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The Minister of State, Department of Health (Mr. John Denham): I congratulate the hon. Member for Sutton and Cheam (Mr. Burstow) on obtaining this debate on the recruitment of nurses from overseas. It gives me an opportunity to set out the Government's position on the expansion of the nursing work force in the NHS and the role that international recruitment can play in that process. I want to speak about the Government's plan for investing in NHS staff, and to describe the contribution that international nursing recruitment has made and will continue to make to the delivery of high quality clinical services to patients. I hope that in doing so, I can deal satisfactorily with the hon. Gentleman's major points.
NHS staff are a precious resource. They are what makes the health service tick. The biggest constraint that the NHS currently faces is no longer a shortage of financial resources, but a shortage of human resources. It is doctors, nurses, therapists and other health professionals who, together with support staff, keep the service going day in, day out. The massive improvements set out in the NHS plan will, over time, bring an end to years of underfunding and the consequent low morale among key health care professionals.
It is important to understand that the decisions made in the early 1990s, which the hon. Gentleman mentioned, are one of the reasons for the shortfall in the number of nurses. Those decisions drastically reduced the number of student nurses in training. Overall, the number of available training places fell by 28 per cent. When we were elected, it was clear that too few nurses had qualified, and would qualify, as fully trained registered nurses in the next few years. There had been serious damage to the overall nursing work force, which in turn posed a considerable threat to the standards and safety of care afforded to patients.
In addition to saying that such cuts must never happen again, we have established plans to expand the number of health care professionals. They include plans for 20,000 more nurses, as set out in the NHS plan. The recruitment and retention strategy that has been developed to achieve that target will include improved retention of staff, return-to-practice programmes, more training places, and international recruitment.
We have already made progress. Between 1997 and 2000, the number of qualified nurses in the NHS increased by more than 17,000. From September 1999 to September 2000 alone, there was an increase of 6,300 nurses. We will build on that, and increase the number of nurses by 20,000 by 2004. In addition, we expect that by 2004, as a result of the increased number of training places, more than 45,000 new nurses and midwives will come out of training, alongside 13,000 therapists and other health professionals.
So there is an increase in the number of nurses coming into the NHS, and it will continue in future. That is backed by an expansion of nurse training places. By 2004, 5,500 more nurses, midwives and health visitors will be trained each year than are being trained today. In itself,
While we await the benefits from the increased number of student nurses, and attract returners to the NHS, international recruitment will provide an invaluable resource, bridging the gap during the years of training, education and gaining clinical expertise.
The NHS has a long history of recruiting from abroad, and there are already many networks throughout the world for good co-operation and exchange of health care personnel. International recruitment by NHS organisations has been especially useful in areas where recruitment has proved difficult or where new developments require new or extra staff.
It is essential to ensure that effective and appropriate international recruitment is perceived as a direct benefit not only to NHS patients but to the employing organisation, the individual nurse, colleagues in the rest of the team and the recruit's home country.
Let me give a couple of examples that are relevant to the hon. Gentleman's constituency. They show that we acknowledge some of the problems that he raised. The Epsom and St. Helier NHS trust has undertaken international recruitment, mainly by recruiting nurses from the Philippines and Finland. In October 2000, the trust asked three commercial international recruitment organisations to advise on the number of nurses who could be appointed to the trust on short-term contracts of between six months and two years. The purpose was to ensure that the trust could provide 102 extra beds in preparation for the winter. The trust selected the recruitment organisation BUPA, which provided nurses from the West Indies and South Africa. In response to concerns raised by the trust about recruiting from those areas, BUPA reassured it that the nurses had already been selected and were "on its books" before the publication of the Department of Health's guidance for international nursing recruitment in November 1999.
The nurses arrived at the end of 2000, and I understand that they provide high standards of care to patients. The regional recruitment and retention co-ordinator has subsequently worked directly with the trust to ensure that international recruitment is managed according to the guidance. The trust has also appointed a senior nurse for recruitment and retention. Although international recruitment allowed considerable expansion of services to patients throughout the winter, nurse recruitment now focuses on the local labour market.
St. George's Hospital NHS trust, which is also in the hon. Gentleman's constituency, discovered that a Filipino nurse was asked to pay a £1,000 fee directly to a commercial recruitment organisation in the Philippines. St. George's, in my view rightly, decided that it would not use that organisation again.
Mr. Burstow: The Minister is right that St. George's was correct to cease using that agency. However, would it not be better for the Department to issue clear instructions to trusts to do likewise in all cases?
It is important to stress that the successful applications to join the UKCC register do not necessarily represent nurses in employment in the UK. They include people who have never taken up employment here--those who take up temporary work, for example, in the working holiday arrangements, as well as those who take up full-time employment in the NHS and the independent and voluntary sectors.
As the NHS has expanded the number of nursing posts in line with developing services for patients, the opportunities for international recruitment have increased. That development formed the basis for the publication of the guidance on international nursing recruitment in the NHS in 1999. It made it clear that international recruitment should be cost-effective, based on good practice, and undertaken only on an ethical basis. The guidance specifically states that NHS employers should not actively recruit from developing countries that are experiencing nursing shortages. The only exceptions to that policy are nurses who seek an opportunity for development as part of a recognised programme approved by the relevant Government authorities in the country concerned, and employers who consider an unsolicited application directly from an individual potential recruit.
The hon. Gentleman asked about applications to the UKCC since 1999. When the guidance was published in 1999, some NHS employers would already have had international recruitment campaign commitments and established contracts with commercial recruitment organisations. Inevitably, there was a time lag between the publication of the guidance and its impact on the international recruitment policies of individual local NHS employers, and I gave the hon. Gentleman an example of that. This meant that nurses may have taken up their job offers in the UK up to a year after being appointed.
As the hon. Gentleman recognised, in January the Department of Health appointed a director of international recruitment to oversee the application of the guidance. The job of the director will be to co-ordinate the international recruitment efforts throughout England's eight regions, ensuring consistent standards and cost- effective best practice in employment. She will also develop agreements between Governments, ensuring international co-operation and the recruitment and exchange of health care professionals. Finally, an extremely important part of her remit is to ensure that developing countries are protected from targeted recruitment, and that the NHS does not actively recruit from, for example, the Republic of South Africa or the West Indies.
The director of international recruitment is working with the leaders of the professions and with other Departments to ensure that international recruitment in the NHS not only meets the Department's guidance but tackles service priorities and complies with NHS quality standards. The Department's guidance is intended to
There is cause for serious concern that some commercial agencies have targeted developing countries for international recruitment. The Department has been working with NHS employers and reputable commercial recruitment organisations to produce a code of practice that reinforces the requirement that international recruitment must never be carried out against the interests of host countries. A wide consultation involving NHS employers, professional bodies, trade unions and, specifically, commercial recruitment organisations is nearing completion. The Government will expect all recruitment organisations to adhere to the code of practice. In addition, I believe that the independent and voluntary sectors will wish to join forces with the NHS to ensure that agencies who engage in unscrupulous or poor practice are forced out of the market.
The code will require NHS employers to have proper plans in place to decide which countries they may recruit from, and which they must not target. The code will also state strict rules for commercial recruitment organisations that have contracts with the NHS. That means that in future, NHS employers will not contract with agencies that actively recruit from developing countries such as South Africa and the West Indies. It is worth pointing out that we are, I believe, the only developed country--indeed, the only country in the world--that has a policy on international recruitment that reflects ethical considerations, as well as those based on value for money and good practice. That is a significant achievement for Britain.
We must not forget that health care professionals have always been a highly mobile and marketable work force. Many professionals, including nurses, travel abroad of their own volition, some coming to England and many to other parts of the world. The NHS needs to respond appropriately to applications from such individuals. The Royal College of Nursing has expressed its concern about policies that infringe nurses' freedom to work where they like. The RCN has recommended that guidance should not stop individual nurses from coming to work in the UK should they wish to do so. Our guidance endorses that approach.
The hon. Gentleman mentioned exploitation in the private sector, and I have already said that we believe that the development of the code of practice in conjunction with the reputable organisations in the field will do much to raise standards right across the spectrum of international recruitment, whether to the NHS or to the independent sector, and to put a considerable degree of pressure on the independent sector to abide by similar standards.
I would need to look in detail at the points raised by the hon. Gentleman, and he may wish to write to me. Several of the instances that he mentioned certainly sounded, at first hearing, like clear legal breaches and not just poor conduct. They sounded, to me at least, like abuses of some of the work permit regulations, and I would be happy to consider whether what is needed is simply more effective enforcement, or whether wider measures need to be addressed. Clearly, we do not wish to see exploitation of nurses coming to work here from overseas. I too acknowledge the valuable role played in
I want to mention the success of our Government- to-Government agreement within Europe--the Anglo- Spanish programme. The pilot programme in the north-west of England followed an agreement reached with the Spanish Government, enabling the NHS to employ some of Spain's surplus nurses and doctors. Currently 87 nurses from Spain are working in the NHS, and about 35 more are working in the private sector. The programme is being rolled out to London and the south-east, and we hope to recruit a further 500 nurses from Spain as soon as is practicable.
I hope that I have described adequately the effective measures that we have in train to tackle the issues raised by the hon. Gentleman, and made clear the important role that international recruitment will play in ensuring that the NHS and its patients have the staff that they need. I hope that I have also made clear the Government's commitment to expanding the training and supply of nurses, so that we shall no longer be in the position that we have been in during the past few years as a result of the cuts in nurse training made under the previous Government.