Select Committee on International Development Appendices to the Minutes of Evidence

Annex 4


Type of corruption MotiveMethods EffectsEffects on citizens
High Level Political CorruptionAttempting to control the political process Demanding bribes from the private sector to fund election expenses

Siphoning money from public sector to fund election expenses, promoting political supporters to the public administration, judiciary, police, local government.
Politicisation of public administration;

Inefficiency in government;

Private investment may be undermined by government officials' demands for payments/bribes;

Resources may go into unproductive activities;

The private sector turns to corruption to get things done
Undermines political processes;

Reduced trust by the public in the government
Corruption in the Public Administration Civil servants seeking extra income for themselves or to pass on to their political supporters (see above) Demanding money or other rewards for the performance, or non-performance of their duties, embezzling funds, theft Inefficiency in public administration Unfair provision of services
Corruption in the Legal SystemJudges, lawyers seeking extra income. Public officials or private individuals paying bribes to affect legal decisions. Police officers seeking extra income taking bribes from citizens or powerful groups Payments of bribes, rewards with judicial or police promotions Abuse of judicial process, inefficiency Delays or those who cannot pay bribes, abuse of human rights by police in the pay of politicians, powerful business or criminal groups
Local Government CorruptionOfficials seeking extra income or in the pay of powerful groups Demanding bribes from citizensInefficiency Inefficiency, poor and unfair service provision
Private sector CorruptionPrivate companies seeking to gain resources unfairly;

Private companies or individuals seeking enrichment;

Private individuals and companies seeking to avoid legal duties or make funds through crime
Public private corruption in procurement;

Deliberate bankruptcies and the embezzlement of funds;

Offences like smuggling and tax avoidance deprives the state of funds for the provision of services;

Smuggling and tax avoidance
Rigging markets and contracts can affect the willingness of other private companies to set up or invest;

Contracts awarded to inefficient bidders affects trust and the willingness of companies to bid without bribing;

Deliberate bankruptcies and embezzlement can affect trust;

Smuggling and tax avoidance deprives the state of funds for the provision of services
Citizens receive poor service and are defrauded of money and resources, either directly or through private companies misuse of public money

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Prepared 5 April 2001