NEW TRANSPORT DEVELOPMENT ZONES
1. Sustainable development requires a planned
strategy for transport and land use. This is encouraged in Government
Policy direction and specifically Planing Policy Guidance No.
2. High density development in urban areas around
important public transport hubs and transport interchanges encourages
effective use of existing public transport and provides the opportunity
to "walk to work" and thus meet the aims of sustainable
3 Government should introduce the concept of
Transport Development Zones (TDZs) in urban areas around important
public transport hubs and interchanges. Typically the extent of
the zone would be about 200m from a local metro/bus interchange
and around 400m from mainline railway terminus. Within the TDZs
a substantial increase in the density of development would be
permitted over and above existing development policies. The highest
densities would be closest to the transport interchange. In return
for the higher density, the developers would contribute to the
improvement of public transport.
4. The LB Hammersmith have introduced the accessibility
concept in their Local Plan which is a first step towards a TDZ
and gives us confidence it can be done.
5. The extent of development densities permitted
would be determined by the planning authority at the outset, in
consultation with the transport authority, in determining a hierarchy
of public transport notes and TDZs based upon need. The definition
of new TDZs will take account of the capacity of the public transport
system and plans to improve public transport.
6. Creation of real choice in public transport
provides the opportunity to reduce the use of the motor car and
motor vehicles through maintenance and improvement of public transport.
A significant amount of the necessary investment will have to
be found from the private sector.
7. New development arising within a TDZ would
have to provide a contribution to public transport to the reasonable
satisfaction of the planning authority. Otherwise the development
permitted could not take advantage of the higher density allowance.
8. TDZs would, therefore, create additional
value which would be more available from the private sector for
investment in public transport through planning agreements. In
this way, the planning system would, to an extent, capture the
value created by public transport though planning agreements.
In this way, the planning system would, to an extent, capture
the value created by public transport infrastructure.
9. High density development will require high
quality design. By their nature, urban areas within TDZs will
include some Conservation Areas and Listed Buildings. Protection
will be given to historic views of buildings of quality, but for
the idea to work and to achieve good design greater flexibility
is needed in the application of PPG15. Conservation policies must
not be applied in a way which petrifies property and stifles good
design and innovation.
10. The key to future success in integrating
land use and transport policies is to achieve the appropriate
balance. In TDZs more weight would be given to achieving sustainable
development policies concentrating development where existing
or new public transport infrastructure is best able to serve occupiers.
This provides an opportunity to reduce both use of the motor car
and development of out of town sites.
Consideration could also be given to transferable
development right for heritage buildings within TDZs in a manner
of similar to current practice adopted by cities in the USA and
11. General Town Planning Policy Guidance is
issued by the DETR. Implementation of policy is dealt with by
local planning authorities often on an ad hoc basis and is influenced
essentially by local pressures, local politics and local policies.
12. Transport strategy by definition needs to
cover a wider area than local authority boundaries. The impact
of transport proposals is often felt over a much wider area.
13. Transport authorities and agencies should
produce strategic regional plans working together with the appropriate
regional body, namely Regional Development Agencies and in London
the Greater London Authority. This process should establish a
framework for an Integrated Land Use and Transport Strategy including
the location of TDZs.
14. This Regional Strategy should then be incorporated
into Local Plans and policies with TDZs created either by Regional
Government or local planning authorities.
15. The concept of TDZs and the above process
should require no new legislation and could be introduced in new
Government Guidance which expands and clarifies the broad sentiment
already expressed in PPG13.