need to secure accommodation. We are consulting the local authority associations about a general consent for local authorities to operate these schemes.

Water (Leaks)

Mrs. Helen Jackson: To ask the Secretary of State for the Environment what was the figure for leakage as a percentage of total treated water supply for each of the water companies for each of the last three years for which figures are available.

Mr. Atkins: This information is to be found in Ofwat's "Report on the Cost of Water Delivered and Sewage Collected", for the years 1991 92, 1992 93 and 1993 94. Copies of the reports are available in the Library.

National Forest Company

Mr. Butler: To ask the Secretary of State for the Environment if he will make an announcement about the composition of the board of the National Forest Company.

Mr. Gummer: My right hon. Friend the Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food and I have invited the following people to serve on the board of the National Forest Company.


Mr Rodney Swarbrick--(Lancashire farmer, former President of the Country Landowners Association, and currently a Countryside Commissioner)


Miss Bridget Bloom--(Journalist and Forestry Commissioner) Mr. Duncan Jeffray--(Nature conservation expert and current Chairman of the Royal Society for Nature Conservation)

Mr. Derrick Penrose--(Former Chief Agent of the Chatsworth Estate) Mr. Geoff Steeley--(Local authority and planning expert, and current Director of Planning, Hertfordshire County Council)

Mr. David Taylor--(Forestry consultant)

Mr. John Thompson--(Responsible for access and recreation for the Peak District National Park)

Mr. Rupert Wilkins--(Management consultant, local to the Forest area)

Miss Susan Bell--(Chief Executive of National Forest Company) The National Forest Company will commence operations on 3 April this year.

Energy Saving Trust

Mr. Barry Field: To ask the Secretary of State for the Environment what steps he proposes to take concerning the administrative expenses of the Energy Saving Trust.

Mr. Robert B. Jones: My right hon. Friend the Secretary of State proposes to lay before Parliament an

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order designating the Energy Saving Trust under section 153 of the Environmental Protection Act 1990. This will provide a statutory basis, subject to parliamentary approval of an appropriate estimate, for the Government to contribute to the running costs of the trust. In the Government's view, the trust has a key role in future as an effective catalyst for change in a policy area which is important for progress on our economic, climate change and sustainable development objectives. The trust has had a difficult and uncertain year. It now needs to review its plans. It can do that only with a measure of certainty over funding. The trust must maintain its independence, but it is important that it is able to develop new and innovative ideas at a time of major change in the gas and electricity industries. I envisage contributing to the trust's administrative and salary costs if the trust can put forward satisfactory and cost-effective proposals to develop new initiatives to promote energy efficiency in the rapidly changing energy markets. Once the trust has drawn up proposals, my officials will discuss the plans with the trust and its other members. This will provide a basis for deciding on an appropriate contribution from Government, taking into account other contributions.

United Nations Environment Programme

Mr. Anthony Coombs: To ask the Secretary of State for the Environment what measures he is taking to ensure the success of the next meetings of the Commission for Sustainable Development and the governing council of the United Nations environment programme.

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Mr. Gummer: On 10 and 11 February, the United Kingdom Government hosted a meeting to discuss the future role of these two organisations. It was attended by Environment Ministers from 13 countries, the European Environment Commissioner, the chief executive officer of the Global Environment Facility and the heads of the two organisations. The Indian Minister of Environment and Forests, Mr. Kamal Nath, and I jointly chaired the meeting.

The meeting achieved a welcome degree of consensus about the respective roles of the two organisations which I believe will pave the way for productive meetings of both organisations over the next few months.

Mr. Nath and I produced a note of the chairmen's conclusions at the end of the meeting. I have placed a copy of this note in the Library.

Carbon Dioxide Emissions

Mr. Dafis: To ask the Secretary of State for the Environment who represented the United Kingdom Government at the recent United Nations conference on trade and development meeting in Prague to discuss carbon dioxide emissions.

Mr. Atkins [holding answer Friday 10 February 1995]: The meeting took place on 12 to 14 January in Pruhonice near Prague and was attended by an official from my Department. The meeting was sponsored by the Czech Republic and its theme was "Economic Instruments for Sustainable Development". A new UNCTAD Paper entitled "Combining Global Warming: Possible Rules, Regulations and Administrative Arrangements for a Global Market in CO2 Emission Entitlements" was introduced by one of its joint authors on the final morning. This paper is now being studied by my Department.

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Mr. Worthington: To ask the Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs on what occasions preventive diplomacy has been successfully undertaken by the Government in Africa.

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