|Regulation of Investigatory Powers Bill - continued
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Clause 45: Interpretation of Part II
242. This Clause gives interpretations for the terms used in this part. Amongst other things, it gives an interpretation for "surveillance" and clarifies that this does not include references to:
PART III - INVESTIGATION OF ELECTRONIC DATA PROTECTED BY ENCRYPTION ETC
Clause 46: Notices requiring disclosure of key
243. This Clause introduces a power to enable properly authorised persons (such as members of the law enforcement, security and intelligence agencies) to serve written notices on individuals or bodies requiring the surrender of information (such as a decryption key) to enable them to understand (make intelligible) protected material which they lawfully hold, or are likely to.
244. Subsection (1) limits the information to which this power to serve notices applies. It does so by defining the various means by which the protected information in question has been, or is likely to be, lawfully obtained. By way of illustration, this could be material:
245. Subsection (2) states that persons with the "appropriate permission" (see Schedule 1) may serve a notice demanding that the key be disclosed to make unintelligible data intelligible if there are reasonable grounds for believing:
246. Subsection (4) explains the way in which the notice must be given and what it must state.
247. Subsection (5) specifies the persons to whom the key may be disclosed.
248. Subsection (6) ensures that a key, which has been used solely for the purpose of generating electronic signatures, does not have to be disclosed in response to a notice.
249. The effect of Subsection (7) is to set authorisation levels (described in Schedule 1) for serving a written notice under Clause 46. The level of authority required will vary depending on the power under which the protected material was, or is likely to be, lawfully obtained.
Clause 47: Disclosure of information in place of key250. This Clause provides that a person may, in response to the service of a written notice, provide an intelligible version (plain text) of relevant protected data rather than e.g. a decryption key, unless the person who gave the authorisation to serve the notice, or a person entitled to give such authorisation, has specified that only the disclosure of the key itself is sufficient.
251. This Clause would, for example, allow a company - that might have received an encrypted message from the target of a particular enquiry (e.g. a suspected criminal) - to offer up a intelligible copy of the message rather than any decryption key.
252. Subsection (4) states that a person may only specify that only the disclosure of a key is sufficient if this is believed to be proportionate to what is sought to be achieved by doing so.
Clause 48: Arrangements for payments for key disclosure
253. This Clause allows for payment arrangements to be made in order to compensate persons required to disclose information (eg a decryption key) following service of a written notice under Clause 46.
Clause 49: Failure to comply with a notice
254. This Clause creates a new offence of failing to comply with the terms of a written notice served under Clause 46. It outlines statutory defences.
255. Subsection (1) states that a person is guilty of an offence if he:
256. Subsections (2) and (3) allow a defence to a person who shows that he did not have the key to the information (or, where appropriate, the information itself) but gave as much information as he had about how the key could be obtained; or that he did what was required of him as soon as was reasonably practicable.
257. Subsection (5) specifies the maximum sentence for the offence of failing to comply with a notice. As regards financial penalties, there is no upper limit to fines set in the Crown Court (on conviction on indictment). In a Magistrates Court (on summary conviction) the maximum fine is £5,000.
Clause 50: Tipping-off
258. This Clause creates a new offence where the recipient of a notice (but only one which explicitly contains a secrecy requirement), or a person that becomes aware of it, tips off another that a notice has been served, or reveals its contents. This is to preserve, where necessary, the covert nature of an investigation by, for example, a law enforcement agency. It outlines various statutory defences.
259. Subsection (1) limits this offence to occasions where the notice served explicitly demands secrecy and Subsection (2) places restrictions on the instances when such a requirement may be imposed.
260. Subsection (3) specifies the maximum sentence for the tipping-off offence. On conviction in the Crown Court, the maximum term of imprisonment is five years. The financial penalties are as for the offence set out in Clause 49.
261. Subsection (4) provides a defence where the tipping-off occurred entirely as a result of software designed to give an automatic warning that a key had been compromised and where, in addition, the defendant was unable to stop this from taking place after receiving the notice.
262. Subsections (5) and (6) provide a defence where a disclosure is made to or by a professional legal adviser as part of advice about the effect of the provisions of this part of the Bill given to a client or his representative; or where a disclosure was made by a legal adviser in connection with any proceedings before a court or tribunal.
263. The effect of Subsection (7) is that the protection in Subsections (5) and (6) will not apply where a professional legal adviser tips off a client with a view to furthering any criminal purpose.
264. Subsection (8) provides a statutory defence where the disclosure is authorised by:
265. The effect of Subsection (8) is, for example, to permit persons served with written notices (where authorised) to seek the assistance of another party in order to comply with the terms of the notice (e.g. accessing a key or plain text).
266. Subsection (9) provides a statutory defence for a person told about a notice but not about the fact that there was a requirement for secrecy.
Clause 51: General duties of specified authorities
267. This Clause describes the safeguards that must be in place for the protection of any material (e.g. a decryption key) handed over in response to the serving of a notice under this Bill.
268. Subsection (1) ensures that the safeguard requirements apply to all those who may have responsibility for organisations that will handle material provided in response to a written notice. In the case of the security and intelligence agencies for example, this will mean the Secretary of State.
269. Subsection (2) places an onus on those identified to ensure that:
270. Subsection (3) specifies that the material is shared with the minimum number of people possible.
Clause 52: Interpretation of Part III
271. This Clause provides for the interpretation of various terms used in Part III of the Bill.
PART V: MISCELLANEOUS AND SUPPLEMENTAL
Clause 53: New Commissioners
272. This Clause provides for the appointment of two judicial Commissioners to check on the use made of some of the powers in this Bill.
273. The Interception of Communications Commissioner will replace the Commissioner appointed under the Interception of Communications Act 1985. This is currently Lord Nolan. The Covert Investigations Commissioner will be a new post.
274. Subsection (2) details the remit of the Interception Commissioner. This will involve reviewing:
275. Subsection (3). The Covert Investigations Commissioner will report on the use of surveillance and covert human intelligence sources and of related decryption requests by public authorities other than:
276. Subsection (8) is a transitional provision allowing the existing Interception Commissioner to take office as the new Interception Commissioner on the coming into force of this section.
Clause 54: Cooperation with and reports by new Commissioners
277. Subsection (1) requires that all those who may be involved in requesting, authorising, or carrying out, interception should cooperate with the Interception Commissioner as he reviews the operation of the regime.
278. Subsection (2) requires that all those who may be involved in requesting, authorising, carrying out or using the products of relevant surveillance or covert human intelligence sources should cooperate with the Covert Investigations Commissioner.
279. Subsection (4) provides that the Interception Commissioner should report to the Prime Minister if he believes that arrangements made by the Secretary of State are inadequate either for the protection of intercepted material or decryption keys.
Clause 55: Additional functions of other Commissioners
280. This clause allocates oversight of certain powers in this Bill to the existing Security Service Commissioner, Intelligence Services Commissioner or Surveillance Commissioner as appropriate.
281. This means that for every intercepting agency, two Commissioners will oversee their use of the powers. The Interception Commissioner will look at their use of interception, the other relevant Commissioner will review their use of all other powers. All other public authorities will be overseen by one Commissioner only.
282. Subsection (1) adds to the existing remit of the Security Service Commissioner the function of reviewing:
283. Subsection (2) adds to the remit of the existing Intelligence Services Commissioner the function of reviewing the:
284. Subsection (3) adds to the existing remit of the Chief Surveillance Commissioner the functions of reviewing:
Clause 56: The Tribunal
285. This Clause establishes a Tribunal, sets out its jurisdiction and supports Schedule 2 which provides for its constitution and functioning.
286. Subsections (2) to (5) set out the key elements of the Tribunal's jurisdiction. It is to be the appropriate forum for complaints or proceedings in relation to the following categories:
287. Subsection (6) limits those proceedings relating to the types of conduct listed which the Tribunal may hear only to that conduct which is by or on behalf of or in relation to any person belonging to any of the organisations in paragraphs (a) to (f).
288. Subsection (7) qualifies the second category of conduct which falls under the Tribunal's jurisdiction. Conduct should only fall within that category if it is conduct which took place with, or might reasonably have been considered necessary to take place only with, one of the types of authorisation listed in subsection (8).
Clause 57: Orders allocating proceedings to the Tribunal
289. This Clause makes further provision concerning the orders (by affirmative resolution, see Clause 68) that the Secretary of State may make to provide for the Tribunal to exercise jurisdiction over certain types of case. It ensures that
Clause 58: Exercise of the Tribunal's jurisdiction
290. This Clause makes further provision concerning the exercise of the Tribunal's jurisdiction under Clause 56. It describes how the Tribunal is to hear, consider and investigate complaints and proceedings, confers on the Tribunal the power to award compensation, quash or cancel any warrant or authorisation and require the destruction of records of information.
291. Subsection (6) confers powers on the Tribunal. An order to quash or cancel any warrant or authorisation would overturn the decision of the person who authorised such an instrument, and any continued conduct under the terms of the quashed authorisation or examination of information obtained under its authority would not be lawful.
Clause 59: Tribunal procedure
292. This Clause provides for the Tribunal to determine their own procedure (subject to any rules made by the Secretary of State under Clause 60), and requires it to inform certain persons of proceedings, complaints and their determinations, and empowers it to require the cooperation of certain persons in exercising their powers and duties.
293. Subsection (2) empowers the Tribunal to require any Commissioner listed in subsection (8) to advise it on any matters falling within his knowledge which are relevant to the Tribunal's functions.
Clause 60: Tribunal rules
294. This Clause describes those rules which the Secretary of State may make in Parliament (by affirmative resolution) to regulate the Tribunal's exercise of its powers, and any matters related to them.
295. Subsections (2) to (5) describe rules the Secretary of State may make, without limiting his power to make rules only to those matters listed.
296. Subsection (6) require the Secretary of State, in making any rules, to ensure that:
297. Subsection (7) enables any rules to incorporate, for example, Civil Procedure Rules which have already been made. This avoids the need to create such rules from scratch for the Tribunal where they already exist elsewhere.
Clause 61: Abolition of jurisdiction in relation to complaints
298. This Clause repeals those provisions listed in subsection (2), which provide for the jurisdiction of Tribunals established by other Acts of Parliament to investigate complaints concerning conduct which is in future to be investigated by the Tribunal established in this Bill. Those Tribunals may, however, finish their investigation of those cases which they begin to consider before the Bill comes into force.
Clause 62: Issue and revision of Codes of Practice
299. This clause deals with the issuing of Codes of Practice to explain in greater detail the practical arrangements relating to the use of the provisions of this Bill.
300. Subsections (1) and (2) require the Secretary of State to issue one or more Codes of Practice covering the powers and duties in this Bill and those relating to interference with property or wireless telegraphy in either the Intelligence Services Act 1994 or Part III of the Police Act 1997.
301. Subsections (3), (4) and (5) require the Secretary of State to consult on any Codes of Practice, lay the drafts before Parliament and bring them into force through an Order (by affirmative resolution, see Clause 68).
Clause 63: Effect of Codes of Practice
302. Subsection (1) requires any person to take account of any applicable Code of Practice issued under Clause 62 while exercising or performing any power or duty under this Bill.
303. Subsection (2) explains that a failure to comply with a Code of Practice issued under Clause 62 will not of itself constitute a criminal offence or civil tort.
304. Subsection (3) allows the evidential use of a Code of Practice in court.
305. Subsection (4) requires that, where relevant, the statutory bodies described in this subsection must take into account the provisions of a Code of Practice.
Clause 64: Conduct in relation to Wireless Telegraphy
306. This clause amends Section 5 of the Wireless Telegraphy Act 1949 in order to ensure that the interception provisions of that Act comply with the Human Rights Act 1998.
307. Subsection (1) transfers the words of the existing section 5 of the Wireless Telegraphy Act to a new subsection 5(1). It also has the effect of removing the general authority to intercept wireless telegraphy which existed for persons acting in their duty as a servant of the Crown, and of changing the authority level which is required to authorise interception of wireless telegraphy from "under the authority of the Secretary of State" to "under the authority of a designated person".
308. Subsection (2) creates new subsections 5(2) to 5(11) to the Wireless Telegraphy Act 1949 as follows:
Clause 65: Warrants under the Intelligence Services Act 1994
309. This clause changes the test which must be satisfied before a warrant is issued under section 5 of the Intelligence Services Act 1994. Instead of "likely to be of substantial value", the test is now that the Secretary of State must be satisfied that:
310. Subsection (3) amends the urgent provisions so that a senior official of any department may sign an urgent warrant issued on the oral authority of the Secretary of State. Such a senior official will be a member of the Senior Civil Service.
Clause 66: Authorisations under Part III of the Police Act 1997
311. This Clause makes amendments to Part III of the Police Act 1997.
312. Subsections (2) and (3) amend section 93 of the Police Act to allow a police authorising officer to authorise interference with property outside his force area solely for the purpose of maintenance or retrieval of equipment. This will allow a chief constable to authorise action to maintain or retrieve a tracking device from a vehicle that has travelled outside the force area, without having to seek authorisation from the chief constable into whose force area the vehicle has travelled. In addition it removes the restriction on where a customs officer may act.
313. In the same way that Clause 65 amends the Intelligence Services Act 1994, subsections (4) and (5) introduce the new tests in the Part III authorisation process. These again require that the action authorised must be necessary and proportionate to what it seeks to achieve and that the action could not reasonably be achieved by other means.
314. Subsection (5) provides for an authorising officer of the Royal Ulster Constabulary to authorise interference with property or wireless telegraphy where it is necessary in the interests of national security as well as for the prevention or detection of serious crime. This is required because of the particular responsibilities of the Chief Constable of the RUC in relation to counter-terrorism.
315. Subsections (6), (7) and (8) extend the provisions of part III to allow the chief constables of the British Transport Police and the Ministry of Defence Police and the Provost Marshals of the three service police forces to be authorising officers and to authorise interference with property or wireless telegraphy within their own jurisdictions. It also allows the Deputy Director General of the National Crime Squad to be an authorising officer in his own right and for the Commissioners of Customs & Excise to designate more than one customs officer to act as an authorising officer.
316. Subsection (7) makes an amendment to section 93(6) to provide that "relevant area" for the MOD police means the places described in section 2 of the Ministry of Defence Police Act 1987.
317. Subsection (8) makes provision about where the Service Police forces may exercise powers under the 1997 Act.
Clause 69: Criminal liability of directions etc
318. This Clause provides for personal criminal liability on the part of certain individuals in companies and other bodies corporate.
Clause 70: General saving for lawful conduct
319. Clause 70 ensures that nothing in this Bill makes any actions unlawful unless that is explicitly stated. The availability of an authorisation or a warrant does not mean that it is unlawful not to seek or obtain one. In this respect, the Bill must be read with section 6 of the Human Rights Act, which makes it unlawful to act in a way which is incompatible with a Convention right.
Schedule 1: Persons Having the Appropriate Permission
320. Schedule 1 deals with the duration and types of appropriate permission which may empower a person to serve a written notice under Clause 46 of this Bill requiring disclosure of information. The authority required to grant such permission varies depending on the powers under which unintelligible information is or is likely to be obtained.
Paragraph 1: Requirement that appropriate permission is granted by a judge
321. This paragraph states that subject to the provisions of the paragraphs below, authority to serve a written notice must be given by a judge as described in Sub-paragraph (1).
322. The effect of Sub-paragraph (2) is that where a judge's permission has been obtained under this paragraph, no further authority is required to serve a written notice.
|© Parliamentary copyright 2000
|Prepared: 10 February 2000