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The Minister of State, Foreign and Commonwealth Office (Mr. Derek Fatchett): We are deeply concerned about the political, economic and human rights situation in Burma. We are exerting pressure on the Burmese to engage in substantive dialogue with political leaders, including Aung San Suu Kyi. We have used our EU presidency to renew EU measures against Burma. We also drafted the tough resolution on Burma for the United Nations Commission on Human Rights agreed in April. We continue to provide humanitarian assistance to Burmese refugees.
Mr. Fatchett: My hon. Friend is right to say that the only way towards progress for Burma is through a political solution that recognises democratic rights and human rights. We are encouraged by the fact that some members of ASEAN are engaging much more constructively and openly in their discussions on Burma. We see that as progress. The way in which they are using their influence on the regime in Rangoon could be a positive source for the future. We shall continue to work for a democratic Burma because, again, through the restoration of democracy and human rights, we have the best chance of moving Burma forward and making progress.
The Minister of State, Foreign and Commonwealth Office (Mr. Tony Lloyd): The report has been generally welcomed by non-governmental organisations and others. I have received no formal representations.
Ann Clwyd: On behalf of the parliamentary human rights group, may I say that we welcome the publication of the report? It is an important innovation in British foreign policy and we hope that it will stimulate discussion of such important issues in Parliament and elsewhere. Will my hon. Friend expand on the section of the report that discusses the setting up of a permanent international criminal court? Will he confirm that people such as Saddam Hussein, who are guilty of war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide, will never escape justice?
Mr. Lloyd: I am grateful for my hon. Friend's comments on the human rights report; her welcome very much mirrors that of others. The Government are determined to make progress on the international criminal court at the Rome conference in June. We strongly believe that the crime of genocide and the other crimes against humanity committed by Saddam Hussein cannot escape that international process. We would support a proper judicial process to bring Saddam Hussein to book to show that the world is united in condemnation of the horrors that he has inflicted on his people.
Mr. Bowen Wells (Hertford and Stortford): Does the Minister agree that the human rights situation in Nigeria should have been highlighted in the report? General Abacha, the leading member of the junta, licensed five political parties to contest the coming presidential election and, lo and behold, he is the only candidate of all five political parties. Surely that is a case of democracy and human rights being denied throughout Nigeria, which should be condemned.
Ms Diane Abbott (Hackney, North and Stoke Newington): Does my hon. Friend accept that one of the basic human rights is the right to life, health and basic subsistence, and that millions of people throughout the world, particularly children, are deprived of that basic right because of the burden of international debt? Does he further accept that millions of people throughout Britain, particularly in the Churches, support the Jubilee 2000 demand for debt forgiveness to mark the millennium?
Mr. Lloyd: I well understand my hon. Friend's point. We recognise the strength of feeling in Britain which that campaign demonstrates. The United Kingdom believes that, globally, individuals have the right to development. For example, negotiations on the right to development at the Commission on Human Rights were enhanced by the United Kingdom's presidency of the EU. We strongly believe that we can make progress internationally and that Britain is playing a moral role at home.
Dr. Jenny Tonge (Richmond Park): Britain is still training military personnel from Indonesia and sending arms to that country, which is not famous for respecting human rights. When will the Government start practising what they preach?
Mr. Lloyd: The Government certainly do practise what they preach, in remarkable and stark contrast to the previous Government. The same export licence criteria apply to the Indonesian Government as to any other country. My right hon. Friend the Foreign Secretary announced a change to the former United Kingdom military training and assistance scheme when he introduced ASSIST, which places an emphasis on human rights training and respect for civilian and democratic government. That is the direction in which this Government are going; that is not the direction in which the previous Government sought to go.
Mrs. Margaret Ewing (Moray): All hon. Members support the concept of human rights. Surely one of the major challenges facing us is the need to support those who work in difficult circumstances in many parts of the world to achieve basic human rights. Will the Minister, therefore, tell us whether he has any information about the fate of the president of the Turkish human rights association who, I understand, was shot six times today in his office and whose condition is critical?
Mr. Lloyd: I cannot help the hon. Lady with the specific details because I do not know them. The House and the world will view that development with alarm and concern. It is incumbent on the Turkish authorities to discover who committed the crime and to ensure that they are brought to justice.
Mr. Ernie Ross (Dundee, West): May I thank my hon. Friend for the publication of the first human rights report in the 19 years that I have been a Member of Parliament, which is a welcome change in respect of the Foreign
Mr. Lloyd: A primary purpose of the report is to bring new openness to the way in which the Government conduct their affairs in respect of human rights. It is a matter of recorded fact that Conservative Members have made no pressure for that sort of openness and a matter of practical fact that, for the most part, they have never engaged in debate on human rights. My hon. Friend represents the body of opinion that wants proper and credible debate on the issue, and wants to make sure that the British Government can hold their head up in the world, as the present Government can on those issues.
Mr. Day: Can the Minister assure the House that the traditionally excellent relationship between the United Kingdom and the state of Israel has been repaired following the disastrous consequences of the Foreign Secretary's visit to Israel recently?
Mr. Roger Stott (Wigan): I regret to admonish my hon. Friend, but I hope that he will reconsider his remarks to the hon. Member for Macclesfield (Mr. Winterton), who asked about settlements and the Israeli Government's position. The hon. Gentleman represented the view of the House of Commons. Will my hon. Friend reconsider his words about intransigence? Most hon. Members believe as the hon. Gentleman believes.
Mr. Fatchett: There is no difference between my position, that of my hon. Friend and, indeed, that of the hon. Member for Macclesfield (Mr. Winterton). There is no question about the Government's policy: we have said constantly that we oppose the building of settlements and that we will take no steps that would pre-empt the final status negotiations. I said to the hon. Gentleman that we do not have the right to choose the parties with whom we negotiate. We have to negotiate with them, whatever we may think of them in personal terms. We have to make the best of the process and of the negotiations, because, as my hon. Friend knows, the only way in which to make progress is through a satisfactory solution. That will come through negotiation and diplomatic activity.