1. Current Progress. Progress against
recruiting goals has been considerable since 1996, with the notable
exception of the failure to achieve 3 per cent during the year
1999-2000. The results of for the last four years are shown at
Table 1. Table 2 shows this year's progress up to 23 December
EM RECRUITMENT SINCE APRIL 1996
EM RECRUITMENT PROGRESS TO 23 DEC 2000
2. RCB Passes. 3 per cent of those selected for
officer training in financial year 1999-2000 were from a minority
ethnic background. There was a higher percentage of successful
EM candidates for Professionally Qualified Officer (PQO) (ie doctors,
lawyers, vets, dentists and chaplains) training than for successful
mainstream officer selections. On 1 April 1999, the Royal Military
Academy Sandhurst (RMAS) assumed responsibility for processing
all Regular Commissions Board (RCB) applicants, loading all RCB
boards and nurturing successful candidates from selection until
the time they commence training at Sandhurst. During the current
year, RMAS have been establishing the support cell and developing
their procedures for this nurturing to be effective.
3. The tables below show the percentages of EM potential
officer candidates recruited for 1998-99, 1999-2000 and for the
current financial year (up to 23 December 00).
|2000-01 to date(23 Dec 00)||RCB Pass
4. Although the level of interest in Army officer careers
by candidates from an ethnic minority background is high, the
success rate through the recruiting process is below that for
white candidates. At RCB Briefings some 30 per cent of EM candidates
fail to be recommended to attend RCB Main Board selection, against
only 9.5 per cent for white. Similarly only 34 per cent of EM
candidates received an unqualified recommendation to attend RCB
Main Board against 52 per cent for whites. Research is being carried
out through the Central Office of Information (COI) to identify
the reasons for this higher failure rate. In addition, RCB has
requested external validation of their psychometric test to check
for cultural bias. However, at first sight this appears to be
an issue of quality rather than bias.
CURRENT LOADING FOR RMAS
|1996-97||Commissioning Cse Intake
|1997-98||Commissioning Cse Intake
|1998-99||Commissioning Cse Intake
|1999-2000||Commissioning Cse Intake
|2000-01 to date||Commissioning Cse Intake
5. Achievements for RMAS entrants reflect the impact
of recruiting activity both in-year and in earlier years. Successful
candidates at RCB selection take on average two years before attending
Sandhurst, whilst they complete their academic studies. Hence,
it is useful to measure in-year EM recruiting activity against
the number of successful EM candidates at officer selection, rather
than just referring to entrants to training at RMAS. Table 5 consolidates
this information and because of the time lag the gradual increase
in RCB passes from 1998-99 should start to show in the number
of RMAS entrants from 2001 onwards. Effective nurturing of EM
POs is of course implicit in this.
|Year||EM RCB Passes
||EM Entered RMAS
|2000-01 to date||14
||8see note (1)|
(1) There are a further four EM POs loaded onto January
2001 RMAS Cse.
6. The successes in the earlier years of the CRE Partnership
Agreement can be attributed to a combination of the following:
(a) An early recruiting Action Plan in January 1997 that
gave co-ordination and focus to the EM recruiting effort and set
Army targets that were more challenging than those contained within
the Departmental Plan at the time.
(b) Research in 1996 that looked at views of an Army career
by EM youth. The recommendations became the tenets of the subsequent
Army Equal Opportunities (EO) Directive, including the associated
Army recruiting plan. The research recommended that the Army should:
Admit they have a problem with racism.
Say what the Army is doing about it.
Show a clear commitment to recruiting black
and Asian youths.
Fill the information gap about the Army.
(a) The news-worthiness of the EM recruiting campaign,
including the launch by the Chief of the General Staff in October
1997 of the new EO Directive, and the trial of the Community Partnership
Model in Brent in early 1998.
(b) A creative, imaginative and challenging series of
TV, press and radio advertisements.
(c) Strong leadership from senior Army officers in both
admitting that there was a problem and taking positive steps to
(d) The establishment of the Ethnic Minorities Recruiting
Team (EMRT) and their positive impact as part of the recruiting
campaign. Their main focus is to conduct core recruiting activities
in areas of high EM population.
7. The centre of gravity of the campaign shifted markedly
during 1999-2000 from core recruiting to changing perceptions,
building credibility for the Army's message of diversity and image
generation. As a result, the Army fell short of its targets. Nevertheless,
the following points are worthy of note:
(a) Recent research into the campaign showed that the
initiative has helped inform black and Asian youth about Army
careers, and has had some success in boosting levels of interest
(b) Recruiting Group gave insufficient attention to exploiting
this interest and nurturing the potential recruits into and through
the recruiting process. A great deal of time, effort and resources
went into the campaign events, but these raised awareness and
invested in future response rather than creating enquiries at
(c) The position was not helped with the roll-out of a
new Management Information System across Recruiting Group between
May and December 1999. During the re-equipment programme there
were serious data migration problems that resulted in flawed data
being produced. For example, in July 1999, the Management Information
System was reporting 2.8 per cent EM soldier enlistments when
in reality the achievement was 2.1 per cent. Had earlier sight
of this under-achievement been available this would have resulted
in remedial action being taken in a more timely manner.
(d) EM enquirers do not convert as readily into enlistments
as their white counterparts. For example, the white conversion
rate for 1998-99 is 3.6 enquirers: 2.6 applicants: one enlistment.
The EM conversion rate is 4.9 enquirers: three applicants: one
enlistment. Research into this lower conversion rate conducted
through COI in late 1998/early 1999 led to two main recommendations:
Provide direct access to the Army and in particular
to successful black and Asian serving personnel. This would involve
continuing the Army's very successful outreach programme, reiterating
the Army's anti-racist stance during the enquiry process and the
fact that all races are welcome.
Take a more proactive approach to enquirers,
encouraging them to return, re-contacting them and reassuring
them that the Army challenge, although demanding is achievable.
8. While the Army failed to deliver against its target
of 3 per cent in 1999-2000, Table 2 shows clearly that significant
progress is being made this year towards achieving the higher
9. The activities of ethnic minority recruiting in the
Household Division merit a separate mention. The EM recruiting
campaign was personally backed by Major General Sir Evelyn Webb-Carter
involved the Division in a great deal of work and numerous initiatives.
It was approached on a number of key levels.
10. The first, at the strategic level initiatives by
the headquarters Household Division included contacting Members
of Parliament which in turn led to a series of useful meetings
and enabled further contacts to be developed with influential
figures in the EM community. A close relationship was established
with Bob Purkiss and as a result of early EM recruiting success
and the obvious commitment by the Division, the threat by the
CRE to serve a notice of Institutionalised Racism against them
was lifted. A Regional Co-ordination Committee (RCC) for London
District was set up to monitor and advise all the various military
organisations on EO and racial issues as part of their general
recruitment activities and the consultancy engaged by RG worked
closely with them in establishing a fast hold in the EM community
in the London area.
11. Of particular interest and importance was their attendance
at the Schools Conference at Wembley in March 2000 and the Media
Days, one in London in May 1998 and one in Windsor in February
2000. These have resulted in a number of school children volunteering
to do their two week summer work experience with the Household
12. Tactically, a great deal has been done to physically
impress and persuade young men to join the Division. They provide
team leaders for the Princes' Trust, encourage visit to the battalions,
the Guard Mount and their Guards Museum. Each Regiment produces
a six monthly progress report on their recruiting activities locally
and that of their nation-wide recruiting staff. Project PANORAMA,
which is a four day work experience course run at Pirbright has
proved to be very popular with schools and is booked well in advance.
13. The Household Cavalry (ie the Household Cavalry Regiment
based in Windsor and the Household Cavalry Mounted Regiment based
in London) have been particularly successful and have established
semi-permanent links with a number of schools, fostering interests,
trust and enthusiasm. They are very active and efficient. A slick
recruiting operation has been introduced involving videos and
this is followed up. All newly trained soldiers are sent on satisfied
soldier scheme after they have completed Phase 2 training.
14. As a result of this commitment EM numbers have risen
from eight serving soldiers within the Division in October 1997
to 42 in October 2000.
B. CONTINUING OBJECTIVE
Review of Activities
1. During the first year of the CRE Action Plan (1996-97)
the Army carried out research into the views of black and Asian
youths about careers in the Army. The findings are set out in
Section A of this report. Importantly the Chief of the General
Staff also accepted these findings, which helped shape the development
of the EO Directive during 1997.
2. As part of this and other research it was concluded
that there was a need to present serving soldiers as role models
to the EM communities. The first EMRT came together in September
1997 and, after training were presented as part of the EO Directive
and EM recruiting campaign launched by the Chief of the General
Staff in October 1997.
3. A key tenet of the recruitment campaign has been educating
the recruiting field force, in order to remove any possible attitudinal
barriers amongst recruiting staff in offices. Evaluation of the
selection processes is covered separately in this report. All
serving recruiters were trained by means of a roadshow conducted
in late 1996/early 1997 by staff from HQ RG, as part of the CRE
Action Plan. All newly commissioned recruiters have, since early
1998, received two days EO training at the Army School of Recruiting
in Bovington. Further training was given during the roadshow across
England and Wales in early 2000.
4. The achievement of the Army ethnic minority recruitment
target in 1997-98 was the product of two aspects of recruit marketing:
The internal action plan produced in January 1997
provided the framework for activity based marketing in the regions.
The creation of EM Liaison Officers and the focusing of Outreach
activities helped generate interest in the Army.
The ethnic minority recruiting campaign provided
the national advertising backdrop that assisted all regions but
particularly Brent where the EMRT operated within the framework
of the Community Partnership Model developed by Focus Consultancy.
The Brent trial, which took place between January and March 1998
helped the Army to achieve its targets in 1998-99, and shaped
the development of future Army recruitment policy. Post-event
evaluation also recorded that the events had helped to change
perceptions about the Army as a career of relevance to the black
and Asian communities.
5. In April 1999 Recruiting Group contracted the services
of Focus Consultancy at a cost of £5.5 million from the total
recruiting budget over three years. The Consultancy developed
the Community Partnership Model in Brent in early 1998. The task
of the Consultancy is to build bridges into the EM communities
by facilitating the community partnerships across the EM communities
in England and Wales.
6. The Community Partnership Model is a long-term method
aimed at changing social perceptions on cultural diversity. It
is based on the idea of mutual interest and respect between the
Army and the communities from which it seeks to recruit, based
on the Army's new, inclusive position on diversity set out in
the Chief of the General Staff's Equal Opportunities Directive.
7. The Army launched the current stage of the EMRC in
April 1999 at Sandwell. The launch was facilitated by the Consultancy
and was led by the Minister for the Armed Forces. It was attended
by Sir Herman Ouseley and the Director General Army Training &
8. Two large Regional Conferences were held, in London
and Nottingham in 1999-2000. The highlight was the London Regional
Conference at Wembley, which led to the campaign being officially
endorsed by HRH The Prince of Wales. In addition to the Regional
Conferences, many local events have taken place.
9. The Army has created over 30 community partnerships
in London, the Midlands, the North, the South-West and Wales,
in partnership with the Consultancy. These partnerships are being
consolidated all the time through regular meetings, attendance
at events, and local sponsorship.
10. A photographic exhibition of "Black and Asian
Soldiers contribution to the British Army", has been touring
Britain since March 2000.
11. Graduate recruitment fairs are targeting universities
with a high proportion of high quality EM undergraduates.
12. Since February 2000, the EMRT have been re-tasked
Concentrate on London and the West Midlandsthe
greatest centres of black and Asian populations in the UK.
Priorities have been re-ordered to:
(1) Priority 1Core recruiting
(2) Priority 2Nurturing of
Black and Asian enquirers.
(3) Priority 3Image support
The first years of the partnership saw the Army
achieve its targets, through a combination of high profile PR,
specific EM advertising and core recruiting activity by the EMRT.
1999-2000 saw a shift towards greater image generation
and less core recruiting. This resulted in a less steep rise in
the number of recruits from black and Asian communities, and in
failure to achieve recruitment targets.
Since February 2000, and the re-tasking of the
EMRT, EM recruiting has risen from 2.2 per cent to over 3.2 per
cent of the total intake into the Army.
14. The Action Plan has been underpinned throughout by
research, in order to ensure that internal and external barriers
are being targeted and broken down effectively:
Counterpoint Research (November 1996) to establish
how best to market the Army to young people and influences of
an EM background.
Evaluation of Army EM Initiatives (August 1998)
to evaluate the effectiveness of the Brent Initiative.
Conversion Rate research (February 1999) to investigate
the reasons for lower conversion by EM enquirers to enlistment
than their white counterparts.
About Face (May 1999) to establish young people's
attitudes to the Army.
Evaluation of the Army's EM Recruiting Initiative
15. Research continues into all aspects of recruiting
and in particular into exploring the racial and cultural differences
in the recruitment process.
16. Evaluation. The campaign has been driven by research.
The initial research in 1996 shaped the formulation of the Action
Plan in 1997, the Conversion Rate research resulted in the publication
of the EM Nurturing Op Order, issued in August 1999, and the other
research allows subtler changes to be made to the marketing and
operational effort as the recruitment campaign continues.
17. During the last four years the pan-Army Management
Structure has continued to evolve. This structure is set out in
the Army Recruiting Policy Statement, which is co-signed by the
Adjutant General and Commander-in-Chief Land Command. This policy
document brings cohesion to the efforts of both commands in the
recruiting arena. The benefit of this has been to ensure that
the EM recruiting campaign is brought into sharp focus within
the Regional Brigade structure. Regional Brigade Commanders have
thus been able to bring the resources of the Field Army to bear
in the campaign to improve the representation of EM Britons in
18. The Regional Recruiting Co-ordination Committees,
which are chaired by the Brigade Commander, will, in time, assume
responsibility for the maintenance of the community relationships
established by Recruiting Group and Focus Consultancy.
It is not possible to evaluate the effectiveness
of these measures. However, the engagement of the Regional Brigade
Commanders in the process of EM recruiting is raising the level
of profile in the recruiting arena from Lieutenant Colonel (senior
recruiting staff) to Brigadier (regional brigade commanders).
Brigade commanders are driving the involvement
in EM recruiting from members of the Field Army under their command.
This is spreading the diversity message through the Army and is
getting Field Army units into the EM communities.
20. Review of Selection.
British Army Recruit Battery of Tests. Adverse
impact was identified in the British Army Recruit Battery of tests
(known as BARB) where scores in excess of 42 were identified.
As a result, pending the procurement of a new selection test,
RG issued comprehensive instructions for the administration of
BARB, to ensure that the effect of the adverse impact in the test
was minimised. These procedures are aimed at minimising the affects
of possible adverse impact in relation to BARB for scores in excess
of 42 for EM applicants in order to improve EM conversion rates.
Monitoring and quality control procedures will underpin existing
measures outlined in the Army's "Best Practice" Policy.
Personal Qualities Assessment Profile. A report
by the Defence Establishment Research Agency into possible adverse
impact in the Personal Qualities Assessment Profile (PQAP) Version
1, which was published in January 1999, concluded that no adverse
impact was identified against ethnic minorities. These findings
are encouraging for the Army and go some way to counter-balance
the possible adverse impact operating with the BARB.
Future Selection Processes. The Army is investigating
enhancements to existing selection systems and these are being
assessed by Human Sciences (Army). These include the extension
of the time spent in the Recruit Selection Centre to provide a
realistic job preview, and the examination of personality, motivation
and team working measures. No new measure will be introduced in
the short term and not before a full validation (subject to external
review) has been conducted.
21. The following main instructions have been issued
since the start of the partnership:
January 1997The Recruiting Group Ethnic
Minority Recruiting Action Plan.
September 1998EM Officer Recruiting Action
February 1999Tri-Service Religious Guidance
for Commanding Officers/NCOs/Recruiters.
April 1999EM Recruiting Campaign 1999-2000
August 1999EM Nurturing Operations Order.
Spring 2000The entire recruiting field
force was re-briefed on the background to the ethnic minority
element of the recruiting campaign, their role in it and their
22. Evaluation. It is not possible to evaluate the effect
of each instruction. Written instructions are effective when prescribing
co-ordinated activities, or setting out policy, but in even within
the recruiting organisation there are over 700 servicemen involved
in the process, and face-to-face briefings are most effective
in communicating policy and orders. Part of the recovery in EM
recruiting seen since the start of the year can be attributed
to the road show, which took place earlier this year.
23. EMRT Activity. The core of the campaign is the EMRT.
Task. The aim of the EMRT is to provide a further
resource to recruiting that is focused on the requirement to increase
recruitment from ethnic minority groups, in particular through
the use of role models.
Objectives. The team works nationally, promoting
awareness of career opportunities in the Army to members of the
public from an EM background, working alongside Recruiters, Army
Careers Advisers and civilian agencies such as Focus. The team
has three main objectives:
(1) To enhance core recruiting activities in support
of the EM recruiting campaign in areas of high concentration.
(2) To nurture young EM recruits, ensuring appropriate
follow up action is taken.
(3) To support image and PR activities as directed by
HQ Recruiting Group to enhance the EM recruiting effort, on an
individual, group or team basis.
Establishment. The planning figure for the EMRT
is one Officer and 13 soldiers.
Events EMRT Attended. The EMRT has attended over
500 events since its formation. The events have been attended
by over 1.2 million people.
24. Outreach Activities. Outreach provides an opportunity
for personal contact between young people and the Army. It is
planned to extend provision for this activity in the current year.
The overall trend is that the figure for EM attendance at outreach
activities is rising again and is due to the drive to expand outreach
activities across the UK.
25. National Mentoring Consortium (NMC). The Army joined
the NMC in 1997 in order to contact ethnic minority undergraduates.
We continue to be involved with the organisation and attended
their Careers Day on 2 November 2000.
26. Race for Opportunity. The Army is a Race for Opportunity
Champion and continues to make huge efforts within the organisation.
In the Midlands Major Barry Williams has recently taken up a post
as Chairman of the Employment Group.
27. The Household Division has introduced a number of
Ethnic Minorities Liaison Officer (EMLO). The
EMLO has been established primarily to change the perception of
ethnic minorities towards the Household Division in London, Nottingham,
Bristol, Leicester and Bradford. Other tasks include liaison between
regiments and the Headquarters, liaison with FOCUS Consultancy
and convening Racial Equality Meeting every six months to discuss
progress and the way ahead.
Ethnic Minorities Liaison Warrant Officer (EML
WO). The EML WO has been established to work directly with Youth
Club leaders and Gatekeepers with the aim of persuading high quality
young men to join the Household Division. He also acts as a mentor
for those joining to alleviate any concerns that they or their
parents might have.
Discussion Groups. The Headquarters convenes a
discussion group to discuss racial issues every six months. The
attendees, approximately 25-30 at each event, have ranged from
Sgt-Maj and the hosts have included Bob Purkiss (CRE) and Inspector
Paul Wilson (Chairman Black Policemen's Association). The aim
of these meetings is to educate those within the Household Division
who are then well placed to influence attitudes when they return
to their posts.
28. Soldier and Officer Activity:
An integrated recruiting marketing campaign especially
focused upon diversity issues and supporting black and Asian recruiting
has been implemented. The advertisements within the Phase 2 marketing
campaign, which commenced on 8 September 2000, also have a clear
ethnic minority and diversity thread running through them.
PR and relationship marketing strategies have
taken the lead over advertising as the means to communicate our
messages. PR has continued to raise and maintain the profile of
the Army within the target EM communities.
(1) Coverage for the Household Division on the front
page of the Evening Standard of 15 February 2000 with the
banner headline, " Army winning war on Racism".
(2) Coverage in 23 titles for the attendance of HRH The
Prince of Wales at its recruiting event on 14 and 15 March 2000.
(3) The black members of the British Olympic team (John
Regis, Tony Jarett and Keith Richardson) took part in Project
Olympiana training exercise with the British Army.
(4) Captain Sal Ahsan appeared on Channel East Television's
women's programme to discuss Asian women in the Army.
(5) A full-page feature appeared in the Evening Standard
on Lt Os Muhammad, who was part of the British Force in Sierra
29. Publications.There have been four editions of Future
Force, the ethnic minority recruiting newspaper, produced by FOCUS.
The following publications are in progress:
30. Army Fact Sheet. This will be an information leaflet
for Gatekeepers. There will be an English master version that
will translated into minority languages as required, it will cover
specific points on cultural integration and is designed to belay
31. Career Opportunities in the Army. This can be used
as a stand-alone flyer or as an insert. It is a first level general
information leaflet. It covers the fact that the Army has an EO
Directive, Confidential Helpline, Investigation Team, Complaints
Procedure and provides EO Training and Unit EO Advisers.
32. Websites. The Army website now includes EM representation.
The London recruiting campaign includes features on young black
and Asian soldiers. A link is being developed between the Army
and UK Black Links websites.
33. Evaluation. Marketing activity alone will not generate
recruits from black and Asian communities. It will raise awareness
of the fact that the Army is recruiting, communicate its key messages,
and in part will drive a response to encourage young black and
Asian men and women. However, it is part of the overall recruiting
effort, and will not be effective without a comprehensive programme
of outreach activity.
C. RETENTION OF
1. The proportion of EM personnel serving in the Army,
and the quality of their life, is significantly better now than
it was at the beginning of the MoD/CRE Partnership. This is because
there is now a real will to correct the wrongs of the past and
senior levels of the Army are committed to achieving this. The
message that the colour of someone's skin, or their ethnicity,
makes no difference to the potential they have to contribute to
operational effectiveness, together with our policy of zero tolerance,
is now understood and practised. The lesson has been learnt that
it is not sufficient to say that we have a policy of zero tolerance
for it to happen, the Army's internal discipline system has to
be able to deliver it. Significant developments have taken place
in this area since 1996 moving away from the need to provide a
burden of proof required to criminal charges to a system which
relies on the balance of probabilities. The Army's disciplinary
system now reflects best practice in those civilian companies
who are at the cutting edge of race relations polices, and provides
a range of sanctions for behaviour which complies with the Race
Relations Act and the Army's Values and Standards.
2. The last few years have seen great improvements in
developing the Army's policies on race relations. Care has been
taken to maintain operational effectiveness while managing the
change to ensure that morale has not been affected. It has been
important therefore, only to implement those polices which are
not perceived by the majority as indirectly discriminatory and
in doing this we have learnt from some of our allies, for whom
political correctness has been more important than operational
3. The hard facts are that in 1996-97 only 1 per cent
of the Army were from EM with a net outflow, but by 1998-99 although
the Army was still at 1 per cent there was a marginal net gain
with more joining than leaving. The Army is now showing a year
on year increase in EM representation (see tables below) and in
1999-2000 initiatives began to bear fruit reaching 1.5 per cent.
The September 2000 of 1.75 per cent of the Army were from EM
shows a significant improvement on the 1996 figure.
4. Capturing the data for the TA was a lengthy process
due to a less sophisticated data capture system, but 78 per cent
was achieved by June 1998 with 97 per cent surveyed by 1999. Figures
show that approximately
2.7 per cent of the TA (and Reservists) are from EM. This higher
figure is in part because EM volunteers remain in their communities
and with their support systems. This has the advantage of promoting
the Army's imagine in ethnic communities and providing a source
of personnel who serve on short-term regular engagements (there
are currently six TA EM soldiers serving with the regular Army).
5. The key to improving EM retention in the Army has
been to improve the environment in which they serve. The Army
has led the way in introducing a variety of positive action measures
designed specifically to improve numbers and quality of life,
they stress education and consultation, focus groups, EOA seminars
and advice lines for Commanding Officers.
6. Between 1 October 1996 and 1 October 2000 Army EM
manpower has increased by 1,021 and stands at 2,082.
This past year has seen an increase of non-whites serving in the
Army and represents our successful efforts to recruit both UK
Nationals and Commonwealth citizens. In addition there has been
an encouragingly marked increase in the recruitment of EM females
who, at 1 September 2000, represent 2.1 per cent of the total
female strength. The total figures year on year, are as follow:
|In-Service at the start of the period||1,066
|Trained Voluntary outflow||63
|Trained In-Voluntary outflow||45
|Total EM Outflow||156
7. The CRE and MoD are now working in partnership, not
opposition, and the difference in the relationship is having an
obvious impact on the attitudes of EM to the image and perception
of the Army as a suitable employer. There are short-term problems
to overcome however because, although the above table is positive,
the EM population of the Army is more senior in terms of years
served and a higher
proportion are now leaving the Army on completion of their service.
The situation will improve but not in the medium-term. A graph
showing a comparison of EM and whites against years served is
a Annex A. This reflects the success over the past three years
and the historic figures represented in the years 19+ against
the lean years in between. Retention of EM is better than that
of whites, however, as many long-serving EM soldiers are due to
complete their service in the next few years; care is being taken
to assess the impact that the lack of role models may have in
the short-term on the junior soldiers. This will be undertaken
through continuous attitudinal surveys. A graph showing a forecast
of the future ethnicity of the Army based on achieving both recruiting
goals and maintaining the current rates of retention are at Annex
D. CONTINUING OBJECTIVE
1. The reasons for premature voluntary release are examined
on a regular basis and the following table shows the EM inflow
and trained outflow rates over the past four years as a percentage
of the whole compared with whites. The outflow rates, both voluntary
and involuntary, for EM are in most cases less than their overall
representation in the Army and inflow rates are significantly
higher (key figures in bold). It is interesting and encouraging
to see that the figures indicate that very few EM choose to leave
the Army prematurely and that this figure is reducing over time
(figure in normal text). Figures for the remainder of the Army
do not show a similar pattern.
|EM Trained Voluntary||0.7%
2. Given that the rates of premature wastage (voluntary
outflow) of EM officers and soldiers are lower than both their
overall representation in service and the rates at which they
are currently being recruited, there is no evidence to suggest
that ethnicity is a factor in premature wastage of either soldiers
or officers. This does not mean that we are complacent, all soldiers
who wish to terminate their service are interviewed by their Commanding
Officer to establish the reasons and whether anything can be done
to retain them. This process is also carefully monitored by the
Chain of Command and the Military Secretary's staff.
E. INCREASED NUMBERS
1. We have not been as successful in attracting EM to
be Officers as we have in attracting soldiers. There is an inevitable
time lag in officer recruiting compared to soldier recruiting
because most officer cadets are graduates. A young officer passing
RCB at 18 may not be available to start training for 3-4 years
(delay can be up to nine years), until he or she has completed
university education. This was not identified initially as a problem
but is now being addressed. At present however, there is a lack
of representation at the highest level. The last main stream EM
General retired in 1989.
2. This year however there has been an increased representation
with a further 2 EM Lieutenant Colonels being selected for promotion
to Colonel as well as increased representation at all the officer
ranks from subaltern to Lieutenant Colonel. Less encouraging is
the reduction of middle ranking EM NCOs, as predicted two years
ago, caused by a large percentage of EM soldiers coming to the
end of their service. The legacy of poor EM recruiting and retention
in the 1980s and early 1990s means that there will be a gap in
these ranks until more junior soldiers progress. There is an encouraging
influx of junior soldiers, which should redress the in-balance.
Details are shown in the table below:
|Rank||EM(M&F)1 Apr 98
||EM(M&F)1 Apr 99
||EM(M&F)1 Apr 00
||EM(M&F)1 Sep 00
|WO1 and 2||93
3. Ethnic Minority Promotion. Statistics show that at
a finite point in time after April 2002, 5 per cent of Privates
and Second Lieutenants should be from ethnic minorities; at a
later point, 5 per cent of Corporals and Captains should be ethnic
minorities; and so on, until 5 per cent of Warrant Officers Class
1 and General officers are ethnic minorities.
To achieve this overarching goal the Army will have to continue
to meet its ethnic minority recruitment goals, and continue to
operate fair and unbiased promotion procedures which in turn should
encourage retention of both ethnic minorities and white soldiers.
F. CONTINUING OBJECTIVE
1. The Army has a structure based on age, rank and length
of service. The unique skills, experience and competencies required
to maintain an operationally effective Army make it impossible
to buy-in people, therefore, any fundamental change in the personnel
balance can only be made at the recruitment level. As soldier
careers are 22 years and officer careers are up to 37 years, holistic
change is unfeasible. Progress is being made however, at the recruitment
level the ethnicity of the Army is now at approximately 7 per
cent of which 3-3.5 per cent is expected to be achieved by UK
EM recruiting and 3.5-4 per cent by recruiting EM Commonwealth
citizens. Although as yet this change in ethnicity has only a
marginal effect on the total Army, it should however, be embraced
as positive change. The CRE have argued that promotion to middle
management is slow (ie it takes 11 years
on average to reach Sergeant) and the requirement to produce role
models and support systems are suffering. This is somewhat out
of context. For people with appropriate skills, intellect and
qualifications there are a number of fast track systems; commissioning,
service in technical corps where promotion is quicker (average
time to Sergeant in Int Corps is seven years five months), commissioning
from the ranks, and fast track promotion within the ranks (the
very best can reach Sergeant in approximately five years). The
Army is a meritocracy, the best person gets the job. It is also
a training organisation which delivers high calibre training to
address shortfalls. Attempts to reduce standards and experience
for promotion for EM would be flawed, and possibly unlawful, run
the risk of damaging operational effectiveness and create barriers
to the acceptance of diversity. It is however vital to look for
areas where EM are discriminated against or barriers exist preventing
equality of opportunity.
2. Detailed statistics inform us where there are anomalies
in representation, career development and promotion and allow
informed decisions to be taken for our recruiting efforts, and
allow us to examine processes and working practices which may
be proving to be indirect barriers to minority groups in the Army.
The initial 1996 statistics highlighted two areas for further
analysis, JNCO promotions and the Staff training selection process.
In 1997-98 two disparities were highlighted, conversions from
short-service to regular commissions for EM and white officers,
and the lack of career progression for EM officers in the Army
Medical Services (AMS). However some of these problems were at
the time exaggerated by the comparatively small statistical database.
This data has enabled detailed analysis in selected areas with
the following results:
a. JNCO Promotions. This is an area of concern.
Historically the number of EM at SNCO rank have been higher than
average, but due to the poor EM recruiting of the late 1980s and
early 1990s there is a deficit of JNCOs. Qualification for JNCO
promotion is a complicated area with each arm having its own trade
and career tests for promotion that has made it impossible to
do cross arm comparisons. This is an area of weakness which requires
improved analysis and it is currently being studied. Quantitative
data does not indicate a problem in this area.
b. Staff Selection Process. There are very few EM
eligible for selection for Staff College where Majors are trained
for higher staff and command appointments. Entry is through open
competition, dependent on passing a work related examination and
holding a regular commission. At present only two
EM are eligible. Statistically this is too small to be analysed
against a white pool of 1,786. Analysis is therefore based on
quantitative data, as yet there is no evidence of discrimination,
but this is an area which is under observation.
c. Conversion Rates. Army Medical Services (AMS),
have a comparatively high incidence of EM officers. They operate
a different conversion system to the rest of the Army, from Short
Service Commission (SSC) to Regular Commission (Reg C). This is
because all AMS officers join on a Short Service Commission (SSC),
and remain on SSC until professionally qualified. The rest of
the Army has a system whereby an officer may join on either a
Reg C or a SSC and convert at some stage within the first eight
years of his or her service. As a result, within the AMS generally,
the proportion of SSC officers is significantly higher than the
rest of the Army and since a high proportion of EM officers in
the Army are in the AMS this explains the lack of EM conversions
to Reg C. The statistics excluding officers of the AMS show that
there is still a proportional discrepancy between EM and white
officer take-up of Reg C and Special Regular Commissions (SRC).
All officers are now commissioned onto SSC on leaving RMAS. Conversion
to Reg C or Intermediate Regular Commission (IRCthe new
SRC) will begin approximately three years after commissioning.
We intend to continue monitoring and analysing the figures.
d. AMS Officers. To allay concerns that EM officers
were promoted at a later age in the Army Medical Services, a new
table was introduced in 1999 specifically for the AMS. The differences
in career progression between EM officers and white officers have
now been resolved. EM officers tend to join the AMS at a later
stage in their medical careers and since promotion in the AMS
is based on time rather than qualifications (although that is
set to change shortly), they are promoted, on average, at a later
age. In terms of years served to promotion, however, they outperform
3. The factual situation, explained above, can be ascertained
from the various statistics that are prepared, perceptions are
more difficult to gather and analyse, but they are actively reviewed
during focus groups and attitude surveys, with mixed results.
Positively, focus groups give a "guarded welcome" to
race initiatives. Serving EM soldiers say there has been a noticeable
improvement in conditions, and that overt racism has been largely
eradicated from the work place. The more negative aspect is that
that racism has now become more covert, and is still apparent
during social events and sport.
4. Results from the Continuous Attitude Survey (CAS)
show that approximately 48 per cent of all EM personnel questioned
have been the victim of some form of racial harassment in their
careers. The data does not indicate at what stage they received
this harassment, but it does perhaps suggest why our current policies
are only given a guarded welcome. With this in mind CAS has been
updated this year to ask the question "have you been subjected
to harassment in the last 12 months?"
5. Key initiatives to remove barriers and redress the
balance are centred on recruitment, education and training and
a. Training and Education. Training and education
is now included at all levels. The mandatory annual training package
is being reviewed with the intention of widening the scope of
the subject. Feedback from this year's COs' survey and the focus
groups showed that some of the Equal Opportunities Advisers were
not suited to the appointment. This has led to the establishment
of a Regimental Career Management Officer (RCMO or HR officer).
This individual will be carefully selected and will be responsible
for all aspects of HR including EO and the delivery of unit EO
b. Censure. Currently there are two options available
to deal with the perpetrators of racial harassment. Individuals
may be criminally prosecuted under the disciplinary system if,
amongst other considerations, there is sufficient evidence to
prove the offence beyond doubt. There is also an administrative
system whereby administrative action can be taken. In the past
it has been based on "incontrovertible evidence", however,
a new instruction Army General and Administrative Instruction
(AGAI) 67, has now been issued, lowering the standard of evidence
required for administrative action to that which would prove that
events occurred on a "balance of probability" ie the
same standard of evidence required by Employment Tribunals.
G. ACTION TO
1. Real progress has been made at a number of levels
to establish and maintain the correct environment. The partnership
between MoD and CRE is proving beneficial in this respect and
is not just a paper tiger. The Army has also benefited from the
public support of Sir Herman Ouseley, Dame Jocelyn Barrow and
Gurkux Singh. On another level the relationship in London between
Sir Evelyn Webb-Carter and Bob Purkiss has been of great value
and has been instrumental in ensuring that perceptions, especially
outside the Household Division have been positive in nature. Visits
have also been made by senior officers to EM communities throughout
the country and GOC London District has spoken at a number of
the Gurdwara, most notably at Britain's largest Sikh temple in
Southall in November 1999.
Policy Statements and Communication
2. General Sir Charles Guthrie, as Chief of the General
Staff (CGS), issued an EO Directive for the Army on 20 December
1995. Since then the Directive has become an AGAI (Chapter 75
volume 2, which is currently being updated). Each successive CGS
has continued to put his seal of approval on EO policy. The policy
has been dynamic and has reacted to changes in legislation and
policy to become more corporate in its approach.
3. In October 1998 the EO Directive was redrafted as
an operations order. The Mission Statement read:
"The Army is to achieve a working environment free from
discrimination, harassment and intimidation in which every individual
has an equal opportunity to contribute to the Army's operational
4. General Sir Michael Walker, the current Chief of the
General Staff (CGS) issued his EO directive to the Army on 20
April 2000 (six days after taking post). This directive is an
unequivocal statement of EO policy setting out responsibilities
and actions across the Chain of Command. It sets out the legal
obligations of commanders and reinforces the Army Board's commitment
to diversity. CGS's policy is as follows:
"The Army is committed to the continuing development
and use of Service policies, practices and procedures which respect
and value every individual's unique contribution, irrespective
of their gender, marital status, race, ethnic origin or religious
belief, without reference to social background or sexual orientation."
5. The directive tasks the Adjutant General (AG) with
production of EO Policy and the EO Action Plan. Implementation,
review and monitoring of the Plan are the responsibility of Director
of Personnel Services (Army). The Action Plan is a detailed report
on the EO achievements and failures for the previous year and
future initiatives for the Army. It sets out specific targets
for the chain of command to achieve over the following 12 months.
6. Since July 1997 the Army Equal Opportunities Action
Plan has been issued annually by the Executive Committee of the
Army Board (ECAB). Each unit in the Army has since then been directed
to produce their own action plans cascading down from the Army
plan. These plans are followed by verbal briefings of support
from commanders at all levels. ECAB review the action plan on
a six monthly basis thus ensuring that actions are addressed and
resourced. In essence 16 per cent of ECAB meetings involve EO
7. Since April 1996 the Army has issued EO Newsletters
to keep Unit Equal Opportunities Advisers abreast of any policy
changes and best practice. This newsletter is on wide circulation
and includes articles from outside experts and from readers. Feedback
from the units indicate that the Newsletter is a much appreciated
form of communication as it fills the role of providing an informal
conduit for cross-structure communications and allows for top-down
and bottom-up flow of information.
Positive Action 1996-2000
8. The Continues Attitude Survey (CAS) . The CAS provides
us with valuable data but due to the relatively small sample of
EM soldiers it does not represent a panacea as the information
gathered requires judgement and interpretation. From 1996 questions
of EO issues have been included and the replies serve as a source
of both quantitative and qualitative data, modifications were
introduced in 1998 by the addition of a series of supplementary
questions to address specific areas. This year the CAS is being
revised and will include some more specific questions on EO issues.
9. Monthly Case Return. Introduced in 1996 to raise the
profile of monitoring of EO cases and improve monitoring.
10. Equal Opportunities Inquiry Team (EOIT). The EOIT
was established in October 1997, to investigate claims of harassment
of racial and sexual nature. Their main aim is to assist with
zero tolerance. They have also proved to be a very useful EO tool
to help develop EO policies. Any lessons learned by the team are
reported back in formal reports.
11. Record of Formal Complaints EOIT Cases. The Army
keeps a record of serious cases which allow them to gauge the
environment. This is submitted monthly to the MoD, allowing them
to monitor those serious complaints that result in either formal
redress of complaint or Employment Tribunal application
12. Redress of Complaints. A revised and simplified complaints
system was introduced in the autumn of 1997, to comply with the
changes in the Armed Forces Act. This was issued in the form of
AGAI volume 2 Chapter 70 (which was updated in September 2000).
It was supported with two leaflets "HarassmentHow
to complain about it", and "EO in the Army" which
were issued to all officers and soldiers in the Army in November
1997. These leaflets receive periodic updates and are still being
issued. This policy represented a sea change in the EO climate
as individuals who felt aggrieved were now encouraged to air their
13. Confidential Helpline. The Confidential Helpline
was established in December 1997 to provide confidential support
and advice for anyone who felt they did not want to use other
channels. It is independent of the chain of command and is run
by SSAFA Forces. Its launch was widely publicised by the distribution
of 200,000 leaflets and articles in Army publications. The Helpline
is now well known, it receives up to 100 calls per month but it
is interesting to note that the majority of the calls are not
on EO issues. Helpline details are regularly published on unit
orders, and elsewhere. An annual report is produced by the Helpline
staff which is a useful indicator of the general morale of the
14. Focus Groups. Focus Groups were introduced in 1997-98
as a system to assess the EO climate. They allow EM soldiers to
be directly involved in policy making and give them an opportunity
to say how they feel about the EO environment in a protected environment
away from the chain of command. 12 focus groups were conducted
in the first year (six x EM and six x Gender). A further 12 focus
groups were run in 1998-99 and 1999-2000. The first two reports
have the same themes running throughout the groups: that there
was a need for better EO training throughout the Army, and that
the selection of the right person for Unit EO Adviser was crucial
in implementing EO policies. These two issues have been addressed.
Other issues are that positive action is seen in a negative light,
and that positive action programmes will need careful handling
when being implemented across the Army. Comparisons are difficult
as we only now have three years' worth of data but some conclusions
are stark especially in the most recent focus groups conducted
in 1999-2000. EM give a guarded welcome to the initiatives, but
now feel that there are elements of overexposure of race issues.
They believe that overt racism and racism in the workplace is
no longer tolerated but there still remains some covert racism
in the form of social exclusion. More detailed analysis of the
social exclusion issue has led to suggestions from Royal Holloway
University of London (the facilitators), that this may be, in
part, due to a lack of trust from EM to get involved. This trust
could be the result of experiences outside the Army.
15. Survey of Commanding Officers (COs). In 1998 we wrote
to the COs of all units where an incident had taken place, to
ascertain what lessons could be learned from those incidents.
The results were not particularly surprising:
a. COs were generally satisfied that the complaints
procedures worked well, although it was clear that the personal
commitment of the CO was a critical element of that process.
b. The catalyst for COs to institute proactive EO
measures in their units tended to be the occurrence of an incident,
rather than a wish to avoid incidents taking place.
c. Some COs commented that joining the Army was,
for many of their soldiers, the first time that they had operated
in a multi-racial environment. This reinforced, in their eyes,
the need for education.
d. There were a number of comments that pressure
to take immediate and (in the opinion of some COs) disproportionate
action against alleged offenders had resulted in unfair treatment.
In one case, the level of punishment meted out (by the CO, but
at the clear direction of his commander) to an offender was so
severe that it caused a loss of confidence in EO policies in the
remainder of the unit.
e. All COs agreed that the way to prevent similar
incidents reoccurring was by education. In training units, that
training has been in place for some time, and closely mirrors
the style and content of ITD (A) 10.
16. Re-survey of COs (COs EO Questionnaire). A questionnaire
was sent out to all COs in LAND and the ATRA (the majority of
COs in the Army) in April 2000, asking whether they felt that
they were prepared and resourced to meet CGS's EO mission. 93.7
per cent said that they were. The replies to this questionnaire
raised a number of other routine issues that are being incorporated
into EO policy. The questionnaire encouraged COs to give further
thought to EO matters within their Units. It showed that there
had been a substantial improvement from the initial survey.
17. Regional Seminars. A new initiative, in 2000, has
been the institution of a series of 11 regional Army seminars;
at which, Unit EOAs throughout the Army are gathered to be updated
on policy changes and developments, and to offer their feedback
on issues of concern. EO Advisers are being imaginative and proactive
in seeking ways to achieve CGS' Mission; and most appeared suited
to the job (belaying some earlier fears).
18. CO's EO Guide. We propose issuing a "Commanders
Guide to Equal Opportunities in the Army" in 2001.
19. The Values and Standards for the British Army. The
Values and Standards for the British ArmyDirective and
booklet was introduced in March 2000. This Directive sets clear
guidelines for behaviour and conduct. Discipline and administrative
action underpin this. It has led to the revision of a number of
AGAIs associated with EO and the processing of complaints, which
have been delayed pending the production of the new AGAI 67. The
new AGAI will support the Code by facilitating administrative
action against perpetrators of racial and sexual abuse or harassment.
The introduction of the Code of Social Conduct has resulted in
a change to the Tri-Service EO Goal (amendments in bold):
"The Services Equal Opportunities Goal is to achieve
universal acceptance and application of a working environment
free from harassment, intimidation and unlawful discrimination,
in which all have equal opportunity, consistent with our legal
obligations, to realise their full potential in contributing to
the maintenance and enhancement of operational effectiveness.
The Armed Forces respect and value every individual's unique contribution,
irrespective of their race, ethnic origin, religion or gender
and without reference to social background or sexual orientation."
20. Since 1996 the Army has been an active member of
the following organisations:
b. CRE's Leadership Challenge.
c. National Mentoring Campaign.
The Army has continued to be involved with developing EM
organisations such as the Race Equality in Employment Project
which is headed by Bishops Wood and Sheppard. This project should
launch by 2001. The Community Partnership Model run on the Army's
behalf by Focus Consultancy is actively working in the community
to change perceptions. Last year Focus spread the message at events
attended by 191,000 people from the ethnic communities. This included
people from business, education establishments and the community
in general. They are having a real and measurable effect which
will lead to long-term change.
21. AG's Conference. AG held a conference 15-16 April
1998, attended by 400 delegates from Government, MoD, Service
Charities and the services. Key EO issues were discussed and policy
was developed. After the conference a newspaper produced by AG
carried details of the conference and key messages to 20,000 people
targeted at decision-makers, opinion-formers and gate-keepers.
Effective Action to Prevent Racist Abuse Bullying and Behaviour
22. Training. We believe the key to the Army's success
in achieving a better environment which is free from harassment
intimidation and unlawful discrimination is in training. A great
deal of effort has been expended in this direction. Since 1996
the following training initiatives have been instigated:
a. Individual Training.
MRO Staff. On-site training for all Manning and Records Office
Officer and Soldier Recruit Training in EO. By 1997-98 this
had evolved to formal instruction at RMAS followed by syndicate
discussions. In the Army Training Regiments (ATRs) this had evolved
to training on EO policy and their rights to complain.
EO training on Career courses. Initially this included soldiers
education for promotion courses and for regular officers Army
Junior Division of staff college for Captains. By 1997-98 this
also included directed reading for Lieutenants for their promotion
to Captain exams.
COs. COs on CODC were given a half days' training directly
by Col EP(A) the senior staff officer responsible for the delivery
Senior Officers. All senior Officers are trained on a one
day seminar. This seminar is for all one star officers and some
Colonels in Command appointments. By September 1998 this too was
moved to the TSEOTC, to create a holistic centre of excellence
for EO training. TSEOTC has now trained 275
Army senior officers.
b. Specialist training.
EOAs. They initially attended a one day course that was conducted
by EP(A). In April 1998 this course was increased to five days
and was conducted at the new Tri-Service Equal Opportunities Training
Centre at Shrivenham. Progress on this training is reported six
monthly to ECAB. The TSEOTC has now trained 1,366 Army EOAs.
Recruiting Staff. They initially attended a half day EO module
on their recruiting course, this was increased to two days in
c. Collective Training.
Individual Training Directive (ITD). An ITD package was developed
introduced in July 1998. ITDs are training packages which ensure
that everyone is trained annually as part of the units collective
training requirement. Initially this was done by a team from HQ
Land Command who conducted training until enough EOAs could be
trained. They trained 90 per cent of the Army and were disbanded
in Oct 99. By 1 January 1999 a training package was produced which
included a video, notes, and lesson plans. This gave the chain
of command the ability to provide detailed EO training which could
be adapted to suit their individual needs. The training is split
into two parts, a formal presentation and an informal discussion
of scenarios, tailored to deal with local issues. The ITD system
ensures that over 100,000 soldiers are trained in EO matters every
year. It is a radical approach to training, designed to move away
from the presentational style in order to promote discussion.
The package is designed to have a shelf-life of two years, after
which it will need updating. The process of updating this package
began on the Regional seminars where local EOAs ie the users of
the package commented on what they want. The package will be updated
in the new year.
23. The Facts.
a. The Army is committed to enforcing the administrative
processtwo soldiers have been discharged this year for
suspected links to racist groups.
b. The number of formal complaints has risen consistently
over the past three years, suggesting increased confidence in
the complaint procedure and a more open environment for reporting
c. The number of race-related discipline cases has
dropped over the same period. This is a crude-measuring tool,
but when compared with the general indications from the focus
groups that the nature of racism is becoming less overt, this
provides a more positive assessment on racism in the Army.
d. Focus groups found that the nature of racist
behaviour is less direct. Where comments such as "guarded
welcome to the EO policies" were made. This would seem to
indicate that our policies are on the right track. This is also
consistent with the conservative nature of the organisation.
The Army considers that it has made, and continues to make,
progress in changing the attitudes and perceptions to the ethnic
minorities, however it is not complacent and acknowledges that
there are still problems ahead.
As discussed a high proportion of middle ranking SNCOs are
reaching the end of their service. There will be a gap until the
newly recruited EM soldier reach this level of seniority. This
lack of representation will have to be managed. To date we are
doing this by increasing awareness that this is going to happen
and why, and preparing commanders at all levels for the situation.
There will be a need to monitor the impact on junior soldiers
very carefully through the continued use of attitude surveys.
There is a danger of increased "donor fatigue"
or EM overexposure, in the war against racism in the Army. We
believe it will become increasingly difficult to find volunteers
to be role models for EM; racism must not become yesterdays problem.
We must, and will, maintain the initiative at the very top of
the Army. AG is determined to retain the present practice of ECAB
taking a report on EO every six months and is personally committed
to the task.
In summary recruiting has achieved favourable results, particularly
in the Household Cavalry, and retention rates are a positive indicator
of our success.
With the introduction of TAFMIS , enquiries are recorded at a
later stage in the recruiting process than was the case with its
predecessor MARCH. Consequently, this figure is not directly comparable
to those for enquirers in previous years. Back
In-Service ethnicity measures include Commonwealth citizens serving
in the British Army, but does not cover Gurkha soldiers whom have
different conditions of service under the Tri-partite agreement. Back
Currently only 93.1 per cent of the TA has been surveyed, this
percentage fluctuates as TA service has a relatively high turnover.
DASA figures. Back
DASA Army headline figure, only strength figures available. Back
This year to date, 1 September 2000. Back
From April 1999, these figures exclude Fijians entering the Army. Back
This reflects the poor recruitment of EM in the late 1980s and
early 1990s. Back
? copy EM. Back
? copy EM. Back
2 x Lt Cols have been selected for promotion next year. Back
2 x Lt Cols have been selected for promotion next year. Back
2 x Lt Cols have been selected for promotion next year. Back
Note, however, that the Army already enjoys near proportional
representation throughout all ranks from Pte to Lt Col. At present,
it is only the ranks of Col and above which are under represented
in terms of the Army's 1.1 per cent EM. Details are at Annex B. Back
DASA Army figures. Back
DASA (Tri-Service) 1st Quarterly figures. Back
As at 30 October 2000. Back