Memorandum submitted by the Football Association
1. This second report to the Committee describes
England's 2006 World Cup campaign from its launch in 1997 until
Germany's victory in July 2000, and offers some suggestions for
future bids. The choice of venue for World Cup tournaments is
made by FIFA's 24-man Executive Committee. Bidders have to meet
FIFA's exacting "Requirements" and conform with its
campaign guidelines. Brazil, England, Germany, Morocco and South
Africa competed to host the 2006 World Cup (paras. 1.1-1.8).
2. The Football Association announced England's
Bid immediately following the successful EURO '96 tournament in
England. The strength of England's Bid lay in the success of the
domestic game, its modern stadia and world-wide following. It
was a serious blow when, in January 1997, UEFA declared its support
for Germany as a result of the so-called Gentlemen's Agreement,
under which UEFA allegedly awarded England EURO'96 in return for
England's acquiescence in Germany's nomination as Europe's candidate
for the 2006 World Cup. Even so, due to the strength of England's
case, we believed that these difficulties could be overcome and
that England could win (paras, 2.1-2.6).
3. The ingredients of England's Bid: its
secondary campaign objective was to promote the reputation of
English football. Key elements of its strategy focused on the
FIFA 24. A professional campaign style was adopted. "Six
Reasons" for supporting England. Importance of the Technical
Bid Document and of Government and Parliamentary support (paras.
3.1-3.13). An Action Plan was prepared, drawing upon the help
of the FCO and its overseas posts and of Bid Ambassadors Sir Bobby
Charlton, Geoff (later Sir Geoff) Hurst and Gary Lineker. Staffing
and budgetary requirements (£9.4 million) assessed, together
with corporate sponsorship (paras. 3.14-3.32).
4. Organisational aspects included a programme
of promotional events, multi-language publications, Bid merchandise
and a comprehensive database and media plan (paras. 4.1-4.23).
A major effort went into compiling a Technical Bid Document aimed
at satisfying FIFA's tournament requirements for Government guarantees,
finance, infrastructure, transport, accommodation, etc (paras.
5. England's campaign strategy, recognising
that at least 5 of UEFA's 8 votes could go to Germany, concentrated
initially on FIFA members outside Europe who had no regional candidate,
ie North/Central America and Caribbean; Asia; and Oceania. Importance
of "second preference votes" of South America and Africa
whose candidates (Brazil and South Africa/Morocco) might withdraw
or be eliminated in the voting. The campaign would seek to overcome
England's weak position in UEFA and FIFA by visiting each FIFA
member and by patiently building up relationships, also drawing
upon advice and help of Government and diplomatic posts overseas
6. Campaign Diary February 1997-June 1998:
campaign launched by Prime Minister, John Major, enjoyed Government
and all-party support throughout. Campaign staff recruited and
campaign funded by The FA, Premier League and Sport England. Handicap
of England's historically weak representation in UEFA and FIFA
(paras. 7.1-7.7). First lobbying visit to New York and Caribbean.
Serious problems with Saudi Arabia and England fixture. Initial
contacts with the Asians (paras. 7.8-7.13). FIFA President, Havelange,
tells Tony Blair that England is his "personal choice for
2006". Campaign visit to Paraguay and Argentina. South America
prefers England to Germany (paras. 7.14-7.20). Lobbying visit
to Qatar and to CONCACAF conference.
Saudi Sports Minister comes to England for Cup
Final and England v Saudi Arabia at Wembley (paras. 7.21-7.25).
7. The FA frustrates UEFA manoeuvre at FIFA
Congress to eliminate England's Bid and, after much soul-searching,
backs Blatter, FIFA General Secretary, rather than UEFA President,
Johansson, for FIFA Presidency. Blatter wins (para. 7.26-27).
1998 World Cup in France marred and Bid threatened by English
hooliganism at Marseilles (paras. 7.28-7.30).
8. Campaign Diary July 1998-July 1999: England's
campaign gaining ground, emergence of strong South African bid,
supported by Blatter. Possible German/South African deal collapses.
Campaign visit to Spain, Cameroon, Mali and Qatar (paras. 8.1-8.12).
Sir Bobby Charlton in Malta. Minister for Sport an effective lobbyist.
Further visit to Thailand where FA coach assists national team
9. FA Chief Executive and Chairman resign,
seen as linked to efforts to get England a seat on FIFA Executive.
FIFA issues Guidelines for Bidders. CONCACAF President inspects
England's stadia. Visits to Tunisia and New Zealand. England's
"Welcome to the World" launched2,500 school children
invited to attend a World Cup in England (paras. 8.18-8.26).
10. Problems for the Bid as England club
sides show reluctance to release young players for World Youth
Championship in Nigeria. Bid team attends tournament, and then
on to Botswana, New York and Malta (paras. 8.29-8.31).
11. Centre-piece of England's campaign:
16 FIFA Executive members are FA's guests at 1999 Cup Final. Received
by HRH Prince of Wales and Prime Minister as part of intensive
lobbying and social programme. UEFA President agrees that European
FIFA members may vote according to their own consciences. Most
still favour Germany (paras. 8.32-8.35).
12. Manchester United wins European Champions'
League Final, but cannot reconcile congested fixture list with
World Cup Championship in Brazil. Failure to take part could badly
damage England's Bid. Reluctant acceptance that Manchester United
be exempted from FA Cup. Women's World Cup in Los Angeles. FIFA
postpone 2006 World Cup decision until July 2000, after EURO 2000.
Asians clash with FIFA over extra place for 2002 World Cup. Visits
to Costa Rica, Paraguay and Mexico. Bid submission in Zurich (paras.
13. Campaign Diary August 1999July
2000: England reassesses prospects. Visits to Las Vegas and Malaysia.
Qatar to support Germany. Alter intensive preparation, FIFA Inspection
of England's grounds and organisation appears to go well. Spain,
upset at UEFA awarding EURO 2004 to Portugal, hints at possible
support for England. Campaign team in Saudi Arabia and Qatar for
British Council football exhibition. Row over Wembley Stadium
14. Sir Bert Millichip issues statement
clarifying rejection of the Gentlemen's Agreement. Further visits
to Thailand, Korea and Tokyo for World Cup Draw, where Wembley
story clouds Bid prospects. World Club Championship in Brazil.
South Africa makes emotional appeal at African Congress in Accra.
Havelange rates England's chances as slim. Argentine FA President
arrives for England v Argentina match and repeats CONMEBOL "second
preference" for England. Lobbying in Cannes, Los Angeles
and Trinidad, followed by Botswana, Korea and Tunisia. CONMEBOL
President in London. FA Chairman in Trinidad (paras. 9.18-9.38).
15. Tense meeting with UEFA, who accept
England's right to bid, but give little ground on Gentlemen's
Agreement or on support for Germany. Important CONCACEF and African
visits to England (paras. 9.37-9.47). Successful Bid promotion
at CONCACEF Congress, Nassau and then on to Asian and Oceania
Congresses, where concerted moves by Blatter and South Africa
fail to win the Pacific vote for South Africa or to oust Dempsey.
Early June 2000: high point of campaignEngland can win
13 votes, but problems ahead. Malta v England (paras. 9.48-9.59).
16. Rumours of South American deal with
Africa, not dispelled by visit to CONMEBOL, Paraguay. England
fans run riot at EURO 2000 in Belgium. FIFA sentiment moves away
from England. Crisis meetings with CONCACAF. Recognition that
England cannot win. FA Board incensed at unfair FIFA inspection.
Orders that campaign continue (paras. 9.60-9.69).
17. UEFA Congress in Luxembourg. FA Chairman
elected to UEFA Executive. Bid team briefs press that Europe should
support England. Last minute lobbying in Zurich prior to the vote.
South Americans not supporting England following Brazil's withdrawal.
CONCACAF confirm vote for England in first round, but will maintain
support in the second only if England get six votes in the first.
Final presentations to the FIFA Executive. The result: Germany
wins with 12 votes from South Africa (11), with New Zealand abstaining.
England gains 5 votes (Scotland, New Zealand, and CONCACAFTrinidad
and Tobago, United States and Costa Rica) in the first round and
is eliminated in the second. Ceremonial announcement of the result
and final press briefings (paras. 9.70-77).
18. Obstacles to England's campaign: bids
invariably confront obstacles which they must try to overcome,
often at high cost to the domestic game and in the face of public
opinion. England's World Cup Bid had more than its fair sharethe
Gentlemen's Agreement, English hooliganism, the FIFA Presidential
Election, the Kelly/Wiseman crisis, Wembley Stadium, Manchester
United's participation in the World Club Championship, England
fixtures (paras. 10.1-10.34).
19. Immediate causes of England's defeat:
first, football politics: inter-Confederation deals (South America/Africa
and Europe/Asia); secondly, postponement of FIFA's decision from
March until July 2000; and thirdly, English hooliganism. More
fundamental reasons were the undermining effects of the Gentlemen's
Agreement and The FA's and English football's lack of influence
in Europe and world-wide, depriving us of the crucial support
and leverage of England's parent confederation, UEFA (paras. 11.1-11.7).
20. Campaign achievements: despite failing
to host the 2006 World Cup, England's Bid attained its secondary
objective of raising the profile of English football. Wide respect
for England's highly professional campaign, which also achieved
lasting friendships. Expansion of The FA's Overseas Development
Programme. Prospect that England will be the next European host
of the World Cup (para. 12.1).
21. Key ingredients of a successful international
bid: long-term investment in and influence with the sport's international
administration, the active support of any European sports authority
(eg UEFA) and wide recognition that it is "England's turn".
Domestically, the national sports authority must be totally committed
and ready to make sacrifices. Importance of Government support
at home and overseas, together with a committed campaign staff,
adequate budget, first class stadia, a lack of potentially undermining
factors, eg hooliganism, and broad, if not uncritical, media support