SWEDISH PRESIDENCY REPORT ON ESDP
Presidency report to the Göteborg European Council on European Security and Defence Policy.
||Foreign and Commonwealth Office
|Basis of consideration:
||Minister's letter of 22 June and EM of 25 June 2001
|Previous Committee Report:
|Discussed in Council:
||Göteborg European Council, June 2001
43.1 One of the objectives of the European Council's
Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) is to equip the EU to
undertake the 'Petersberg Tasks' for conflict prevention and crisis
management referred to in Article 17 of the Treaty on European
Union. The Swedish Presidency introduces this report to the Göteborg
European Council by noting that the EU is giving priority to developing
its military and civilian capabilities, following the Nice European
Council in December 2000 which agreed that the EU should become
operational very quickly.
The Presidency report
43.2 In accordance with the mandate it was given
in Nice, the Swedish Presidency reports on the steps taken since
Nice, under various headings:
Developing the capacity to act:
Building on the results of the Capabilities Commitment
Conference in November, shortfalls have been identified, using
NATO expertise. Member States will be asked to review their contributions
and indicate how they plan to meet these. Work has been done to
"develop and refine" the requirements for such capabilities
"interoperability, rotation and readiness as
well as those concerning key enabling capabilities such as C3I
(command, control and communications and information); ISTAR (intelligence
surveillance, target acquisition and reconnaissance); strategic
mobility and logistics".
A list of forces and capabilities available before
the end of 2001 has been drawn up.
A Capability Improvement Conference will be held
under the Belgian Presidency in November 2001, at which Member
States will be asked to commit themselves to specific additional
measures to address the shortfalls. Meanwhile work is going ahead
on evaluating the military capabilities of the non-EU European
NATO members and other EU candidate countries. The aims of the
Headline Goal will be reviewed "in the light of changed circumstances
and also to contribute to ensuring the compatibility of the commitments
made in the EU framework with, for the countries concerned, the
pledges undertaken in the framework of NATO planning or the Planning
and Review Process of the Partnership for Peace."
The report says that Member States have given strong
support to the call for voluntary contributions for police and
major progress has been made. The Presidency believe that commitments
will be made at a ministerial conference later this year, confirming
that the targets will be met.
A Conference of National Police Commissioners on
EU Member States' Police Capabilities for International Crisis
Management was held on 10 May. The work of the Conference and
contributions by Member States form the basis of the Police Action
Plan in Annex I to the report. More detail on the information
in the annexes is given below.
Guiding principles for contributions by non-EU states
are set out in Annex II.
The Council has identified new targets to be met
by 2003 for the rule of law, civilian administration and civil
protection and these are set out in Annex III.
Structures, procedures and exercises.
The report records progress made on the mandates
given to the Presidency at the Nice European Council. It notes
the establishment of the permanent Political and Security Committee,
Military Committee and Military Staff and progress on internal
structures and policies. These include the strengthening of the
Council Secretariat, in particular its politico-military establishment,
to enable it to give additional support to work on the European
Security and Defence Policy (ESDP). The Police Unit, for instance,
will enable the EU to plan and it will be rapidly reinforced by
Member States in times of crisis.
The Swedish Presidency has also, according to the
report, initiated work on identifying the principles which will
apply to the financing of operations with military or defence
implications. There is also a need to address the financial aspects
of police operations and of other civilian operations, in particular
those for civil protection.
Annex IV covers the EU Exercise Policy and sets out
in detail the requirement for exercises and the types of exercises
which will be held.
co-operation with NATO
The report introduces this
section as follows:
"Development of a permanent and effective relationship
with NATO, based on the principles agreed at Feira and Nice, is
a crucial element of the ESDP. This development will lead to a
genuine strategic partnership with NATO in the management of crises
with due respect for the two organisations' decision-making autonomy.
Consequently, consultation and co-operation are being developed
between the EU and NATO on questions of common interest relating
to security and defence and crisis management, so that crises
can be met with the most appropriate military response and effective
crisis management ensured".
An exchange of letters between the Swedish Presidency
and the NATO Secretary General confirms permanent arrangements
for consultation and co-operation between the EU and NATO. The
report describes some of the meetings which have taken place and
comments that the support of NATO experts on the development of
the Headline Goal and the EU Exercise Programme has been valuable.
The EU and NATO have co-operated closely on crisis management
in the Western Balkans. On EU access to NATO assets, the report
"Rapid agreement is called for on arrangements
permitting EU access to NATO assets and capabilities (ie guaranteed
permanent access to NATO's planning capabilities, presumption
of availability of pre-identified assets and capabilities and
identification of a series of command options) on the basis of
the arrangements approved by the Nice European Council".
An account is given of the development of relationships
with potential partner countries and, in Annex V, of co-operation
with international organisations on civilian aspects of crisis
mandate for the Belgian Presidency
The priorities will be:
- progress towards the objective of making the
EU operational for ESDP. A decision to that end should be taken
no later than at the European Council in Laeken in December;
- continuing discussion on EU/NATO arrangements;
- the organisation of a Capabilities Improvement
Conference to contribute to the achievement of the Headline Goal.
the five annexes
In his Explanatory Memorandum
of 25 June, the Minister of State at the Foreign and Commonwealth
Office (Mr Peter Hain) summarises the content of the annexes as
Annex I: Police Action Plan
"This recalls the concrete target set by the
Feira European Council for Member States to be able to contribute
up to 5,000 police officers to the crisis management operations
of international organisations, and notes discussion at the Conference
of National Police Commissioners held on 10 May 2001. The Plan
makes suggestions of areas for further study and work if the EU
is itself to develop the necessary infrastructure to deploy police
officers internationally on crisis management work. The Plan notes
that these suggestions will be subject to further work and consideration.
Annex II: Contributions of Non-EU states to EU
police missions in civilian crisis management
"This paper sets out the principle that, should
the EU deploy police on autonomous crisis management operations,
third countries outside the EU should be able to take part in
those operations. The paper suggests this opportunity should be
open to the fifteen non-EU European members of NATO and other
candidates for EU accession, as well as to those other interested
states, such as Canada, within the framework for their involvement
in ESDP. It also notes areas for further study.
Annex III: New concrete targets for civilian crisis
"This annex established new concrete targets
for Member States' collective crisis management capacities in
three further areas:
- the rule of law; cooperating on a voluntary basis,
Member States collectively are to aim to make up to two hundred
experts in rule of law issues potentially available for deployment
on international crisis management activities;
- civilian administration; Member States are to
aim to establish a pool of experts with varied skills in civil
administration to be available for deployment at times of international
- civil protection; cooperating together voluntarily,
Member States are to aim to make teams of experts in civil protection
issues available for deployment internationally in the event of
an emergency within 3-7 hours, and to make up to two thousand
persons available at short notice, and further experts as necessary.
Annex IV: Exercise policy of the European Union
"This policy sets out in detail the requirement
for EU exercises and the types of exercises which the EU will
hold. The policy emphasises the need for the EU to carry out joint
exercises with NATO as well as to test the EU's own internal arrangements
for decision-making. The policy makes clear that the EU only intends
to carry out exercises of its procedures for coordinating an operation.
It does not intend to carry out live military exercises involving
the deployment of forces. These will remain the responsibility
of individual Member States. Non-EU European NATO Allies and other
candidates for EU accession, as well as other prospective partners,
will be invited to participate in the conduct of relevant exercises
in line with the provisions for their participation in EU-led
Annex V: EU cooperation with international organisations
in civilian aspects of crisis management
"This annex outlines how the European Union
will cooperate with other international organisations with relevant
capacities and expertise in civilian areas of crisis management,
notably the United Nations and the Organisations for Security
and Cooperation in Europe. The paper sets out a number of principles
for the way in which the EU will interact with those organisations:
added value; interoperability; visibility; and decision-making
autonomy. It also proposes a number of ways in which the European
Union might cooperate with the operations of those other organisations".
The Government's view
43.3 The Minister says that:
"The Government endorses
this report, which represents another significant step in the
development of the European Security and Defence Policy, and the
achievement of the policy first put forward by the Prime Minister
at the Portschach informal summit in October 1998. The subsequent
endorsement of that policy at the Vienna European Council, and
the proposals accepted by the Helsinki and Nice European Councils,
laid out the framework for the ESDP."
43.4 The Government, the Minister says, welcomes
the progress made on establishing the permanent structures and
the development of the relationship with NATO into "an open
and substantive relationship".
43.5 The annexes show that substantial progress
has been made in a number of areas, most notably in civilian aspects
of crisis management. The Police Action Plan is the outcome of
a successful conference of police officers, while the new targets
"help [to] ensure that
we act on lessons learned in Kosovo and elsewhere, and remedy
weaknesses in the international community's ability which were
exposed there. The Government fully endorses this work."
43.6 On the EU Exercise Policy, the Minister
comments that it:
"makes sensible provision
for the exercising and validation of EU procedures, while at the
same time ensuring no costly exercises of operational forces,
which will remain the responsibility of Member States. The Government
supports this annex too".
43.7 Whilst the report does not contain any financial
commitments, the Minister comments that it is possible that there
will be future Council Decisions implementing recommendations
in the report which will have financial consequences for the Community
budget and for individual Member States.
43.8 In a separate letter, the Minister explains
why the Government supported endorsing the report, before it had
cleared scrutiny. It would not have been reasonable or possible
to delay its endorsement as it was a Presidency report to the
43.9 We note that the Minister makes no reference
to any dissent from the contents of this report, which provides
a useful account of progress. We look forward to being brought
up to date by the Government in the autumn on further developments
in this area.
43.10 We now clear this document.