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Carbon Dioxide Emissions

Mr. Wray: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs what progress has been made with reducing the UK's carbon dioxide emissions in the last five years. [68187]

Mr. Meacher: The table shows the UK's carbon dioxide emissions over the five year period of 1996–2000 (2000 being the last year for which confirmed figures are available). During this period the UK's carbon dioxide emissions fell from 159.1 million tonnes of carbon to 152.1 million tonnes of carbon, a reduction of 4.4 per cent. The rise in emissions between 1999 and 2000 were mainly due to an increased use of coal in the energy mix, because of maintenance and repair at nuclear and combined cycle gas turbine stations and higher gas prices at the end of the year.

Emissions of carbon dioxide (as million tonnes of carbon) Percentage change from previous year

Rural Development Plan

Paddy Tipping: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs how much modulated match funds have been allocated to each devolved Administration within the UK to fund the Rural Development Plan each year since the programme commenced. [69571]

Alun Michael: Budgets have been provided to the devolved Administrations to allow for the spending of modulation receipts to be match funded, with the match funding occurring at the point that the modulated funds are spent. In 2001, the first year of modulation, the level of match funding was £3.3 million in England, £323,000 in Scotland and £53,000 in Northern Ireland. There were no modulation funded payments in Wales in 2001 and hence no match funding.


Global Environment Fund

Mr. Gardiner: To ask the Secretary of State for International Development if she will make a statement on the replenishment of the global environment fund; and what criteria have been adopted for allocations of finances from this fund. [70000]

Clare Short: The UK has taken the lead in arguing for a substantial replenishment of the Global Environment Facility. Along with the vast majority of other contributors to the Facility, we believe new money of between $2.5 to $2.7 billion over the next four years would be a satisfactory outcome. The final meeting of the replenishment process is scheduled for 6 August and 7 August in Washington.

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Criteria for funding, and funding proposals themselves, are approved by the GEF Council, which meets twice- yearly, and has representatives of all GEF participants. These criteria change in the light of experience, but include how incremental environmental costs and benefits should be defined; and how funds should be most effectively deployed in the GEF's operational areas, such as climate change, biodiversity, desertification and eliminating persistent organic pollutants.

Public Consultations

Mr. Don Foster: To ask the Secretary of State for International Development if she will list the public consultations undertaken by her Department since 1997, indicating for each consultation (a) if copies were available online, (b) if copies were available in print, (c) the date the time period given for responses opened and (d) the date the time period given for responses closed. [69803]

Clare Short: We do not keep a record of all consultations held since 1997, and it would involve disproportionate cost to compile such a list. However, all current consultations are now featured on DFID's website as well as being available in printed format.

Mr. Bercow: To ask the Secretary of State for International Development what the length was of each public consultation undertaken by her Department since 8 June 2001. [68741]

Clare Short: Since June 2001 the Department for International Development has completed one public consultation process on a strategy paper for achieving the Millennium Development Goal on hunger. More than 1,000 people outside Government, in the United Kingdom and internationally, were sent copies of the consultation paper, which was also placed on the DFID website, between February 2002 and 31 March 2002.

The consultation for a DFID-wide research policy study, "Research For Poverty Reduction", commenced April 2002 and ended 10 May 2002. The consultation for "Better Livelihoods for Poor People: The Role of Agriculture" commenced November 2001 and ended 24 June 2002.

The following consultations are currently under way, with information available in print form and electronically:

The Department pursues more focused consultation exercises with outside bodies and experts on particular issues. The Department also regularly makes available, via its website and through civil society networks, briefing notes on major international meetings in which it is involved, such as the United Nations Financing for Development Conference in Monterrey in March, the United Nations General Assembly Special Session on Children in May, International Monetary Fund and World bank meetings, and European Union Development Council meetings.

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The Department has just finished its third round of Development Policy Forums across the UK, to share thinking and ideas on key development issues. Over 2000 representatives from across society—including from NGOs, trade unions, private sector, faith organisations and universities—participated in the 11 one-day forums, between 6 February and 8 July 2002. The forums focused on globalisation and its potential to reduce world poverty, with participants invited to debate the specific themes of trade, environment and the private sector.

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Overseas Aid

John Barrett: To ask the Secretary of State for International Development what percentage of the Government's overseas aid budget was spent on low income countries in each year since 1995. [68817]

Clare Short: The percentage of my Department's bilateral assistance programme spent on low income countries since 1995 is set out in the table. However, the more commonly used indicator is the proportion of country specific DFID programme going to low income countries in each year so these figures have also been included.

Bilateral aid to low income countries 1995–96 to 2000–01

Total bilateral programme (£ million)of which, country specific aid (£ million)of which, to low income countries (£ million)Percentage of total bilateral programmePercentage of country specific aid

John Barrett: To ask the Secretary of State for International Development what priority is given to the quality of governance in determining the allocation of financial assistance to overseas countries. [68812]

Clare Short: The primary determinants of our allocations between countries are the extent of poverty and our judgments about where we can be most effective. The quality of governance is an important factor in assessment of our potential effectiveness, alongside such issues as the policies, commitment and capacity of Government and other institutions and the adequacy of alternative sources of finance.


John Barrett: To ask the Secretary of State for International Development what impact the ban on livestock exports is having on the humanitarian situation in Somalia. [68819]

Clare Short: The livestock trade is a very important sector for the Somali economy. The current trade restrictions are having a negative impact on people's livelihoods and on the revenue of regional administrations. We continue to lobby for the lifting of restrictions.

John Barrett: To ask the Secretary of State for International Development what difficulties have arisen in the provision of humanitarian assistance in Somalia as a result of the recent violence in the country. [68814]

Clare Short: Insecurity in Somalia has hampered the provision of humanitarian assistance over the past decade, particularly in the south. United Nations agencies and international non-government organisations (through whom the UK and EU make their contribution) provide support through cross-border operations. Violence in the regions of Bay, Puntland and Gedo continues to make humanitarian access difficult.


John Barrett: To ask the Secretary of State for International Development (1) what impact the recent dry weather has had on the production of food in Mozambique; and if she will make a statement; [68815]

Clare Short: The Crop and Food Supply Assessment undertaken jointly by the Government of Mozambique, WFP and FAO (available on concluded in June and severe dry weather during the 2001–02 cropping season had sharply reduced crop yields in southern and parts of central Mozambique. In the main cereal growing areas of the northern region and remaining parts of the central region, abundant and well distributed rains led to increased production of cereals. Overall, 2002 cereal output is estimated at 1.77 million tonnes, 5 per cent. above last year, and maize output at 1.24 million tonnes, an increase of 8 per cent. The exportable maize surplus in northern and central areas is projected at 100,000 tonnes, but this cannot be transported economically to the South due to long distances, poor infrastructure, and the proximity of markets in Malawi.

Approximately 515,000 people in poor households in 43 districts of the Southern and Central regions are affected by the drought. This is about 15 per cent. of the total population of the two regions but less than 3 per cent. of the country's total population. Immediate food aid needs for these areas have been estimated at 50,000 tonnes.

Food aid is important, but measures are also needed to ensure that seeds and other agricultural inputs are available to enable drought-affected farming families to restart

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agricultural production during the main planting season 2002–03. Working through the Ministry of Agriculture, DFID and other donors have already supported the provision of inputs to affected households. Our latest information is that immediate food aid needs are covered by other donor countries, but we are monitoring the situation closely. We are discussing with Government and other donors how the additional £1 million allocated for Mozambique as part of DFID's regional response to the drought during the period to March 2003 can be used to best effect, particularly to facilitate access to inputs and to improve food security over the next harvest.

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