Select Committee on Environment, Transport and Regional Affairs Twelfth Report


THE FUTURE OF THE UK SHIPPING INDUSTRY

The current state of the UK Shipping Industry

33. The Transport Committee conducted a major inquiry into the state of the UK Shipping Industry during 1986 and 1987. Its report concluded that the size of the UK-registered fleet had declined to such an extent that "the time for action has arrived and that the Government must now take steps to ensure that a core fleet, of a size sufficient to fulfil its strategic and economic roles, is maintained".[84] It made a number of recommendations, mainly relating to the taxation and National Insurance regimes as they related to British shipping, as well as to surveying of vessels and training of seamen.[85]

34. In its reply to the Committee's report, the Government said that "the contraction of the UK-registered fleet is only one element in a complex picture of the [shipping] industry. There have been signs recently that the decline is slowing".[86] Nevertheless, it accepted "that it has a responsibility for ensuring that the merchant fleet should continue to be able to meet the nation's defence requirements".[87] However, the Government's attitude to the Committee's recommendations was broadly negative. Instead the Government suggested that the steps it had already taken, in the Merchant Shipping Act 1988, which allowed the Government to provide assistance with training and crew relief costs,[88] and in the Finance Act 1988, to relax the rules relating to Foreign Earnings Deduction and the Business Expansion Scheme,[89] would provide adequate assistance to the shipping industry.

UK-REGISTERED SHIPPING

35. In 1988, the Transport Committee reported that the UK-registered merchant fleet had been declining as a percentage of world tonnage since early in this century. Even so, it remained the largest merchant fleet in the world until 1966, and actually reached a peak in terms of tonnage in 1975.[90] Its decline in the years immediately before 1988, and particularly since then, has been dramatic.[91] This reflects two developments: the decline in the overall number of UK-owned vessels, and the increasing trend for UK-owned vessels to 'flag out' by registering outside the United Kingdom.

36. British Shipping: Charting a new course illustrates the decline in the size of the UK-owned fleet since 1975. In that year the total size of the UK-owned fleet of ships of 500 or more gross tonnes was in excess of 50 million deadweight tonnes. By 1988, it had fallen to approximately 17 million deadweight tonnes, and by 1998 to 10.8 million deadweight tonnes.[92] The size of the UK register inevitably also fell over the same period, but in the case of the register the reduction was accelerated by 'flagging out', which began in the late 1970s: before that "it was almost unknown for UK-owned ships to be registered outside the UK".[93] The combination of the decline in the UK-owned fleet, 'flagging out', and steady growth of the world fleet has meant that the UK-registered fleet has declined from nearly 10 per cent to under one per cent of world tonnage in little over two decades, as shown in Table 1.

Table 1

The decline of the UK-registered merchant fleet (1975 to 1998)
(500 + gross registered tonne vessels)


Year ending
31st December
Number
Gross Registered Tonnes
(GRT) (millions)
Deadweight Tonnes
(DWT) (millions)
Percentage
of World DWT
1975
1,682
31.5
52.0
9.7
1980
1,275
25.8
42.3
6.4
1986
482
7.0
10.3
2.5
1990
337
3.7
4.2
1.2
1995
271
3.7
3.9
1.0
1998
257
3.0
2.7
0.9
% change
(1975 = 100)
- 85 %
- 91 %
- 95 %
-

Source: Maritime Statistics 1997 (1998), Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions.



37. The pattern of decline since the late 1980s is illustrated in Table 2. This shows that the total amount of UK-registered deadweight tonnage has declined, with the rate of decline fluctuating sharply from year to year. Two-fifths of vessels were lost from the register in 1987, arguably as a result of earlier Budget reforms which removed certain tax advantages the industry had enjoyed. Although 1998 saw a small rise in total tonnage, a quarter of UK-registered deadweight tonnage was lost as recently as 1997. The reduction in the number of UK-registered vessels has been more steady. Since the size of a vessel does not in general determine the number of seafarers employed aboard it, employment has fallen as the number of UK-registered vessels has declined.

Table 2

The UK-registered trading fleet 1986 to 1998
(500 + gross registered tonne vessels)


Year ending
31st December
Number
Deadweight tonnes
(DWT) ('000 tonnes)
Percentage change in number
Percent change in DWT
1986
482
10,349
-
-
1987
410
6,234
- 14.9
- 39.8
1988
375
5,619
- 8.5
- 9.9
1989
361
5,193
- 3.7
- 7.6
1990
337
4,213
- 6.6
- 18.9
1991
321
3,812
- 4.7
- 9.5
1992
291
3,749
- 9.3
- 1.7
1993
273
3,722
- 6.2
- 0.7
1994
282
3,889
3.3
4.5
1995
271
3,981
- 3.9
2.4
1996
257
3,285
- 5.2
- 17.5
1997
246
2,381
- 4.3
- 27.5
1998
257
2,669
4.5
12.1
% change
(1986 = 100)
- 47.7
- 74.2
-
-

Source: Maritime Statistics, Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions



38. The Transport Committee reported in 1988 that in the previous two years 'flagging-out' had "accelerated considerably".[94] This was mainly due to the establishment of the Isle of Man as an international register in 1984. At the end of 1986, 55 per cent of the UK-owned merchant fleet was registered in the UK: by the end of August 1987 that figure had fallen to 35 per cent.[95] Most of the vessels lost from the UK register had moved to the Isle of Man. By the end of December 1997 only 20 per cent of the UK-owned fleet was registered in this country.

39. The Isle of Man register has, more recently, itself begun to decline as UK-owned vessels have left to join other, open registers. The Department of Trade and Industry of the Isle of Man told us that of the 153 vessels which transferred from the UK registry to the Isle of Man registry between 1984 and 1998, only 49 ships remain.[96] The number of UK-owned ships registered in British Dependent Territories has also declined, in part as a result of developments in Hong Kong. The overall trend has been away from the UK register, and from the Red Ensign group of registers more generally, to open registers and 'flags of convenience'. This has a particular impact on the efficacy of powers of requisition.

Table 3

UK-owned trading fleet by area of registry 1985 to 1998
(100 + gross tonne registered vessels)



Year
United Kingdom
Crown Dependencies
British Dependent Territories
Rest of the World
All Registries

December
31st
Number DWT*
Number DWT*
Number DWT*
Number DWT*
Number DWT*

1985
789
5,423
42
173
87
2,749
100
1,800
1,028
20,145
1990
481
3,990
71
2,774
86
4,981
147
3,592
785
15,338
1995
372
3,285
52
2,249
55
3,953
196
3,346
675
12,833
1998
348
2,358
57
1,381
37
2,890
174
3,132
616
9,761

% of Total
1985
77.0
77.0
4.0
0.9
8.5
13.6
9.7
8.9
100
100.0
1998
56.0
24.2
9.2
14.1
6.0
29.6
28.0
32.0
100
100.0


* Thousands of tonnes.

 Figures do not sum due to rounding.

Crown Dependencies - Vessels registered in the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands

British Dependent Territories - Vessels registered in Hong Kong (until 30th June 1997), Montserrat, St Helena, Anguilla, Gibraltar, Turks and Caicos Islands, Bermuda, Cayman Islands, Falkland Islands and British Virgin Islands.

Source: Maritime Statistics 1997 (1998), Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions

40. The types and ages of vessels on the UK register have also changed. In particular, the number of bulk liquid carriers, which are tankers carrying oil, liquified gas, chemicals and other liquids, have declined in number and, particularly in the last three years, decreased in size. The average gross registered tonnage of British bulk liquid carriers is now only 36 per cent of the rest of the world. Their average age, which has also increased slightly, has remained five years older than the average of the world fleet. The dry cargo fleet, which includes container ships, has followed a similar pattern, although between 1995 and 1998 the total gross registered tonnage in this category, and thus the average gross registered tonnage of each vessel, increased, due to the addition of a number of container ships to the register. However, despite that investment in new vessels, the average age of UK-registered dry cargo ships remained three years greater than that of the world fleet. Only in passenger carriers—primarily ferries and cruise ships—has the number of vessels remained relatively constant, their average size increased, and their average age consistently been lower than that of the world fleet. This reflects recent investment in cross-channel ferries in particular, and the current boom in the cruise ship industry.

Table 4

UK-registered fleet by average age and average gross registered tonnage compared with the world fleet 1992 to 98
(100 + gross registered tonne vessels)


Year
Ship type
UK
Number
UK GRT
('000 tonnes)
UK
average age
(years)
World
average age
(years)
UK
average
GRT
World
average
GRT
1992
Bulk Liquid
Dry Cargo
Passenger Carriers

Totals
124
216
136

476
1,293
1,099
815

3,207
20.0
18.4
16.2

18.2
14.8
17.4
18.8

17.0
10,428
5,087
5,996

7,170
17,200
9,052
2841

9,697
1995
Bulk Liquid
Dry Cargo
Passenger Carriers

Totals
113
162
134

409
1,214
1,316
1,107

3,637
21.8
20.4
16.9

19.7
15.8
18.4
19.2

17.8
10,748
8,127
8,259

9,044
16,858
9,727
3,335

9,976
1998
Bulk Liquid
Dry Cargo
Passenger Carriers

Totals
104
148
142

394
644
1,329
1,201

3,174
22.1
21.7
18.1

20.6
17.2
18.4
20.5

18.7
6,194
8,983
8,457

7,778
17,162
10,239
3,771

10,390

Source: Lloyd's Register of Shipping



41. Other than in the passenger carriage sector, the number of UK-registered ships is declining, their average size is diminishing, and they are ageing, as shown by Table 4. The average age of ships is one of the primary indicators of the level of investment, and the increasing average age of the fleet illustrates a lack of substantial and consistent investment in ships. That investment cannot be delayed indefinitely. As one of our witnesses told us, "the capital intensity of the industry combined with an ageing fleet means that financing requirements are high".[97] It has been estimated that the United Kingdom must invest $2.22 billion over the next five years.[98] Without such investment, the number of UK-registered vessels will inevitably decline further. Quite apart from the impact that will have in economic terms, the age of vessels is also of concern to the Ministry of Defence: Major General Ewer told us that "the age of the fleet ... is a cause for concern, because the trends are ... adverse".[99] He suggested that without investment the UK-registered fleet would not be able to meet all defence requirements from 2007-2010.[100]

42. The fall in the average size of UK-registered vessels demonstrates changes in the structure of the British merchant fleet, from being dominated by ocean-going ships to being made up largely of short-sea and coastal vessels. In general, ships of less than 6,000 gross registered tonnes are regarded as short-sea vessels, although 'roll-on, roll-off' ferries do not sit easily in the statistics. Nevertheless, the passenger-carrying sector is dominated by short-sea and coastal ships, which make up 94 per cent of that type of vessel, and 73 per cent of tonnage. Furthermore, both the bulk liquid and dry cargo sectors are similarly dominated by such ships. A mere 61 vessels on the UK register make up this country's deep sea trading fleet. Since many of these vessels are regarded as strategic, their diminishing number is certain to have a negative impact upon the ability of the UK register to supply the ships to meet this country's defence needs.

Table 5

Estimate of UK-registered short-sea fleet 1998
(100 + gross registered tonne vessels)



Total Fleet
Short Sea Fleet

Ship Type
Number
GRT ('000)
Number
GRT ('000)
% of number
% of GRT

Bulk Liquid
104
644
90
104
86.5
16.1
Dry Cargo
148
1,329
110
117
74.3
8.8
Passenger Carriers
142
1,201
133
844
93.7
70.3

Totals
394
3,174
333
1,065
84.5
33.6


Source: Lloyd's Register of Shipping

43. Since the Transport Committee's inquiry in 1988,[101] the number of UK-owned merchant ships has fallen by 46 per cent, the number of UK-registered vessels by 63 per cent,[102] and the UK-registered fleet, in particular, has become increasingly aged, and focussed on short-sea and coastal shipping, rather than deep sea trade. The reduction in the size of the UK-registered fleet has an economic impact by affecting the opportunities available for training British seafarers, and, in the long term, undermining the United Kingdom as a maritime centre. It also, inevitably, limits the degree of direct control the UK has over the environmental and safety standards of ships. Furthermore, the contribution that the UK merchant fleet is able to make in support of the military is affected: the decline of the UK register in particular, and the Red Ensign group more generally, reduces the number of vessels available to the Government in extremis through requisition, and the increasing age of UK-registered vessels reduces their usefulness to the Ministry of Defence, as does the contraction of the UK-registered deep sea fleet.

BRITISH SEAFARERS

44. Calculating the number of British seafarers is not straightforward. In part this is because British seafarers are not exclusively employed on UK-registered ships, nor even on UK-owned vessels. They are employed all over the world. Furthermore, an accurate assessment of the number who are active is also difficult, since records inevitably include some who are out of work or retired. The best evidence of long-term trends in the numbers of British seafarers is given by the surveys of UK-registered vessels conducted regularly by the Chamber of Shipping's Fleet and Manpower Inquiry.

Table 6

Number of British seafarers employed in UK-registered ships 1975 to 1995


Year
British
officers
Foreign
officers
British
ratings
Foreign
ratings
Seasonal
Cadets
Total
Total
British
British
as %
1975
34,800*
-
50,900*
-
-
-
94,300
73,400
78.0
1980
28,158
-
22,985
13,411
526
6,344
71,334
57,923
81.2
1985
14,628
-
18,328
3,021
406
1,151
37,534
34,513
91.9
1990
8,628
-
10,978
-
-
-
26,418
19,606
74.2
1995
7,724
1,789
8,721
12,363
n/a
795
31,392
17,240
54.9
1980-95
- 73 %
-
- 62 %
-
-
-
- 56 %
- 70 %
-


* includes some foreign seafarers.

Source: Chamber of Shipping Fleet and Manpower Inquiry[103]

45. The total number of seafarers employed in UK-registered merchant ships has inevitably fallen, just as the number of such ships has fallen. 'Flagging out', for example, does not only remove ships from the register: it also means that British seafarers find themselves working on foreign-registered vessels. Thus the Fleet and Manpower Inquiry does not fully explain the fall in the total number of British seafarers. However, the Inquiry does reveal that the number of British seafarers employed on UK-registered ships has fallen more quickly than the total number of seafarers employed on such ships, suggesting that British seafarers have been replaced by foreigners. The Inquiry also shows that the number of cadets employed aboard UK-registered vessels has declined substantially, a point to which we return below.

46. Given the growth of 'flagging-out', and the fact that British seafarers do in any case work for foreign shipping companies, another source of data is required to determine the total number of UK seafarers. In November 1997, research intended to reveal the total number of active UK seafarers was published.[104] It suggested higher figures than the Fleet and Manpower Inquiry for the total number of British officers and ratings, mainly because it estimated that 45 per cent of British seafarers were employed by foreign companies. It also sought to assess the number of seafarers actually at sea—the active seafarers—since other surveys, based on the records of those holding officers' certificates, invariably included some seafarers who were either unemployed or retired.

Table 7

Estimate of active British and Irish seafarer numbers at 30 June 1997


OfficersTotal certificated officers 17,620
   Certificated officers at sea 16,034
    - employed by a UK company - employed by a foreign company 8,5817,020
Cadets      1,130*
RatingsTotal number of ratings 10,860
    - deck and engine room - catering and other 4,8006,060
TotalTotal number of seafarers 29,610
   Total number of seafarers at sea 28,024


* includes all cadets currently in training, at whatever stage they are.

Source: UK Seafarers - An Analysis, London Guildhall University, 1997.

47. The researchers also sought to establish the level of qualifications held by British seafarers, and the age distribution of the group. They found that British officers are generally well-qualified: 66 per cent of deck officers hold class one certificates,[105] whilst 44 per cent of engineer officers hold class one certificates, 24 per cent either class two or class three, and the remaining 32 per cent class four certificates.[106] However, they also discovered that the seafaring population is ageing. As Table 8 shows, 71 per cent of officers are aged over 40, as are 53 per cent of ratings. By contrast, according to the latest population census in 1991, only 43 per cent of the male workforce was aged between 40 and 65.

Table 8

Age distribution of seafarers (1938 to 1997)
(by percentage in each age group)


Age group
1938
1961
1971
1997
Under 18
10*
6
4
0
18 - 19
8
7
0
0
20 - 24
14
23
22
4
25 - 34
27
26
26
13
35 and over
49
37
41
83


* 1938 figure of 10 per cent includes under 19, so overlaps with figure for 18-19 year olds.

 † Figures for 1997 are for officers only.

  Source: UK Seafarers - An Analysis, London Guildhall University, 1997

48. Table 8, although flawed because the data for 1938, 1961 and 1971 refers to seafarers as a whole, whereas that for 1997 is only for officers, does illustrate the shift in the age distribution of seafarers over recent years. In any event, the fact that in 1997 83 per cent of British officers were aged over 35 is startling. Clearly the industry needs to attract younger seafarers to address the problem of its ageing workforce, particularly new cadets to replace retiring officers. However, the number of new cadets entering the industry has also fallen, initially from over 1,200 each year in 1980 to under 200 in 1986. Although the number of new cadets has recently risen to over 500, recruitment is nowhere near the level achieved in 1980.

Table 9

Cadets recruited by British shipping companies


Year
GAFT/SMarT
(Government) sponsored
Irish nationals*
Royal Fleet
Auxiliary
Total
1980
-
-
-
1,274
1986
-
-
-
177
1990
500
15
20
535
1992-93
343
20
20
383
1993-94
372
20
-
392
1994-95
420
20
20
460
1995-96
404
20
23
447
1996-97
480
25
23
528
1997-98
473
25
25
523
1998-99
500†
30
28
560


* approximate figures

 † estimated figure at end of year.

Source: Chamber of Shipping

49. Most training places open to British cadets are of course on UK-registered vessels: since the number of such vessels has fallen, it is not surprising that the number of cadets entering training has also fallen. Indeed the beginning of the decline in the number of cadets coincided with the first reductions in the numbers of UK-registered ships. In 1970 approximately 4,000 cadets were recruited: by a decade later the number had been reduced by almost three-quarters.[107]

50. The prognosis is stark. UK seafarers are a high-quality workforce, but their numbers are low, their age distribution unfavourable, and recruitment to their ranks is poor. London Guildhall University has concluded that on the basis of current cadet recruitment rates, current wastage rates for officers and cadets, and a retirement age of 65, the number of officers is projected to decline by 19 per cent over the next five years, from 17,144 in 1997 to 13,900 in 2002.[108] That trend will continue in the medium term, so that the number of officers will fall to 11,887 in 2007, and to approximately 9,000 by 2012,[109] although the Government has said that a "more realistic assumption of an earlier retirement age of 57 would result in the total number of officers falling to ... under 6,000 by 2012".[110]

Table 10

Projections of UK officer numbers 1997 to 2012
Year
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2007
2012
Retirement Age = 65
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Wastage
   
635
609
584
562
544
461
292
Retirement
   
158
219
248
268
267
277
615
Total
17,137
16,363
15,654
15,019
14,466
13,829
11,887
9,136
Retirement Age = 57
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
Wastage
   
644
575
520
476
437
305
260
Retirement
   
434
435
487
566
538
452
383
Total
14,599
13,547
12,664
11,861
11,106
10,312
7,423
5,757

Source: Professor James McConville et al, London Guildhall University

51. The diminishing number of UK seafarers, particularly officers, will not only have an effect at sea, but also on the shore-based industries. Research by the University of Wales has found that the demand for officers suitably qualified for shore-based jobs will remain relatively constant, thereby outstripping supply. The resulting shortfall will reach approximately 275 per year by 2004-05.[111] As a result, "the market response ... will be an increase in salaries in relevant shore-based jobs. This will increase seafarer wastage rates".[112] It will therefore become less attractive to shipping companies to invest in training, "causing shipping companies to reduce training of UK cadets, thus further reducing the future pool of UK seafarers".[113] In his evidence Mr Gardner, from the University of Wales, described this as an "impending manpower crisis".[114]

52. It has been calculated that "the number of officers will only recover if the cadet entry rate averages over 1,000 a year".[115] Mr Gardner went further, claiming that "recruitment by shipping companies of approximately 1,200 cadets a year is required to maintain the present status quo at sea and ashore".[116] Current recruitment is running at approximately 500 new cadets each year.[117] Without a significant increase in recruitment of new cadets, Mr Gardner concluded that "the UK is in grave danger of losing its maritime skills base".[118] If that happens, the consequences for the shipping industry, and the shore-based industry, will be catastrophic.

THE STATE OF THE INDUSTRY

53. The British shipping industry is close to crisis. The past decade has seen a steady decline in the number of UK-registered ships, and in the number of British seafarers. The position is already bad enough, but all the evidence we have seen is that without action now that decline will continue. If it does, the United Kingdom's balance of trade will be adversely affected, and employment, both of seafarers and of workers in associated industries, will decrease. Our reliance on foreign-registered shipping in order to trade will increase: already only 18 per cent of goods brought into the United Kingdom by sea are carried in UK-registered vessels.[119] The pool of labour which supports Maritime London will be reduced, perhaps prompting those industries to move abroad. Increasingly the United Kingdom will be unable to provide either ships or seafarers to meet our defence requirements, and we will be forced to rely entirely on the international market to meet our requirements. In the event of war, however unlikely a prospect that may seem, we may be unable to supply ourselves. More immediately, we will exercise less direct control over the quality of shipping around our coast, and less influence in international maritime fora.

54. In 1987 the Transport Committee concluded that "the time for action has arrived".[120] The continued decline since then leads to only one conclusion, that action is now long overdue. Given the parlous state of the UK shipping industry, we strongly recommend that urgent action is taken both to increase the number of vessels on the UK register, and to increase the number of British seafarers.


84   Decline in the UK-Registered Merchant Fleet, HC (1987-88) 303-I, paragraph 161. Back

85   Decline in the UK-Registered Merchant Fleet, HC (1987-88) 303-I, paragraph 163. Back

86   Second Special Report of the Transport Committee, HC (1987-88) 681, p.v. Back

87   Second Special Report of the Transport Committee, HC (1987-88) 681, p.v. Back

88   See the Merchant Shipping Act 1988 (c.12), s.26 and s.27. Back

89   See the Finance Act 1988 (c.39), s.67. Back

90   See Decline in the UK-Registered Merchant Fleet, HC (1987-88) 303-I, Table 5. Back

91   The size of the fleet can be measured in a number of ways, Gross Registered Tons (GRT), Dead Weight Tons (DWT) and number of vessels being the most commonly used. Also the base on Tables can be changed i.e. 100 GRT and above or 500 GRT and above, and occasionally even larger sums. Back

92   British Shipping: Charting a new course, para.25 and Chart 1. Back

93   British Shipping: Charting a new course, para.26. Back

94   Decline in the UK-Registered Merchant Fleet, HC (1987-88) 303-I, paragraph 103. Back

95   See Table 24, Decline in the UK-Registered Merchant Fleet, HC (1987-88) 303-I, p.xxxiv. Back

96   See FUS 41A, p.1. Back

97   FUS 12, p.1. Back

98   Ship Finance: Choices, Competition and Risk/Reward Equations, Drewry Shipping Consultants, quoted in FUS 12. Back

99   Q.405. Back

100   See Q.406. Back

101   See Decline in the UK-registered Merchant Fleet, First Report of the Transport Committee, HC (1987-88) 303-I, particularly Tables 1, 2 and 4. Back

102   Both figures in terms of tonnage. Back

103   Figures for 1975 taken from Decline in the UK-registered Merchant Fleet, First Report of the Transport Committee, HC (1987-88) 303-II, evidence, p.5, Table 3. Back

104   See UK Seafarers - An Analysis, by McConville et al, the London Guildhall University, 1997. Back

105   6,032 from a total of 9,156 deck officers. Back

106   Out of a total of 7,988 engineer officers, 3,370 hold class one certificates, and 2,438 class four certificates. Back

107   See Q.54. Back

108   Figures taken from Britain's Maritime Skills: An Audit, Chamber of Shipping, p.3. Back

109   British shipping: Charting a new course, December 1997, Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions, para.30. Back

110   British shipping: Charting a new course, December 1997, Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions, para.30. Back

111   Britain's Maritime Skills: An Audit, Chamber of Shipping, p.8. Back

112   Britain's Maritime Skills: An Audit, Chamber of Shipping, p.8. Back

113   Britain's Maritime Skills: An Audit, Chamber of Shipping, p.8. Back

114   FUS 16. Back

115   Britain's Maritime Skills: An Audit, Chamber of Shipping, p.3. Back

116   Britain's Maritime Skills: An Audit, Chamber of Shipping, p.8. Back

117   See QQ.179, 458 and 497, and figures quoted above. Back

118   FUS 16. Back

119   See Q.149. Back

120   Decline in the UK-Registered Merchant Fleet, HC (1987-88) 303-I, paragraph 161. Back


 
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