Select Committee on Foreign Affairs Appendices to the Minutes of Evidence - Sixth Report


Memorandum submitted by the Trades Union Congress


  The TUC has played an active international role since its first Congress in 1868. For many years the TUC has played a leading role in assisting trade union organisations in developing countries in the Commonwealth to build strong, representative, independent trade union bodies. During the years of the Cold War the TUC maintained contacts with national trade union centres in countries of central and eastern Europe despite their role as transmission belts for the Communist governments. In 1980 the TUC supported the emerging independent trade union Solidarnosc in Poland and continued to support it during the years of martial law and imprisonment of its leaders. In 1989, with other trade union organisations in Europe and the West the TUC welcomed the political changes which came to the countries in central and eastern Europe and the republics of the former Soviet Union and Yugoslavia and sought, within and through the international trade union movement, to look for ways in which to assist the enormous transition process which faced the trade unions in those countries. The changes in the region came at a time when the neo-liberalism of Margaret Thatcher was at its height and the economic transition was embarked upon as a process of changing ownership of the means of producing the wealth of the countries without adequate and proper consideration of the creation of democratic civil institutions and social and economic infrastructures. As a result, in many countries of the region and trade unions—with the help of western trade union organisations—have played a vital roe in the transition process.

  The International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU) and the Trade Union Advisory Committee to the OECD (TUAC) to both of which the TUC is affiliated, called on governments to co-ordinate and co-operate in their provision of assistance to the CEE governments in order to enable a peaceful transition from centrally-planned economies to market economies. In the event the development in those countries has been and continues to be uneven and there are still serious economic problems in even the most advanced of them—the Czech Republic, Poland, and Hungary. It is important to point out that the trade union organisations in the Czech Republic, Poland and Hungary have been in favour of transparency and reform and have played an extremely positive role in the transition process. In the Czech Republic the national trade union centre has been pointing out that the International Monetary Fund analysis has been mistaken and that view was finally accepted by the IMF in the conclusions of its Staff Visit there last November. There are no countries in the region where the issue of trade union assets has not played an important part in trade union relations. In the Transcaucasus the assets for the most part remain with the single (or larger) national trade union centre and in many cases they are still being used as a social benefit for trade union members. While it is true to say that civil society is imperfect it is the case that trade unions have to a large extent managed to overcome the apathy of their members caused by the hangover of the old system of government and in the light of their old negative reputations they have made good progress.

  The ICFTU has concentrated considerable resources on the issue of human and trade union rights in the region and in the same context promotes the key trade union role in monitoring corruption, which is widespread in many countries of the region. The trade unions are keen to promote transparency to counter corruption, in line with the recent OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of foreign public officials which will permit OECD and other countries to move in a co-ordinated manner to adopt national legislation making it a crime to bribe foreign public officials.

  The TUC has had access to resources from the Know How Funds and has been able to provide education and training in the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Poland, Bulgaria, Albania, Romania, Russia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Belarus, Bosnia and Croatia. The TUC's first contacts with the trade union organisations in those countries were made through the ICFTU although in many of them the previous relationship between the TUC and the national trade union centre continued after the centres had been reformed and rebuilt (eg Czech Republic and Hungary). There are representative trade unions in all of the countries under consideration by the Foreign Affairs Committee and the ICFTU is in direct contact with all of them. The TUC has had contact with those in Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia.

  In preparing this presentation of trade union movements in the Transcaucasus and Central Asia the TUC has not gone into the detail of the general historical, economic, and political development which may be better reported by other sources. The TUC has access to detailed reports on all of the countries in the region which could be made available to the Committee should they wish to see them. By examining the developments in central and eastern European countries we can see successes and failures of measures to deal with the economic and social transition and governments and trade unions can endeavour to repeat the successes and avoid the failures in the Transcaucasus and Central Asia.

  The role of trade unions as independent representative organisations of working people is vital to the functioning of an efficient market economy and national trade union centres in most industrialised as well as developing countries recognise the TUC as the voice of working people in the UK. The TUC has always provided its expertise and wide experience in trade union organisation and education wherever in the world those have been requested. In the transition countries of central and eastern Europe and former centrally planned economies the role of trade unions is vital if the transformation is to be completed with the consent and agreement of working people. Trade unions remain the most efficient way of avoiding the exploitation of working people and the trade unions in the Transcaucasus and Central Asia are prepared and able to play a constructive role in the transition process.


  In December 1988 following the massive earthquake in Armenia the TUC General Council were addressed by the Soviet Ambassador about relief and reconstruction needs. They agreed an immediate contribution of £15,000 to the Red Cross for humanitarian aid. At the same time an appeal was launched which raised £30,000, over the next few years and was donated to the UK Committee for UNICEF for their 1995 country programme in Armenia. After the changes of 1989 the TUC maintained contact with the Armenian trade unions through the General Confederation of Trade Unions (GCTU) of the CIS in Moscow, and in July 1992 the President of the Armenian Trade Union Confederation (ATUC), Mr Martin Haroutiunian, visited the TUC, accompanied by a representative of the GCTU.

  Since that time the TUC and the ATUC have exchanged correspondence but there has been no direct co-operation. Armenia remains very isolated as a result of the political changes and the civil war in Nagorny Karabakh, and also as a result of the lack of reconstruction following the earthquake. President Gorbachev made promises that there would be large amounts of aid but political change overtook his plans. The ICFTU had contacts with the Armenian trade union movement when a representative visited Yerevan in March 1995 and reported that Armenia had suffered the greatest drop in living standards of all the newly independent states of the CIS, that almost a third of the population had emigrated, and that in collective bargaining the workers were forced to accept candles, matches and vegetable oil instead of wages. The ATUC claimed at that time to represent 93 per cent of all workers and students and to maintain good relations with the GCTU. The ICFTU is also in touch with the Federation of Independent Trade Unions of Armenia and will be sending a mission to Armenia later this year to look at the trade union situation there.


  The new constitution of Azerbaijan adopted in November, 1995 provided a legal basis for the development of democratic institutions but they are yet to be developed with the President having far-reaching powers over both legislative and judicial bodies. The Government of Azerbaijan wishes to establish closer ties with Europe and a number of measures are being taken to bring it more into line with the standards of the Council of Europe. For example, capital punishment was abolished recently and war deserters pardoned. The political stability brought about by President Aliyev paved the way for economic reforms, and contacts were made with western governments and companies. The Government of Azerbaijan is looking for close co-operation with the EU, the USA, Turkey, and Iran where there is a substantial Azeri minority (about 30 per cent of the population are of Azeri origin). The transition programme has avoided the use of shock therapy and privatisation of state enterprises began only in 1998. The Government is trying to ensure that the economy does not rely exclusively on oil.

  The social situation is traditionally patriarchal/hierarchical and it will take probably a generation for the economic reforms to create an environment where different group interests can be represented through a genuine democratic multi-party system. At the moment it seems that party politics are more based on clan and personality: both the President of the Republic and the top leadership of the national trade union centre come from Nakhichevan. The President of the Azerbaijan Trade Unions Confederation, Mr Sattar Mehbaliyev, has a great deal of support and his close contact with the President of the Republic probably enhances this support. President Aliyev has reassured the unions that they will keep their assets and many of their old prerogatives and he supports the trade union struggle for social protection and trade union rights. The leadership of the Confederation clearly wants independence from Moscow and wishes to move closer to Europe. Azerbaijan has been extremely isolated at the international level and it is important to help them break out of this isolation. The leadership is very keen to modernise the organisation but they lack know-how and face a very traditional constituency which still relates to the old union role at enterprise level of providing social benefits. The ATUC is seeking affiliation with the ICFTU and closer contacts with the TUC. The ICFTU and international trade secretariats have already provided help to the unions in their collective bargaining with major oil producing companies like BP and Shell which are providing employment and investment there.

  The Congress of the Azerbaijan Trade Union Confederation was held in Baku in February 1998. It was the first congress since the ATUC had changed its structures and name in line with the new status of Azerbaijan as an independent republic in 1991. According to the Constitution of the Confederation, Congresses are held every 5 years. The TUC was invited to attend and sent a message of greetings. The ICFTU was represented there.

Trade union relations and assistance activities

  The ICFTU set up a Co-operation Programme in 1996 when both the ATUC and the ICFTU submitted a co-operation project to the EU TACIS (The European Union Transition Assistance for the CIS) Democracy Programme. The general objective of the project was to promote a state of law, and respect for human rights and political democracy. This also implied participation in the setting up of social institutions capable of contributing to the building of a new civil society. Seminars were organised aimed at defining trade union rights in the context of basic civil rights and internationally-recognised labour standards. A clear understanding of the conventions and the recommendations of the International Labour Organisation was considered necessary to lay the foundations for tripartism. Moreover trade union rights being an integral part of human rights, democratic trade union institutions have a key role to play in promoting general democratic practices particularly in all levels of industrial relations.

  The programme was implemented with the assistance of ICFTU affiliates including the TUC which provided a tutor to conduct one seminar in February 1998, focusing on the role of trade unions at the enterprise level (with a particular focus on privatised enterprises). Mid-term evaluation of this project stressed the importance of a continuation and an extension of the co-operation to include trade union strategies in privatised enterprises, workers shareholding, trade union educational methods and programmes, and the role of the enterprise trade union leaders in collective bargaining.


  Georgia has had a particularly difficult transition period in terms of setting up democratic institutions and also of developing a market economy. The rouble crisis has caused further problems in a country which continues to face deep industrial recession although at present there is a precarious stability. Beyond the economic assistance provided by the European Union and the International Monetary Fund, the democratic consolidation of the country's institutions should be considered as one of the essential conditions for any prospect of sustainable development.

  Following a period of internal difficulties which accompanied the country's independence, the Georgian trade union movement is today united in one general confederation: the Georgian Trade Unions Amalgamation (GTUA). This confederation, which brings together the various professional unions in the country, chose to make internal reforms in order to adapt its functioning to the demands of the market economy and democratic values. The GTUA President is Mr Irakli Tugushi and he and other leaders of the organisation confirm their principle of independence of political parties and of the Government and they have made an effort to develop international contacts. One of the main difficulties for the GTUA in the implementation of its reform policy is the lack of experience of its professional, regional and company levels in developing independent trade union representation because of the legacy of the Soviet system. There is a serious and pressing need for assistance to the trade union movement in Georgia. There is widespread corruption and this month there has been an outrageous court judgement that ownership of all the GTUA properties should go to a former leader of the GTUA who no longer represents any part of the trade union movement. Mr Tugushi, who has already survived one assassination attempt, has attempted to negotiate fair treatment for the trade unions from President Shevardnadze but it is not yet clear whether those negotiations have been successful.

Trade union relations and assistance activities

  A co-operation programme, in the context of the EU TACIS Democracy Programme, was implemented in 1996-97 by the ICFTU, with the help of several of its member organisations from Western Europe and North America. The GTUA has expressed its desire to become a member of the ICFTU. Following the initiative of the ICFTU the TUC provided a tutor who designed and delivered two seminars in Tbilisi in October, 1998. The project aims to provide a basis for social dialogue by reinforcing the representative capacity of the trade union national centre. Social dialogue, which should not be carried out solely at national level, with the government, but should be expressed at all levels of the economy, will thus contribute to reinforcing existing democratic institutions and to creating the dialogue necessary for a smooth transition. Company conversions, the move to a market economy, and the implementation of the necessary institutions and infrastructures, all require the mobilisation of all social and economic forces. The project should also allow the grass roots trade unionists a better understanding of the challenges involved in the transition and the opportunities offered by the market economy and put them in a better position to define constructive proposals in this area.

  The TUC has been requested by the ICFTU to provide capacity building support to the GTUA to enable it to represent its members more effectively. The project would aim to strengthen the representation of the GTUA by increasing its membership, paying particular attention to assistance in organising groups in those sections of society—young people, private sector employees and women—who have traditionally been under-represented within the trade union organisation and within broader Georgian society. The seminars would be designed to provide a forum for the exchange of ideas and experiences that will help promote a better understanding of the principles of democracy and pluralism to enable the GTUA to make a full and positive contribution to the reform process in Georgia. The project is consistent with the DFID policy of local partner empowerment and the generation of long term benefits. The TUC has submitted a project proposal to the Know How Fund aimed at assisting the GTUA with that process.


  There are two national trade union centres in Kazakhstan. One is the Federation of Trade Unions of the Republic of Kazakhstan (FPK) and the other is the Confederation of Free Trade Unions of Kazakhstan (KSPK) which mainly organises small trade union organisations created at enterprises of various sectors of the economy. The FPK is the successor to the old national centre. It declared its independence and registered its Charter in 1990. It has around 4 million members and branch unions which have members in most enterprises in Kazakhstan. The President is Mr Siyazbeck Onerbekovich Mukashev. The KSPK is a new independent organisation and its affiliated union, the Kazakhstan Association of Civil Aviation Flight Crew Trade Unions, with 1500 members, is one of the largest with a branch structure. The KSPK has 5 regional trade union centres, 4 branches and 86 trade unions from various branches and spheres. All member organisations of the KSPK are legal entities, registered in accordance with statutes. The President is Mr Leonid Zinov'evich Solomin.

  The FPK and the KSPK participate in events together but are not united. Both trade union centres work within the framework of the Tripartite Committee on Social Partnership as well as in working groups created by the government to prepare decrees and joint documents related to social issues. The Presidents of both centres signed a General Agreement with the government and the employers' associations of Kazakhstan. As in many other former Communist countries the KSPK has repeatedly raised the issue of the FPK's property which has not been nationalised. Moving the capital city from Almaty to Astana has complicated both the position of the trade unions as a whole and relations within the Federation. Only the chairman of the FPK and two of his deputies, for whom the Federation obtained apartments, have so far moved to the new capital and the difficult financial situation has prevented the branch trade unions from transferring their Central Committees from Almaty to Astana.

Trade union relations and assistance activities

  The FPK is an affiliate and an ardent supporter of the GCTU and one of the few member organisations which pays it membership dues. The FPK is maintaining its traditional relations with the All China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU), and about three years ago they were visited by representatives of the North Korean trade union centre. Relations were established between the FPK and the trade unions of Israel and Denmark during 1997-98. Visits and training of delegations of Kazahk trade unionists are planned to those countries in 1999.

  A number of branch trade unions in Kazakhstan are member organisations of the International Trade Secretariats (ITSs). The strongest links exist with the International Chemical, Energy, Mine and General Workers' Unions (ICEM) which has been operating in the region for several years. The Union of Workers in Building and Industrial Construction Materials is a member of the International Federation of Building and Wood Workers (IFBWW), while the Union of Aviation Workers is a member of the International Transport Workers' Federation (ITF). As a result of the joint ICFTU-IUF-FIET (IUF is International Union of Food, Agricultural, Hotel, Restaurant, Catering, Tobacco and Allied Workers' Associations and FIET is International Federation of Commercial Clerical, Professional and Technical Employees) visit, there are favourable conditions for closer co-operation between the branch trade unions and the ITSs mentioned above. Contacts between the FPK and the Turkish trade unions, particularly the TURK-IS, were quite active during the early years of Kazakhstan's independence.

  In June 1998 the ICFTU with the support of the Friedrich Ebert Fund organised a seminar in Bishkek (Kirgizia) on seven years of independence in Central Asia in which representatives of both trade union centres took part. In December 1998 both trade union centres participated in the Conference to mark the 50th anniversary of the Declaration of Human Rights, at which the deputy chairman of the FPK spoke on the issue of non-payment of wages and the president of the KSPK on violations of trade union rights.


  The trade union situation in Kyrgyzstan has changed radically since 1990. Trade unions today are independent and have no association with political parties. The Trade Union Federation of Kyrgyzstan has 1.2 million members organised into 20 branch unions and five regional organisations. The potential membership is estimated at 1.4-1.5 million but only up to 900,000 people are in genuine employment. People who retire can remain union members but do not pay. The President is Mr Emilbek Abakirov and members of the leadership come from different ethnic groups and young people are promoted. The Federation had 1.7 million members before 1991, suffered a loss of membership between 1992 and 1995 and has since begun to increase membership. The branch (affiliated) unions are independent with their own constitutions and structures.

  The Federation has maintained its assets and receives a percentage of the Social Fund for its sanatoria and health centres. The Federation is involved in health promotion for the population and 20,000 children have been able to benefit from their health resorts in 1998. The question of union dues poses problems because of high unemployment, non-payment of salaries, and the fact that 60-65 per cent of dues are kept at local level.

  The Federation attaches major importance to solving problems through negotiation and peace and stability were considered vital because Kyrgyszstan is a multi-ethnic country. The question of national minorities could become a problem, as in other Central Asian countries. The President is always ready to meet with the trade union movement and had more understanding for trade union principles than certain members of parliament who were not in favour of the new labour code.

  The Federation has established good relations with the trade union movements in Denmark and Turkey as well as maintaining close and fraternal relations with all the trade union organisations of the central Asian Republics and Azerbaijan. The Danish AOF has been running a two-year project in the country. The Federation is a member of the GCTU the advantages of that being social partnership in relation to inter-governmental agreements like the one between Russia and Kazakhstan. The Confederation's priorities were the effective use of human resources because the reforms had started without any previous experience and training, and they strongly recommended the establishment of a Central Asian Republic Trade Union Education Centre.


  The role of the trade unions in Tajikstan is more difficult than in other Central Asian Republics because of the civil war which has devastated the country. The country is now facing total disintegration, absolute poverty, and problems of refugees and migrants. The situation continues to be unstable and the war is not yet over. The Trade Union Federation of Tajikstan said that it had tried to prevent the civil war from breaking out not because of any political agenda or allegiance but because of its belief in resolving conflict through negotiation. The Federation's presidium arranged a peace-making mission trying to bring the different partners to the negotiating table.

  The Federation has 16 branch unions, with four regional bodies and a membership of 1,300,000. The Council of the Federation is composed of 2 representatives from each of the affiliated organisations. Union property has been largely preserved, although some of the premises are rented out to the Ministry of Defence and some property is jointly owned with the GCTU. The President of the Federation is Mr Muradali Salikhov. Since the end of the war, the Federation has been trying to rebuild its structures. 1998 has been designated as the year for primary trade union organisation. New trade union cards have been issued and priority has been given to rebuilding local trade union structures in those regions previously not accessible because of the war. A second priority for the Federation has been the promotion of legislative reforms after the signing of the Peace Agreement on 27 June, 1997. 150 draft laws were prepared most of which have been adopted. These include laws on collective bargaining, social partnership, indexation, promotion of small and medium enterprises, and employment creation. A general agreement has been signed with the Government and a draft has already been prepared for 1999. However, the situation of the workers remains dramatic with a large number unemployed, living on or below poverty levels. There is a serious problem of non-payment of wages with wage arrears amounting to 5 billion roubles.

  The Federation is affiliated to the GCTU and has good relations with the ACFTU in the People's Republic of China. The Federation stressed the importance of exchanges of experiences and said that they would look at their priorities and communicate them to the ICFTU


  The ICFTU has not yet sent a mission to Turkmenistan. One of the unions there is affiliated to the ICEM and they maintain contacts in the country. The President of the Trade Union Federation of Turkmenistan is Mr Khoshgeldi Ovezov. Further information could be obtained if required but is not immediately available.


  Uzbekistan gained independence in 1991 and has since introduced a national currency, transferred land to individual farmers, created its own automobile production industry, and acquired its own oil extraction refineries, resulting in self-sufficiency in terms of energy requirements. One of the most important achievements has been the introduction of reforms for maintaining peace and stability in a country where there were 120 different ethnic groups. The trade union movement take the view that President Karimov had wisely rejected shock therapy and was introducing market reforms which were appropriate to Uzbek history and culture. The strategy of the reform process is based on strong social policy, positive role of state and social partnership between the state, producers and trade unions. It has been managed and not left to market forces. However, as in most of the central Asian states the society is patriarchal and the President has wide-ranging powers over both the legislature and the judiciary.

  The Federation of Trade Unions of Uzbekistan was established in September 1990 and claims a membership of 7.5 million out of a total workforce of 8.7 million (total population 24 million). There were 20 branches which have been reduced to 15 due to mergers. There are also 14 regional structures with 60,000 local unions. Membership levels currently stand at 86 per cent compared to 94 per cent in the past. The President of the FTUU since October 1998 is Ms Dilbar Jikhongirova. She is a surgeon and an MP. The FTUU Constitution was adopted in 1995 and the Confederation employs 45 staff.

  Union dues are deducted at 1 per cent of salaries. Of that 65 per cent remains at enterprise level, 35 per cent goes to the branch and territorial levels and 3 per cent to the Confederation. The FTUU is working to change the structure so that only 50 per cent remains at enterprise level. The union receives 2 per cent of the social security contributions, largely towards maintenance of their health centres.

  Trade union rights are guaranteed by the Constitution and Law on Trade Unions. Uzbekistan has ratified 16 ILO conventions and the unions are submitting a request to the Government for further ratifications. Trade unions are considered to be the major instrument for resolving workers' problems and the President of the country meets the trade unions for discussions on a range of issues. He is keen to secure union support for his programme and initiatives.

Trade union relations

  The Uzbek trade unions have had contacts with 40 trade unions around the world and have regular exchanges with the unions of the CIS. The FTUU has not had relations with the World Federation of Trade Unions (the international trade union centre covering trade unions in former communist countries) for the last four years, and have withdrawn from membership of the GCTU. The FTUU is interested in contacts with Western countries because of the changes in its economic structures and investments by multinational companies. It maintains close links with the ACFTU in China and has contacts with the CGT, France, CGIL, Italy, Turk-Is and Hak-Is in Turkey and Histadrut in Israel. There are also contacts with the Indian trade union movement and with the Japan International Labour Foundation (JILAF). The ICEM has two affiliates in Uzbekistan which have now merged. The Aviation Workers' Union is affiliated to the ITF. The FTUU President requested exchanges of experience, particularly with trade unions from central and eastern Europe, exchanges of information using the ICFTU Moscow office, training in new methods of union organisation and in dealing with multinational companies, and help in establishing relations between the ITSs and the FTUU branch structures.


  There are large and in many cases influential trade union organisations in all of the countries of the Transcaucasus and Central Asia. The transition from centrally-planned economy to market economy is bound to have a detrimental effect on employment and on the overall social situation and the trade unions are best placed to deal with the views of working people in relation to their governments.

  There is throughout the region of central and eastern Europe, the Balkans, the Transcaucasus and central Asia the serious issue of non-payment of wages. It is worse in some countries than others and it is an inexcusable exploitation of working people which should not be allowed to continue.

  The TUC, through its affiliation to international trade union organisations and through its own bilateral contacts in the region, can provide relevant and invaluable information to the British Government about developments in the trade union movements there. At the same time it would be constructive if the British Embassy sought contacts with the national trade union organisations, not just to faciliate the provision of educational and organisational assistance but also as an indication to the trade unions that there is recognition and understanding of the role of trade unions in market economies and in order to provide additional information to the TUC and British trade unions. At a time when British unions are seeking and beginning to achieve a relationship with employers based on partnership rather than confrontation it would be appropriate to explain and demonstrate that model to trade unions in the Transcaucasus. A sharing of information between the TUC and the British Embassies would provide comprehensive information on trade union developments and needs and could assist in achieving fair and balanced system of industrial relations.


International organisations

  ICFTU  International Confederation of Free Trade Unions.

  TUAC  Trade Union Advisory Committee to the OECD

  OECD  Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

  GCTU  General Confederation of Trade Unions — international trade union centre for national centres in the CIS)

  CIS  Commonwealth of Independent States

  TACIS  Transition Assistance in the CIS

National trade union organisations

  ACFTU  All China Federation of Trade Unions

  ATUC  Armenian Trade Union Confederation

  ATUC  Azerbaijan Trade Unions Confederation

  GTUA  Georgian Trade Unions Amalgamation

  FPK  Federation of Trade Unions of the Republic of Kazakhstan

  KSPK  Confederation of Free Trade Unions of Kazakhstan

  FTUU  Federation of Trade Unions of Uzbekistan

  CGT, France  Confe«de«ration Ge«ne«rale de Travail

  CGIL, Italy  Confederazione Generale Italiana del Lavoro

  Turk-Is"  Confederation of Trade Unions of Turkey

  Hak-Is"  The Confederation of Turkish Real Trade Unions

  ACFTU  All China Federation of Trade Unions

  JILAF  Japan International Labour Foundation — a trade union institute which provides training, education, and exchange visits overseas.

  ITSs  International Trade Secretariats to which national trade unions are affiliated (eg Transport and General Worker's Union is affiliated to the ITF)

  FIET  International Federation of Commercial, Clerical, Professional and Technical Employees.

  IFBWW  International Federation of Building and Woodworkers

  ICEM  International Federation of Chemical, Energy, Mine and General Workers' Unions

  ITF  International Transport Workers' Federation

  IUF  International Union of Food, Agricultural, Hotel, Restaurant, Catering, Tobacco and Allied Workers' Associations.

March 1999

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