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1991 92: £6,750,000
1992 93: £7,200,000
1993 94: £8,500,000
1994 95: £8,212,000
Information for 1990 91 is not readily available and could be provided only at disproportionate cost.
Mr. Cohen: To ask the Secretary of State for Defence what is his Department's current estimates of the numbers of operational nuclear weapons held by the other nuclear-weapon states; and what estimates his Department has made of each state's rate of dismantling of nuclear weapons.
Mr. Soames: A comparison of the strategic nuclear forces of the nuclear weapon states is given in figure 3 on page 33 of the "Statement on the Defence Estimates 1994" (Cm 2550). It would be inappropriate to publish our more detailed assessments of force holdings and dismantlement programmes.
Mr. Redmond: To ask the Secretary of State for Defence what discussions he had with the Government of Slovakia on access to flying training facilities in Slovakia for the Royal Air Force during his recent visit to that country; and what agreements have been reached on this subject.
Mr. Soames: During his meeting with the Slovakian Defence Minister on 15 February my right hon. and learned Friend the Secretary of State discussed a wide range of issues, including possible United Kingdom military training opportunities in Slovakia. Although no agreements were concluded, our respective officials are considering ways of deepening co- operation between our two countries.
Mr. Hinchliffe: To ask the Secretary of State for Defence what provisions have been made for the Rugby League within the Royal Air Force sports board's five-day sport officials and coaches courses for 1995 96.
Mr. Soames: No bid was received from the Rugby League for its sport to be included within the Royal Air Force sports board's five-day courses for 1995 96. Along with other sports, rugby league will be allowed the opportunity to hold a course in 1996 97.
Mr. Milburn: To ask the Secretary of State for Defence which permanent secretaries have left his Department's employment in the last five years; and which public positions they have been appointed to subsequently.
Mr. Freeman: Sir Peter Levene, Sir Michael Quinlan, Sir Kenneth Macdonald and Professor Sir Ronald Oxburgh have left the Department as permanent secretaries in the five years from 1 March 1990. Ministers have appointed them to the following positions:
Sir P. Levene
adviser to the Prime Minister on efficiency and effectiveness; special adviser to the President of the Board of Trade; special adviser to the Chancellor of the Exchequer on competition and purchasing (1992 only);
special adviser to the Secretary of State for Environment (1991 1992).
Sir K. Macdonald
chairman International Military Services Ltd.
Sir M. Quinlan
trustee of the Science museum.
Mr. Menzies Campbell: To ask the Secretary of State for Defence what is the approximate annual cost of the training of Oxford university air squadron at RAF Benson; and which organisation finances these costs.
Mr. Soames: The current estimate of expenditure by Oxford university air squadron during this financial year is £436,000. This expenditure is funded by my Department with costs falling to the Royal Air Force college, Cranwell's budget.
Mr. Menzies Campbell: To ask the Secretary of State for Defence if he will list the RAF bases which offer training to university air squadrons and the approximate annual cost of the training in each case.
|Estimate |of expenditure University Air |Airfield |£000 Squadron ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Aberdeen Dundee and St. Andrews |RAF Leuchars |536 University of Birmingham Air Squadron |RAF Cosford |549 Bristol |Colerne Airfield |758 East Lowlands |RAF Turnhouse |507 East Midlands |RAF Newton |721 Liverpool |RAF Woodvale |457 University of London |RAF Benson |1,094 Manchester and Salford |RAF Woodvale |700 Northumbrian |RAF Leeming |514 Oxford |RAF Benson |436 Southampton |RAF Boscombe | Down |680 University of Wales Air Squadron |RAF St. Athan |504 Yorkshire |RAF Finningley<1>|618 <1>Should the decision be taken to close RAF Finningley, the Yorkshire UAS would relocate to RAF Church Fenton.
Mr. Soames: At present, the Oxford university air squadron operates five Bulldog aircraft from RAF Benson. Generally, a full three year training syllabus comprises 99 hours of individual tuition on the aircraft. The squadron's working accommodation consists of a hangar, offices and a briefing facility. In addition, members have access to the infrastructure of an RAF operational base and the opportunity which that provides for training.
1 Financial year |£ million ------------------------------------------------- 1987-88 |61.3 1988-89 |59.6 1989-90 |37.0 1990-91 |31.0 1991-92 |32.8 1992-93 |48.7 1993-94 |66.7 1994-95 (Forecast) |72.4
It would require disproportionate effort to establish details of receipts for previous financial years, as records are not readily available.
Mr. Soames: The sale of land and buildings over the past ten years has benefited the defence budget by some £789 million. The cost of achieving this level of receipt, however, is only recorded for the past five financial years, including the present year, and is as follows:
1990 91: £2.9 million
1991 92: £5.6 million
1992 93: £6.3 million
1993 94: £11.2 million
1994 95: £14.7 million
These levels of expenditure do not include in-house resources as this information could be provided only at disproportionate cost. The increasing costs are due to larger and more complex sites being introduced into the disposals programme.
Dr. David Clark: To ask the Secretary of State for Defence if he will specify how many violations of the no-fly zone over Bosnia have been recorded for fixed wing aircraft in each of the last 12 months.
Mr. Soames: The monitoring of air activity over Bosnia is a matter for the UN and NATO. However, we understand that there have been 59 reported violations of the no-fly zone by fixed wing aircraft in the last 12 months. These are broken down as follows:
|Number ------------------------ 1994 March |2 April |2 May |0 June |6 July |2 August |3 September |9 October |4 November |6 December |2 1995 January |0 February |23
Dr. David Clark: To ask the Secretary of State for Defence what was the purpose of LSD experiments called "Small Change" carried out at the Chemical and Biological Defence Establishment, Porton Down; in which years were the "Small Change" experiments conducted; how many service volunteers were tested under the "Small Change" experiments; what were the lowest and highest doses administered to service volunteers; what these volunteers were required to do under the "Small Change" experiments; how many animals were tested under the "Small Change" experiments and what types of animals were used; what was the conclusion of the "Small Change" experiments; with which countries the results of these experiments were shared; and under which defence agreement the results were shared with these countries.
Letter from Graham S. Pearson to Dr. David Clark, dated 8 March 1995:
1. Your Parliamentary Question to the Secretary of State for Defence asking what was the purpose of LSD experiments called Small Change carried out at the Chemical and Biological Defence Establishment, Porton Down; in which years were the Small Change experiments conducted; how many Service volunteers were tested under the Small Change experiments; what were the lowest and highest doses administered to Service volunteers; what these volunteers were required to do under the Small Change experiments; how many animals were tested under the Small Change experiments and what types of animals were used; what was the conclusion of the Small Change experiments; with which countries the results of these experiments were shared; and under which defence agreement the results were shared with these countries has been passed to me to answer as Chief Executive of the Chemical and Biological Defence Establishment. 2. The role of the Chemical and Biological Defence Establishment is to carry out work to ensure that the UK Armed Forces are provided with effective protective measures against the treat that chemical or biological weapons may be used against them. As part of that programme, an evaluation is carried out of chemicals that may be utilised by an aggressor as a chemical warfare agent.
3. Small Change, which took place in 1968, was one in a series of studies carried out to assess the effect of LSD on troops in a military setting where the behaviour of those volunteers who had been given LSD could be compared with control volunteers who had not been given LSD. No animals were used in these studies. The principal aim of the study was to assess the effects on the overall efficiency of an infantry platoon in attack when half of its personnel had been dosed with 160 g each of LSD. The study was to determine whether the presence of volunteers who had not received LSD would:
a. Mitigate the effects of the drug on the military performance of the unit as a whole.
b. Modify the response of the individual members of the unit to the drug.
4. Twenty eight volunteers participated in Small Change; fourteen received doses of 160 g LSD in water. The volunteers were required to perform anti- terrorist sweeps as formed sections, each
Column 258sweep involving an advance over four kilometres and last about 2 hours.
5. Small Change showed that the platoon did not discharge its functions as well as would normally be expected. Overall its performance was adequate but it would have sustained a higher number of casualties than might have reasonably been expected. Unit efficiency fell by about 10% and the role of good discipline and mutual support between drugged and undrugged soldiers in mitigating the drug effects were demonstrated.
6. The results from Small Change formed part of the technology database held by the Establishment in the area of evaluation of the potential hazard to Service personnel from possible chemical warfare agents. This information was drawn upon during the 1960s and 1970s in the agreements with our NATO allies to exchange information and so promote collaboration and cooperation in areas such as research and development in chemical and biological defence. The agreements at that time included:
a. The Technical Cooperation Programme involving UK, US, Canada and Australia which had subsumed the earlier trilateral UK/US/Canada meetings.
b. American, British, Canadian and Australian Armies (ABCA) agreement Quadripartite Working Group (QWG) on NBC defence. c. The NATO Panel VII on chemical and biological defence.
Dr. David Clark: To ask the Secretary of State for Defence, pursuant to his answer of 28 February, Official Report, column 515, if he will give a breakdown of the figure for fraud in the financial year 1993 94.