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My right hon. Friend the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs led the UK delegation to the recent climate change negotiations in Marrakech. We achieved our aim of successfully translating the political agreement reached in Bonn in July on the implementation of the Kyoto protocol into detailed legal texts, removing the final obstacle to ratification and entry into force of the protocol. The UK intends to ratify, along with our EU partners, in time to allow entry into force by the World Summit on Sustainable Development next September. Since Marrakech, Japan has also announced that it will now press ahead with preparations for ratification next year. We hope that many other countries will follow suit.
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questions tabled on 12 November by the hon. Member for Buckingham (Mr. Bercow) for answer on the 14 November. 
As at April 2000, the latest date for which data are available, the average cost of answering a written parliamentary question was £123. The total cost of answering the questions tabled by the hon. Member for Buckingham on 12 November is therefore approximately £14,500, although given that the cost is based on an average it is a very conservative figure.
Mrs. Roche: The Social Exclusion Unit has three key priorities for the next 12 months. The first of these is to deliver four new reports on areas of cross-cutting work to address issues of social exclusion. These areas are: reducing the rates of re-offending among ex-prisoners; developing a more effective system to prevent young people from running away and to help those that do; improving the educational achievement of children in care; and removing the transport barriers that prevent people accessing work and critical services.
The Social Exclusion Unit's second priority is to work closely with the implementation units in other Government Departments to ensure that there is effective implementation of previous work carried out by the unit. This relates to projects carried out on rough sleepers, school exclusions and truancy, providing opportunities for 16 to 18-year-olds not in education, employment or training, and the national strategy for neighbourhood renewal. To support this work the Social Exclusion Unit will communicate with members of the public, the voluntary and the business sector, local government and key professionals regarding the Government's policies on social exclusion and ensure that they receive accurate, up to date information about the work of the unit.
The third priority for the Social Exclusion Unit over the next 12 months is to plan to deliver new areas of cross-cutting work to address specific issues of social exclusion as directed by the Prime Minister.
Mrs. Roche: The Labour Force status of persons not working aged between 50 and State Pension Age, to which Figure 3 of "Winning the Generation Game" refers, are disaggregated by age group and sex in the table.
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|Not seasonally adjusted|
|All persons not working(33)||2,830||953||1,146||731|
|Looking for work||287||136||105||46|
|Looking after family, home||400||192||188||20|
|Long-term sick and disabled||1,234||409||489||336|
|Do not need a job||148||56||69||23|
|All persons not working(33)||1,518||348||438||731|
|Looking for work||201||84||71||46|
|Looking after family, home||58||19||20||20|
|Long-term sick and disabled||753||189||228||336|
|Do not need a job||48||9||16||23|
|All persons not working(33)||1,312||605||707|||
|Looking for work||86||52||34|||
|Looking after family, home||341||173||169|||
|Long-term sick and disabled||481||220||261|||
|Do not need a job||100||47||53|||
(33) Includes those ILO unemployed and inactive. The International Labour Organisation (ILO) measure of unemployment refers to people who are: (a) out of work, want a job, have actively sought work in the last four weeks and are available to start work in the next two weeks, or (b) are out of work, have found a job and are waiting to start it in the next two weeks.
ONSLabour Force Survey
Mr. Salmond: To ask the Deputy Prime Minister what the total expenditure was on (a) advertising, (b) polling, (c) focus groups, (d) design consultants, (e) caterers, (f) production of departmental publications and (g) photographs/photographers by his Department for each year since 1995 in (i) cash and (ii) real terms; what was (A) the annual percentage increase in spending on each category and (B) spending on each category as a percentage of the total departmental running costs; and if he will make a statement. 
Mr. Leslie: The Government are committed to using only whatever medium and channels are judged to be the most cost-effective way to deliver the publicity necessary to support the implementation of policy. Paid advertising is only resorted to after careful consideration of the cost-benefits.
(34) Television, radio and newspaper.
1. These figures include recruitment advertising.
2. Figures only include Cabinet Office entities up to and including 31 March 2001.
3. Figures do not include salary costs for Cabinet Office staff.
4. These figures do not include expenditure undertaken by the COI Communications on behalf of clients, which was as follows:
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|Year||Public opinion research|
1. Figures for 199697 includes the costs of Her Majesty's Stationery Office, Chessington Computer Centre, Recruitment and Assessment Services, and Occupational Health and Safety Agency. These Executive Agencies were privatised during 199697 and expenditure for that year is available in their respective Completion Accounts.
2. Figures are taken from accounting definitions and may include procurement of publications not produced by the Cabinet Office, but will not include staff costs or external consultant costs.
3. Expenditure for 200102 is for core Cabinet Office only and is taken from the Cabinet Office Resource Accounting System using Publications and Printing/Binding expenditure codes.
Mr. Goodman: To ask the Deputy Prime Minister if he will make a statement on the importance of (a) equality of opportunity and (b) equality of outcome in the Equality Unit's strategy; and how they relate. 
Mrs. Roche: Equality of opportunity is one of the Government's key priorities. We are committed to ensuring that everyone should be able to develop and make full use of their talents throughout their lives. It cannot be right that people are held back by unfair discrimination or stereotypical and inaccurate assumptions about their ability.
Equality of outcome is a yardstick that can be used to assess the degree to which people from different backgrounds, or who have different personal characteristics, have had equal opportunities. If there is
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clear evidence that one group of people consistently fare less well than another, then we need to look at why this is happening and address the factors that lead to it.
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