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Mr. Ian McCartney: My hon. Friend the Member for Hackney, North and Stoke Newington (Ms Abbott) asked me to find it in my heart to support the amendments. No one can accuse me of being anything but a big-hearted person, but tonight I am not going to let my heart rule my head. We want intelligent decision making.

The Bill is not about ownership; it is about dealing with abuses of dominance and other anti-competitive behaviour. It will provide much stronger powers to deal with such behaviour. The media industry will continue to be subject to the existing merger control and newspaper merger regimes under the Fair Trading Act 1973 and to media ownership regulations under the Broadcasting Act 1990.

The Government have made clear their belief in the importance of a strong, diverse and independent press. That is why we are keeping the special merger provisions

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for newspapers in the Fair Trading Act, which protect plurality of ownership and diversity of content. The Bill deals with anti-competitive practices, which are wrong wherever they occur. The Government believe that abuses of dominance, such as predatory pricing, should be stamped out whatever the market. Clause 18 clearly covers firms that abuse their dominance by predatory pricing, which is vital.

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The principles established in European case law will apply under the Bill by virtue of clause 60(2) which makes it clear that there must be no inconsistency between the principles applied by courts in applying a domestic prohibition and those laid down by

The principles on predatory pricing established in AKZO and Tetra Pak will apply under the Bill.

Hon. Members have referred to briefings sent to them by executives of The Independent and The Daily Telegraph newspapers and to the opinion of the Queen's counsel that those briefings quote. It is important to distinguish between allegations about The Times and questions of principle about the interpretation of the Bill, but The Independent and The Daily Telegraph executives mix them together to suit themselves. The briefings entirely wrongly imply that what the Government have said about the European Court case law is dubious. I do not accept the assertion that

I have seen nothing to back up that assertion, and no hon. Member has said anything tonight to persuade me that it is right. On the contrary, even those who have tabled the amendments have, in their arguments, accepted that the European Court case law is very clear on the relevant points.

The suggestion in the briefings that Rupert Murdoch can operate with immunity from competition law should be treated with the disdain that it deserves. I take exception to the fact that hon. Members have said that the Government are in the pocket of Rupert Murdoch. The socialist Member for Makerfield in Rupert Murdoch's pocket? No one can say that I have ever worn a Sun lover's T-shirt.

Hon. Members should consider what the Government have done in the past few weeks: we have introduced automatic recognition, removing Wilson and Palmer--which allowed the newspaper industry to discriminate against employees on the ground of their trade union membership--and permitting those sacked for taking part in lawful industrial action to claim unfair dismissal. Moreover, we have introduced a national minimum wage, against which The Times has campaigned, and continues to campaign, vigorously.

This is a Government of fairness, not favours. No one can suggest that a Government in the pocket of Rupert Murdoch could introduce such workers' rights legislation. It is nonsense, and Labour Members should not claim that the Government are in the pocket of a vested interest.The Government are in the pocket of no vested interest. We were elected to tackle vested interests, which is precisely what we are doing in the Bill.

Mr. Winnick: I did not say that the Government were in the pocket of Murdoch. I said the opposite: that

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Murdoch believes that he has in his pocket the Government and the Conservative party, which is a highly undesirable state of affairs. That does not in any way mean that the Government, whom I support, are in Murdoch's pocket. Will my hon. Friend say whether he believes that the Murdoch empire has too much power and, if so, what steps should be taken to deal with that?

Mr. McCartney: I thank my hon. Friend for that clarification. I think that I made the Government's position on dealing with vested interests absolutely clear. I accept what I believe was an attempted apology, but it is invidious to give the impression, inside or outside the House, that the Government are treating anyone differently. That is not the case. We are a Government of fairness, not favours.

Much has been said about the actions of News International and The Times. It would be wrong of me to comment on whether the actions of an individual undertaking are or are not anti-competitive, as that is a matter for the competition authorities, both under the Bill and under existing legislation. The House should note, however, that the director general has asked News International to provide detailed information about The Times, to enable him to assess the impact on its competitors of its trading strategy.

I am surprised that that was not mentioned in the debate, especially by those who spoke in favour of new clause 1. This is the proper way forward. I do not accept the arguments of those who are out to get The Times and who say that, if its actions are not caught by the legislation, we must alter it to catch them.

That is not the purpose of the Bill or of the legislative programme. If someone has a case against Murdoch or any other individual, he can pursue that case, but we cannot distort the Bill as has been suggested. That would undermine the concept of the Bill, and our ability to prevent abusive and anti-competitive behaviour in the marketplace. Let us remember that, when such abuse takes place, small, medium and large enterprises suffer, and it is the responsibility of the House to improve legislation to prevent that from happening and to ensure that, if it does happen, we have the capacity to stop it and to take action to ensure that any loss is recognised.

Mr. Clive Efford (Eltham): Does my hon. Friend accept that there is a problem in the newspaper industry that should be dealt with in the Bill? If the Bill were to fail to deal with the problem, what action would he take to remedy it?

Mr. McCartney: I thought that I made it clear that such matters are for the competition authorities. We are responsible for providing a legislative framework, and we have not only done that but improved on the existing framework. We oppose the amendments and the new clause because we do not believe that the framework is inadequate; we believe that it is rigorous and that it is constituted in the context of European jurisprudence, taking account of articles 85 and 86. It has been recognised from the outset as the only way of ensuring that we have an effective regime to deal with anti-competitive behaviour, including predatory pricing.

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I want to make it clear from the outset that I sympathise with the thinking behind amendment No. 1. I entirely appreciate the fact that the object is to clarify what is meant by dominance under the Bill, drawing on the relevant EC jurisprudence. I and other Ministers have defined dominance in similar terms in debates in Parliament. We have no quarrel with the definition itself. I have no objection to the description of dominance set out in the amendment, as far as it goes. It is consistent with the explanations that I and other Ministers have given.

I am grateful to my hon. Friend the Member for North Durham (Mr. Radice) for highlighting these important principles of interpretation. There is common ground between us on the substance, but the amendment itself is unacceptable. It could inadvertently do serious damage to the central policy of the Bill, which is to align the domestic prohibition of abuse with that of article 86.

European jurisprudence is clear that dominance means a position of economic strength that enables an undertaking to hinder the maintenance of effective competition on the relevant market by allowing it to behave to an appreciable extent independently of its competitors, of its customers and, ultimately, of the consumer. That test is laid down in case law, for example in the Michelin case.

Those EC principles of interpretation will apply under the Bill, by virtue of clause 60. Subsection (2) makes it clear that there must be no inconsistency between the principles applied by the courts in applying the domestic prohibition, and those laid down by the European Court, and any relevant decision of that Court.

Market share is not determinative of dominance, but it is an important factor. The Commission has expressed the view that while, in general, companies with market shares below 40 per cent. are unlikely to be regarded as dominant, undertakings with market shares as low as 20 per cent. may none the less be dominant if the nature and structure of the market enable them to act independently of competition.

Clause 60(3) requires our courts to have regard to relevant statements of the Commission, such as this one, in applying the domestic prohibition. Therefore, the assessment of dominance under the Bill will need to have regard to the Commission's statements. In short, the principles of interpretation on dominance, which are established in EC case law, will apply under the Bill.

Either the words of the amendment correctly define what is a dominant position under Community law, in which case they are unnecessary because that definition is already supplied through clause 60, or the words do not set out the test correctly and fully, in which case they should not be included. Where unnecessary provisions are inserted in legislation, they tend to go septic--that is to say that the courts look for some meaning to give them, rather than accept that they were not intended to have any effect of substance. In that way, in time they arelikely to have effects that were entirely unintended.That uncertainty could cause business a major problem. If the latter interpretation were to prevail, it could lead to a UK prohibition being interpreted significantly differently to article 86.

The amendment would freeze the position in domestic legislation. That would carry the risk of the application of the domestic law diverging from that of EC law in an

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important area. As we stressed many times in Committee, we should not seek to specify or alter how the prohibitions themselves apply, but should rely on the governing principles clause. So, while I sympathise with the thinking behind the amendment, I hope that my hon. Friend will accept that it would be seriously counterproductive in practice. Having heard my assurances on the meaning of dominance under the Bill, and the principles of EC jurisprudence on the matter, I hope that he will be prepared to withdraw the amendment.

Amendment No. 8 tackles the issue by lowering the threshold of what is "dominant" in the national newspaper market. I see no justification for treating newspapers differently in that respect. Frankly, it smacks of fixing the legislation to catch The Times regardless of the proper merits of the case.

I have explained carefully what is meant by dominance in the Bill. That is a soundly based test drawing on established European jurisprudence. It would be wrong to replace that with a different test which would in any case be highly uncertain.

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