Supplementary memorandum submitted by
the Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs |
1. A list of sanctions adopted
by the UK since 1990, including details of their scope, dates
of introduction (and, where appropriate removal) and humanitarian
exemptions is at Annex A (page 5).
Where unfolding events lead to calls for the imposition of sanctions
or changes to an existing regime the Foreign and Commonwealth
Office generally chair an inter-Departmental coordination
meeting for all interested Departments to discuss the UK position.
The FCO is responsible for keeping other Whitehall Departments
informed of negotiations as they develop (eg at the UN, or in
Brussels) and for coordinating instructions to UK negotiators
on the relevant UN Security Council Resolutions, or EU texts.
The FCO coordinate drafting of Orders in Council to give effect
to UN sanctions in the UK and Dependent Territories; and are responsible
for promulgation of all new sanctions regimes to the Parliament
and media. The FCO also chair inter-Departmental meetings which
consider potential breaches of sanctions regimes except those
relating to UK export control objectives (which are chaired by
the DTIsee below).
3. Other Departments with an interest
in sanctions, and their respective roles and responsibilities
are as follows:
Department of Trade and Industry The DTI
is the licensing authority for certain activities controlled by
sanctions, including the export of goods, the supply of goods
from third countries where this is controlled in line with binding
UN sanctions and also related acts. All applications are circulated
to other Departments with an interest (eg the MOD and FCO). The
DTI also coordinate drafting of certain secondary legislation,
where this is necessary to apply or enforce the measures it administers.
for International Development DFID advise on the possible
humanitarian impact of sanctions and how to mitigate them; and
on humanitarian exemptions.
Ministry of Defence MOD advises
on issues relating to arms embargoes; provides analysis and reporting
on monitoring related to specific UN, EU and other sanctions;
and participates in enforcement action where UK forces are involved.
and Excise Customs and Excise is responsible for:
preventing the illegal export or import of goods to or from destinations
covered by sanctions;
the detection, investigation
and, where appropriate, prosecution of breaches of the sanctions
controls for which it is responsible. These controls include those
on UK trader involvement in supplies from third countries;
The Treasury is responsible for implementing and enforcing
sanctions which restrict payments, movements and change of ownership
of capital and exchange. HM Treasury has appointed the Bank of
England to act as its agent.
Home Office Responsible with
the FCO for implementing visa restrictions and certain other sanctions;
and for ensuring that UN sanctions and other sanctions as appropriate
are given effect in the Crown Dependencies.
Department of the
Environment,Transport and the Regions DETR is responsible
for enforcing flight bans and other international transport sanctions.
for Culture, Media and Sport DCMS is responsible for implementing
and enforcing sporting sanctions.
Export Credits Guarantee Department
ECGD have an interest in any sanctions prohibiting or restricting
the provision of Government financed export credit, or which might
jeopardise repayments on existing business that they have insured.
The Department for International Development participated fully
alongside other Departments, in the Government's review of sanctions
policy. DFID's main contribution was to highlight the potential
humanitarian impact of sanctions regimes; recognition of this
as an important factor to be considered has been reflected in
the policy of smarter sanctions, ie those designed to hit the
regime rather than ordinary people.
5. DFID participates fully
in the Government's consideration of new sanctions regimes. The
Overseas Development Institute, at DFID's request and with DFID
funding, organised a seminar in December 1998 entitled "Can
Sanctions be Smarter?" DFID will follow up the findings of
this seminar by commissioning further studies which will assist
in providing practical guidance on humanitarian exemptions and
in the design of smarter sanctions. DFID has recently agreed to
contribute through the UN Secretariat to the cost of expert studies
into targeted sanctions against UNITA (Angola). It intends to
explore further options for making humanitarian exemptions more
effective as set out in paragraph 16 of the Government's Memorandum
(see Evidence, p. 3).
Foreign and Commonwealth Office