Select Committee on Health Minutes of Evidence

Memorandum by Gallaher Group Plc




Pre-1950s Period

  8.1  Claims that tobacco might be injurious to health were not new in the 1950s. Smoking has been the constant target of criticism since its introduction into the UK in the 16th century. One of the first warning sounds about tobacco was made by Robert Burton (1577-1640) who, in his Anatomy of Melancholy, referred to it as "damned tobacco, the ruin and overthrow of body and soul". Anti-smoking tracts also appeared in England in 1598 in a pamphlet entitled "The Opinions of Sundry Learned Physicians".[83]

  8.2  In 1604, King James I produced his Counterblaste to Tobacco in which he wrote that smoking:[84]

    "is a custome lothesome to the eye, hatefull to the Nose, harmefull to the Braine, dangerous to the Lungs, and in the blacke stinking fume thereof neerest resembling the horrible Stigian smoke of the pit that is bottomelesse."

  8.3  Throughout the 19th century tobacco was denounced by clerics and doctors for a variety of reasons. For example, in 1847 two doctors wrote in the Edinburgh Gazette that smoking:[85]

    "produces gastric disorders, coughs and inflammatory infections of the larynx and pharynx, diseases of the heart and lowness of the spirit and in short, is very injurious to the respiratory, circulatory, alimentary and nervous systems."

  8.4  By the mid-19th century the temperance movement in the UK was voicing its opposition to the sale and consumption of tobacco on moral and religious grounds. This growing debate and increasing public awareness about the health issues surrounding smoking led to the setting up of the British Anti-Tobacco Society in 1853. The Society claimed that by introducing tobacco, "a narcotic poison of a virulent nature", into his body, man was interfering with the laws of nature. As early as 1858, the Society sought to deter others, especially the young, from acquiring "this unnecessary offensive and expensive practice".

  8.5  In 1857, a wide-ranging collection of medical opinion on "The Great Tobacco Question" appeared in the medical journal The Lancet. The following year, The Anti-Tobacco Journal was established.

  8.6  In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, organisations such as the Boys' Brigade (1883), the International Anti-Cigarette League ("IACL") (1901) and the Boy Scouts (1910) were officially opposed to smoking by juveniles. In the Boys' Brigade, boys were encouraged not to smoke and to sign a pledge that they would not do so. By 1906 the IACL had 1,000 branches connected to schools, churches and community organisations and more than 60,000 members. The organisation published a monthly journal. Boys who joined the IACL had to sign a pledge not to smoke until they reached the age of 21. Likewise, the National Society for Non-Smokers ("NSNS"), established in 1926, for a number of decades and into the 1980s continuously campaigned against smoking. The NSNS published and distributed anti-smoking literature, including pamphlets directed to children.[86]

  8.7  Many of these organisations remained active and aggressively opposed to smoking throughout the 1940s, 1950s and 1960s and their successors, such as ASH, continue today.

  8.8  In 1906, a House of Lords' Committee concluded that the question of juvenile smoking should be brought before the Board of Education, stating:[87]

    "that the attention of teachers should be directed to the importance of this question . . . the teachers should be invited to point out from time to time the bad effects of this habit in stunting growth and in producing disease. In this way [their Lordships] hope that a public opinion would be created among boys which would materially stop the habit . . ."

  8.9  In 1908, sales of tobacco to persons under 16 were prohibited in the Children's Act and remain so by further enactments in 1933, 1963 and 1986. The most recent applicable legislation is the Children and Young Persons (Protection from Tobacco) Act 1991.

  8.10  Claims that smoking may be detrimental to health also appeared regularly in the popular press and books throughout the first half of this century. For example, Reader's Digest, which has been published in the UK since 1938, has continuously published articles condemning tobacco. Likewise, the News of the World, which then had a circulation of over 8 million, ran a regular medical column throughout the 1930s and 1940s which advised patients complaining of a range of health problems to desist from smoking.[88]


  8.11  On 30 September 1950, Doll and Hill published their first epidemiological study[89] reporting an association between smoking and lung cancer. The study had been commissioned in 1947 by the MRC, which had received a request from the Ministry of Health the previous year to conduct an investigation into the question of lung cancer. The report generated considerable press interest.[90] More publicity followed with the publication on 20 November 1951 of the MRC's own report for 1948-50 which concluded that there was some association between cancer of the lung and smoking.[91]

  8.12  In December 1952, Doll and Hill published their second report concerning smoking and lung cancer. This report again received considerable publicity from the press and the then new medium of television.[92] In the view of most social commentators, the publication of the reports of Doll and Hill became the catalyst for a much higher level of debate about smoking and health in the UK and worldwide.

  8.13  During the period 1951 to 1953 the statistical panel of the Government's Standing Advisory Committee on Cancer and Radiotherapy examined the evidence contained in the Doll and Hill reports. The view of that panel of experts was that the conclusions reached by Doll and Hill were sound. The panel acknowledged that a causal relationship between smoking and lung cancer had not been proven, but the report went on to say that there was "a strong presumption until some positive evidence to the contrary is found, that the connection between smoking and lung cancer is causal.

  8.14  On 12 February 1954, Mr Iain Macleod, the Minister of Health made a statement in the House of Commons in which he expressed his view that there was a relationship between smoking and lung cancer, although noting that the causation question was complex and that other factors such as air pollution, geographic location and occupation may be involved. The statement received wide publicity in the popular press.[93] A front page article in the Daily Mirror contained the following lead-in line:[94]

    "The great smoking controversy has been flung into the arena of public discussion again by yesterday's announcement in Parliament that an apparent link between smoking and cancer of the lung has been established."

  8.15  In the statement the Minister also announced that the UK tobacco manufacturers, including Gallaher, had pledged a fund to the MRC for research into the causes of cancer. The fund provided for a research programme lasting eight years.

  8.16  In June 1954 the press reported on another study conducted by Doll and Hill published in the British Medical Journal in which Doll and Hill reported on the preliminary results of a prospective epidemiological study of 40,000 British doctors. They claimed to have found that doctors who continued to smoke had a higher death rate from lung cancer than non-smokers. Headlines included:

  "Smoking and Cancer: 40,000 doctors in new tests" Daily Herald—25 June 1954

  "Cancer Deaths Accelerated By Smoking" Daily Telegraph—25 June 1954

  "Smoking and Lung Cancer — Inquiry Among the Doctors Brings Corroboratory Evidence" The Manchester Guardian—25 June 1954

  8.17  In 1956, the UK tobacco manufacturers, including Gallaher, formed the TMSC. The TMSC and its successor, the TRC, funded and carried out research in response to the smoking and health issue from the late 1950s until the mid-1970s (see section 4 for further details).

  8.18  In November 1956, Doll and Hill published another report on the statistical association between smoking and lung cancer based upon the epidemiological study of 40,000 British doctors they had begun in 1951. They reported a statistical association between mortality from lung cancer and smoking, a stronger statistical association between lung cancer mortality and "heavy" smoking than "light" smoking, and a stronger statistical association between mortality from lung cancer in those who continued to smoke than in those who stopped smoking. This study also was widely reported upon by the popular press.[95]

  8.19  Dr Horace Joules of Central Middlesex Hospital was also an outspoken critic of smoking whose statements often were reported in the popular press. On 28 February 1954, at a conference on respiratory diseases, Dr Joules stated that every man over 45 who smoked more than 20 cigarettes a day should be X-Rayed each year.[96] In a 9 February 1956 letter to the editor of The Times,[97] Dr Joules included a graph depicting a sharp rise in mortality from lung cancer in comparison to that from other cancers, claiming that the rise in mortality from lung cancer followed the increase in cigarette consumption in the UK. The following month, in another letter to the editor of The Times, Dr Joules advocated stopping smoking even at middle-age and later, claiming that evidence suggested that the risk of lung cancer could be reduced for each year of abstention.[98] This advice to smokers was echoed by Doll and Hill in a May 1956 British Medical Journal, reported by the press, in which they stated that giving up smoking in middle-age would decrease the smokers' chances of developing lung cancer.[99]

  8.20  Other physicians, such as Dr Lennox Johnston of Wallasey, and Dr Alton Ochsner, an American surgeon and past president of the American Cancer Society received press coverage as well. Writing in a 1952 edition of the British Medical Journal, Dr Johnston stated that tobacco should be treated as a drug.[100] Later in the year, Dr Johnston advised smokers on how to give up the "habit" in The Lancet, and these recommendations were reported in the popular press.[101] An article in the 10 July 1955 Reynolds News discussed Dr Ochsner's book, "Smoking and Cancer", which examined the statistical association between smoking and lung cancer.[102]

  8.21  Additionally, in 1956, the Ministry of Education issued a revised edition of its handbook on health education which contained a section directing schools to instruct children on the relationship between cigarette smoking and lung cancer. Furthermore, teachers were asked to set a personal example by not smoking in front of their students.[103] The handbook, entitled "Health Education in Schools", contained the full text of a statement made by RH Turton, the Minister of Health, on the statistical association between smoking and lung cancer. A copy of the handbook was to be given to all school-leavers. A comic book style pamphlet aimed at teenagers was also prepared by the Central Council for Health Education in 1956. The pamphlet, entitled "The Adventures of the Wisdom Family, What—No Smoking", was distributed through local Medical Officers of Health.

  8.22  In May 1956, the Government issued a second statement in which it said that there was an incontrovertible statistical association between cigarette smoking and lung cancer.

  8.23  The MRC issued a special report on smoking and lung cancer in June 1957 which also reported on the statistical association between cigarette smoking and the increased incidence of lung cancer and which indicated that those who gave up smoking had a reduced risk of mortality of up to one-half of those who continued smoking. This report received extremely wide press coverage, including front page headlines such as the following:

  "Smoking and Cancer and You" Daily Mirror—28 June 1957

  "Heavy Smokers Warned: Cigarettes Will Kill 1 in 8" Daily Mail—28 June 1957

  "Smokers—it's up to you" News Chronicle—28 June 1957

  In addition to the front page story, the Daily Mirror devoted two full pages of coverage to the story under the heading: "Grim facts—Deaths are going up".

  8.24  In conjunction with the release of the June 1957 MRC report, the Minister of Health issued a statement in which he emphasised that smoking was ultimately a personal choice to be made by each individual: everyone will have to "make up his mind, and must be relied upon as a responsible person to act as seems best".[104]

  8.25  The publicity prompted by the 1957 MRC report added to the existing public awareness that had already been generated through the media on the claimed risks of smoking. In addition, local health and educational authorities, which had the statutory responsibility for health education[105], conducted local health education campaigns about the claimed dangers of smoking. Local health and educational authorities targeted both adults and children by means of advertising campaigns, pamphlets, films, television features, meetings and anti-smoking clinics. Evidence can be found of these campaigns throughout the country. For example, Dr Joules spoke to more than 250 children at a Croydon school and screened an American made film which showed a surgeon conducting a lung cancer operation in which a lung was removed.[106] Posters relating the claimed dangers of smoking were sent to every school in Devon by the county council.[107] London school children leaving school were given "don't smoke" advice in the form of a guide to health published by the London County Council.[108] Similarly, the Lincolnshire County Education Committee prepared a circular to guide teachers in instructing children on the claimed risks of smoking.[109]

  8.26  In June 1957 the BBC screened a feature on smoking and health in its "Facts and Figures" television series and copies were placed in the Central Film Library where they were borrowed by local authorities, schools and voluntary bodies. In January 1958, the British Medical Association published a pamphlet entitled "Smoking—The Facts".

  8.27  In addition to the popular media and various government and local authority campaigns, smokers were exposed to the views of the people around them. For example, the medical profession received information about smoking and health from scientific and medical journals which regularly published articles and studies on this subject.[110] For example, the entire April 1954 issue of the journal Medical World Monthly, the official publication of the Medical Practitioners' Union, was devoted to smoking and health. A number of articles recommended that doctors encourage patients to give up or reduce their smoking. The 25 April 1954 edition of the Sunday Dispatch, reported that the Medical World monthly publication advised doctors to caution young people and their parents against smoking.[111]

  8.28  Independent survey results demonstrated that there was virtually universal awareness of the reported association between smoking and lung cancer and of the possible risks of smoking. For example, a 1959 survey conducted in Edinburgh revealed that 98 per cent of those questioned had already heard of the publicised association between smoking and lung cancer.[112] Another 1959 survey of 3,224 pupils in Edinburgh schools revealed that an overwhelming majority of children believed that smoking could be bad for one's health (90 per cent of boys' 93 per cent of girls).[113] When asked in what way smoking could be bad for health, the most frequent reply was that it could cause cancer (55 per cent of boys; 60 per cent of girls) and a further 13 per cent of boys and 12 per cent of girls said that smoking was bad for the lungs without mentioning cancer. There is no reason to believe that awareness diminished as time progressed and the debate continued in the media. Indeed, the results of the 1967 Government Social Survey of Adults' and Adolescents' Smoking Habits and Attitudes showed that 94 per cent of smokers had heard of the claimed connection between smoking and lung cancer.[114]

  8.29  Publicity throughout the 1950s and 1960s also focused on claims that cigarette smoking was addictive or that for some people smoking may be a difficult habit to give up. For example, a newspaper article in the Daily Mirror in 1962, entitled "If you want to stop smoking", claimed that "irritability, acute anxiety, tremor of hands, loss of concentration, [and] even nausea" are among the "withdrawal symptoms" that smokers may experience when they attempt to give up smoking.[115]

  8.30  Claims that smoking may be addictive were also conveyed through newspaper advertisements and articles which concerned stop-smoking courses and programmes. For example, the 24 October 1957 edition of the News Chronicle ran an advertisement entitled "Stop smoking for your health's sake" which offered a new treatment for the tobacco habit.[116] A non-smoking course entitled the "New Cure" was advertised in the 12 January 1956 edition of The Times.[117] Other newspaper articles covered stop-smoking programmes involving hypnosis.[118]

  8.31  Numerous "how to stop smoking" guides, pamphlets and books were published and began appearing in bookstores. For example, a personal advertisement found in the 6 January 1954 edition of the Daily Telegraph & Morning Post promoted a booklet claiming to provide a "permanent release" from smoking.[119] Similar advertisements appeared in the Daily Telegraph regularly throughout the mid to late 1950s.

  8.32  Local newspapers carried numerous advertisements for various stop-smoking products, such as pill substitutes and imitation cigarettes, which portrayed smoking as addictive. For instance, manufacturers of the cigarette imitation APAL frequently advertised in the newspapers. One advertisement entitled "You can stop smoking", which appeared in the 17 March 1954 edition of the Daily Telegraph & Morning Post claimed that APAL "stops the craving".[120] Another APAL advertisement from the 30 June 1957 edition of the Sunday Graphic proclaimed that APAL could help those who "doubt [their] ability to break a deep-rooted habit".[121] A large advertisement for Bantron "Smoking Deterrent Tablets" which appeared in the 19 June 1962 edition of the Daily Sketch claimed that giving up smoking may be "easier said than done". This advertisement further claimed that Bantron tablets could help the smoker give up or cut down by "removing the craving for nicotine".[122] Another advertisement found in the 16 January 1964 edition of the Daily Sketch entitled "Chained to a cigarette?" depicted a man chained to a lit cigarette and claimed that "Lobron will set you free".[123]

  8.33  In addition, daily newspapers printed articles and letters from readers which described smoking as addictive or habit forming. For example, a 25 February 1964 article appearing in The Times discussed the claimed effects of nicotine on the smoker and quoted Swedish Nobel Prizewinner, Professor Hugo Theorell, who stated "it was to get nicotine that people—including himself—were smoking".[124] Other articles and letters from readers offered ideas on how to "beat the habit". These suggestions ranged from everything from deciding not to buy any more cigarettes and going "cold turkey" to giving up smoking for Lent.[125]

  8.34  In February 1960, the Minister of Health in England and Wales and in 1961 the Secretary of State for Scotland issued public statements to the effect that they were satisfied that the public was aware of a possible association between smoking and lung cancer. The Secretary of State for Scotland stated:[126]

    "I do not think that there is any doubt that people do know [of the possible association between smoking and lung cancer]. The recent survey carried out in Edinburgh showed that 98 per cent of people knew of the possible connection. Therefore I think it is a matter for individual choice and responsibility."

  8.35  In response to a question in Parliament in February 1960 as to what further action he would take to publicise the connection between cigarette smoking and lung cancer, Derek Walker-Smith, the Minister of Health stated that:[127]

    "Publicity on this matter is a continuing responsibility for local health authorities as part of their arrangements for health education."

  He added:

    "The object of this publicity is to make people aware that smokers of cigarettes are more likely to get lung cancer than non-smokers. I am satisfied that most people in this country—indeed, nearly all the people in this country—understand that point".

  8.36  Massive publicity also accompanied the 1962 Report by the RCP on Smoking and Health. Apart from lung cancer, this report discussed smoking and bronchitis, coronary heart disease and arterial disease of the heart or limbs. Publicity surrounding the report included:[128]

  "Cigarettes and cancer—Doctors warn "Smoking can cut life" Daily Mail—8 March 1962

  "Royal College of Physicians Report Overwhelming case against smoking—Doctors find relation to lung cancer proved" The Guardian—8 March 1962

  "Shock Treatment Shakes the Smokers and the Trade" The Sunday Times—18 March 1962

  8.37  In the same year as the RCP Report was published, the UK tobacco manufacturers, including Gallaher, opened a purpose-built laboratory in Harrogate which was planned the previous year, to continue the smoking and health-related research begun by the TMSC in the mid-1950s.

  8.38  The 1962 RCP Report was immediately circulated to local education authorities and the Minister of Education asked for the co-operation of the authorities, teachers and all who worked with children to warn the young in "every way possible of the dangers to their future health of smoking . . . and [to] discourage [them] from forming the smoking habit".[129] Lessons about the dangers of smoking were introduced in schools as part of the regular curriculum. The effect of smoking on the lungs was studied in biology classes and students were told about the effect of smoking on physical fitness in physical education training.[130] The Ministry of Health issued two posters in May 1962 warning of the dangers of smoking and two more posters featuring teenagers were prepared by the Ministry of Education for use in schools and youth clubs.[131]

  8.39  Mobile information units were launched by the Ministry of Health with full newspaper, TV and radio coverage.[132] The units travelled up and down the country giving film shows and lectures concerning the reported dangers of smoking.[133] The main emphasis of the campaign was directed to young audiences in schools and youth clubs.

  8.40  The Government's anti-smoking campaign, with its particular focus on persuading children not to smoke, continued in 1963 with the enactment of a ten-fold increase in the statutory penalties for selling cigarettes to children under 16.[134] Anti-smoking advertisements placed by the Ministry of Health appeared throughout the 1960s in magazines for children and in The Children's Newspaper.[135]

  8.41  In 1964, wide publicity was given to the release of the first US Surgeon General's Report on smoking and health in which the Surgeon General reported that smoking was a health hazard which was causally related to lung cancer in men.[136]

  8.42  In 1968, the Health Education Council in England and Wales and the Scottish Health Education Unit were created and a nationally co-ordinated anti-smoking poster campaign was launched the following year. Moreover, media interest in the smoking and health debate was further fuelled by the second report of the RCP in 1971.[137] This called for, among other things, greater health education in schools, health warnings on cigarette packets, increases in tobacco tax and restrictions on smoking in public. The report argued that "once adult smoking has begun to decline the social environment will change to one in which smokers will wish to stop and will find it easier to do so, and one in which fewer children will wish to become smokers".

  8.43  The second RCP report entitled "Smoking and Health Now" received very wide press coverage:

  "Dying for a smoke" Daily Mirror—6 January 1971

  "Warning on packets of cigarettes first likely outcome of smoking report" The Times—6 January 1971

  "Dying for a smoke: Now Warnings on Packets" The Sun—6 January 1971

  "Cigarettes holocaust of death" The Daily Telegraph—6 January 1971

  "Warnings to go on cigarette packets?" Daily Mail—6 January 1971

  8.44  In September 1971, the Consumers' Association published in "Which?" magazine its first report on cigarettes. In addition to discussing a wide range of claimed risks and providing tips on stopping smoking, it published a table of the tar and nicotine yields of 26 different brands of cigarettes, one cigar and one cigarillo. The article stated:

    "There is some evidence that smoking a cigarette with a low yield of `tar' and nicotine may help a little to reduce the risk of death or disease. However, the risks associated with smoking even a low-yield cigarette are considerable, when compared to the risk of non-smokers, or ex-smokers. So switching to a low-yield brand comes a poor second to giving up all together.

    But, provided you don't smoke more if you switch to a low-yield brand, it is clear that smoking a high yield brand is a folly."

  The article also noted that 58 per cent of those who had stopped smoking had managed it without any difficulty.

  8.45  The "Which?" article was an impetus for increased demand by some smokers for cigarettes with lower tar and nicotine yields. The tobacco manufacturers responded accordingly with more products with lower tar and nicotine yields.

  8.46  Tar and nicotine yields for individual brands from the surveys undertaken by the LGC were published from April 1973 by the Department of Health and Social Security, mainly on a bi-annual basis, and are generally referred to as the "league tables". From the outset of the introduction of tar league tables, brands of cigarettes manufactured by Gallaher were identified as having the lowest tar yields (see section 4). All press and poster advertising from September 1974 and all cigarette packets from March 1976 stated the particular brand's tar group. The tar groups were:

    —  "Low tar"—10mg tar or less.

    —  "Low to middle tar"—11mg-16mg.

    —  "Middle tar"—17mg-22mg.

    —  "Middle to high tar"—23mg-28mg.

    —  "High tar"—29mg and over.

  8.47  The league tables were readily available to consumers. They were made available in poster and leaflet form and were given wide publicity by the Health Education Council and others. A press release, "Tar and nicotine yields of cigarettes: first table of main brands published" was also issued on 11 April 1973 by the Department of Health and Social Security.[138] A leaflet was available to the public for free from libraries, health centres and clinics, hospitals, chemists' shops and local Social Security offices, or it could be obtained by writing to the Health Education Council.[139] Copies of the leaflets were reproduced as posters to be displayed in public places. In addition to providing tar and nicotine yields, the leaflets (and posters) contained health advice for smokers. Retailers also received copies of the league tables from the tobacco manufacturers in the form of a poster prepared by the Government. In a letter to retailers, the Government requested that retailers display the posters. The league tables also were widely publicised by newspapers.[140]

  8.48  To this day, smoking and health issues continue to occupy a high level of focus in the media and this helps to maintain a high degree of public awareness.

83   "The Opinions of Sundry Learned Physicians TACADE-ASH", Fact Sheet No 2 A History of the Opposition to Smoking in the UK, 1977, p 1. Back

84   "The Adversaries of Tobacco Smoking", The Habit of Tobacco Smoking Chapt XIII, W Kosowski, 1955, pp 83-92. Back

85   Edinburgh Gazette, 1847. Back

86   Examples of titles include: "A Pamphlet Addressed to Youth", F Phillips, 1932. Back

87   Report of Committee, 9 July 1906, House of Lords' Journal, Vol CXXXVIII (1906), pp 258-259. Back

88   See eg 28 September 1930 and 8 March 1931, News of the World (palpitations); 11 October 1931 (heart): 6 March 1932 (laryngitis); 19 August 1934 (blood pressure); 2 September 1934 (stroke); 19 October 1947 (smoking); 7 February 1943 and 10 February 1946 (cough); 29 April 1945 (arterio-sclerosis). Back

89   "Smoking and Carcinoma of the Lung-Preliminary Report", R Doll and A Bradford Hill (1950), British Medical Journal 2, pp 739-748. Back

90   See eg "Smokers take this risk", 29 September 1950, The Daily Mirror, "Smoking and Cancer-Results of Expert Study", 29 September 1950, The Times. Back

91   "Smoking is Link with Disease", 21 November 1951, The Daily Mirror, "Lung Cancer and Smoking-Report of Medical Research Council", 21 November 1951, The Times. Back

92   See eg "The doctors' case against smoking", 12 December 1952, Daily Mail; "Four-year inquiry on smoking", 12 December 1952, News Chronicle; "The risks of having a smoke", 12 December 1952, Daily Herald; "Study of lung cancer-smoking as a possible factor", 12 December 1952, The Times. Back

93   See eg "Link between smoking and cancer-Government Acts: Tobacco Firms' Research Offer", 13 February 1954, Manchester Guardian, p 1; "The startling facts-cigarettes and you-are five a day a safe limit?", 13 February 1954, Daily Sketch, p 1; "Smoking's Link with Cancer-Facts Behind the Finding", 14 February 1954, The Observer pp 1, 4; "Minister gives a cigarette warning-young people should know about `apparent risk of excessive smoking'-speedy research promised: £250,000 gift", 13 February 1954, Daily Mail, p 5. Back

94   "Smoking and health: four new moves are forecast", 13 February 1954, Daily Mirror, p 1. Back

95   See eg "It's a puff of death, say doctors", 9 November 1956, Daily Herald, p 5; "The doctors who kept on smoking" . . ., 9 November 1956, Daily Record, p 9; "Smoking link with lung cancer-`new evidence' from doctors' deaths", 9 November 1956, The Times. Back

96   "Cancer warning to smokers over 45", 28 February 1954, The Sunday Post, p 1. Back

97   "Liability to lung cancer", 9 February 1956, The Times. Back

98   "Liability to lung cancer", 6 March 1956, The Times. Back

99   "Doctors: fight smoking-start a campaign, 40,000 are told", 18 May 1956, Daily Express, p 1. Back

100   "List tobacco as a dangerous drug says a doctor", 18 April 1952, The Daily Mirror, p 3. Back

101   See eg "That first day when you try to stop smoking", 5 September 1952, The Daily Mirror, p 6. Back

102   "It scared me off smoking-200 perils in every cigarette", 10 July 1955, Reynolds News, p 3. Back

103   "New government campaign is aimed at the classroom-`Don't smoke at school' warning", 6 January 1957, Sunday Express, p 9. Back

104   "Smoking and cancer and you-It's every man for himself", 28 June 1957, Daily Mirror, p 1; see also "One in eight of heavy smokers `doomed'-Government leaves it to the individual", 28 June 1957, Manchester Guardian, p 1. Back

105   Before the reorganisation of the National Health Service in 1974, health education was the statutory responsibility of local authorities. These local governmental bodies addressed such health issues as tuberculosis and other infectious diseases, which were major health concerns in the 1950s. Back

106   "Horror film at school-parents", 7 October 1956, The People, p 7. Back

107   "Smoking danger", 16 October 1957, Daily Mail, p 9. Back

108   "Youngsters will get a warning", 3 July 1957, Daily Herald, p 2. Back

109   "Don't smoke lesson", 4 August 1957, The People, p 1. Back

110   As previously indicated, the Doll and Hill studies were reported in the British Medical Journal. The British Medical Journal also published an article in March 1952 authored by a physician to the King's household which expressed concerns about coronary thrombosis and carcinoma of the bronchus as diseases potentially caused by smoking. A series of articles in the British Medical Journal in 1957 included reports that smoking might be associated with a number of diseases other than lung cancer. For instance, an article entitled "Dangers of Cigarette Smoking" discussed a possible relationship between smoking and respiratory tuberculosis in adults; coronary thrombosis; cancer of the mouth, oropharynx and larynx; chronic bronchitis; post-anaesthetic respiratory complications; cancer of the bladder, emphysema and some vascular diseases, including Buerger's disease, editorial, 1957, "Dangers of Cigarette Smoking", British Medical Journal, 1, pp 1518-1524. Back

111   See "Doctor's Journal Launches a Startling Campaign-Smoking sensation-MP Urges Ban On Manufacture Of Cigarettes As Move Against Cancer Peril", 25 April 1954, Sunday Dispatch, p 1; see also "Smoking and cancer: new warning-Stop your young patients from learning to smoke. You will reduce their risk of dying from lung cancer", 25 April 1954, Reynolds News and Sunday Citizen, p 1. Back

112   1960, British Journal of Preventative and Social Medicine 14, p 160. Back

113   "Young Smokers: an attitude study among school children touching also on parental influence", A Cartwright and J Thomson, 1960, British Journal of Preventative and Social Medicine 14, pp 18-34. Back

114   "Adults' and Adolescents' Smoking Habits and Attitudes", A McKennell and R Thomas, October 1967. Back

115   9 March 1962, The Daily Mirror. Back

116   "Stop smoking for your health's sake", 24 October 1957, News Chronicle. Back

117   "Smoking", 12 January 1956, The Times. Back

118   In 1956, The People carried two articles which described an experiment in which a Harley Street psychiatrist attempted to assist 13 smokers give up smoking. The article which published the results of this experiment proclaimed that "mass hypnosis can cure the smoking habit" and reported that nine of the 13 participants were now non-smokers. "Hypnotism bid to stop 12 smoking", 25 November 1956, The People, p 9; "This Can Stop You Smoking", 23 December 1956, The People, p 9. Back

119   "Smoking habit", 6 January 1954, Daily Telegraph & Morning Post, p 10. Back

120   "You can stop smoking", 17 March 1954, Daily Telegraph and Morning Post, p 10. Back

121   "If you want to stop smoking . . .", 30 June 1957, Sunday Graphic, p 20. Back

122   "If you want to stop smoking", 19 June 1962, Daily Sketch, p 3. See also "A Tested Way To Stop Smoking", 8 February 1964, Daily Mirror (Bantron advertisement); "Merchant seaman conquers smoking habit", 9 October 1964, Daily Express, p 22 (Bantron advertisement). Back

123   "Chained to a cigarette? Lobron will set you free", 16 January 1964, Daily Sketch, p 9. Back

124   "Scientist's Theory on chain-smoking", 25 February 1964, The Times, p 9. Back

125   See eg "I gave up smoking", 1 July 1957, Daily Herald, p 4; "Smoking and you . . . stop it now", 18 February 1958, Daily Record, p 2; "Sketch smoking clinic", 8 March 1962, Daily Sketch, p 7; "Letters", 12 March 1962 Daily Mail, p 6; "Letters-Don't just cut down . . . stop", 20 January 1964, Daily Mail, p 6. Back

126   Hansard, 14 February 1961, Vol 634, Col 1224. Back

127   Hansard, 29 February 1960, Vol 618, Cols 819-820. Back

128   See also "The case against cigarettes", 8 March 1962, Daily Mirror, pp 16-17; "Smoking and health-The medical evidence", 8 March 1962, Daily Herald, p 8. Back

129   "Enoch Powell orders new `don't smoke' campaign", 13 March 1962, Daily Express, p 6. Back

130   "Don't smoke classes for pupils", 13 April 1962, Daily Sketch, p 12. Back

131   "Horror posters give a smoking warning", 29 May 1962, Daily Herald, p 9. One of the posters referred to in that article was "Deaths from lung cancer: the more cigarettes you smoke the greater the risk. You have been warned". Back

132   "1 in 9 odds on cancer-Mobile attack on smoking", 9 October 1962, The Guardian, p 3. Back

133   "Mobile help to non-smoking", 5 October 1962, Daily Telegraph and Morning Post, p 25. See footnote 132. Back

134   The Children and Young Persons Act 1963, section 32. Back

135   "Mary Brown meets Susan Maughan", 8 February 1964, The Children's Newspaper, p 8; "A blow for Brian's hopes from Jim Clark", 22 February 1964, The Children's Newspaper, p 4; "Doreen meets Diana Clifton-Peach", 7 March 1964, The Children's Newspaper, p 8; "Jim gets a jolt from Christopher Davey", 28 March 1964, The Children's Newspaper, p 4; "Pete gets put right by Mike Smith", 11 July 1964, The Children's Newspaper, p 2; "Patti Stone meets Beryl Grey at the Garden", 30 January 1965, The Children's Newspaper, p 12; "John learns the hard way", 25 March 1967, Eagle and Boys World, p 4; "Harry lets himself down", 23 September 1967 Eagle and Boys World, p 20; "John joins the Big League", 10 February 1968, Eagle and Boys World, p 4. Back

136   "Linked with lung cancer and other diseases-Cigarette smoking-US scientists want action", 12 January 1964, The Sunday Post, p 1; "Ten men pass judgment-American experts urge prompt action on smoking and cancer", 12 January 1964, The Sunday Times, pp 1, 3; "Shock Figures in the Big American Inquiry-US doctors denounce cigarettes as killers", 12 January 1964, Sunday Express, pp 1-17: "Smoking: Shock Report", 12 January 1964, News of the World, p 1. Back

137   "Smoking and Health Now", RCP, 1971. Back

138   A full page advertisement placed by the Health Education Council, appeared in the 16 April 1973 edition of The Guardian. Back

139   See 12 April 1973, Daily Telegraph, p 2. Back

140   See, eg, "Cigarettes `league table' shows danger levels", 12 April 1973, Daily Telegraph; "101 brands of slow death", 12 April 1973, The Sun. Back

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