Select Committee on International Development Minutes of Evidence

Memorandum submitted by Save the Children UK

  "Our childhood is passing. There has been war and drought in our country for so long now. Many of us have had to leave our homes and many have died. Each year there is more sickness and poverty. Though you may have come and heard our stories many times, we do not see anything changing for us . . ." Message from Afghan children[3]


  Almost half of Afghanistan's population consists of children aged under eighteen. The combination of endemic poverty, on-going drought, years of civil unrest and the recent military action now threatens a major crisis for the children of Afghanistan. Before October 2001, Afghanistan was already one of the worst places in the world to be a child. UNICEF has now warned that 100,000 Afghan children could die this winter unless food reaches them in sufficient quantities before winter sets in.

  After nearly four weeks of bombing of Afghanistan, it is a fact that military action has set back relief efforts aimed at ensuring adequate food and other essential shelter and non food items reached Afghanistan before the onset of winter. The operating environment—and the narrow window of opportunity before the winter—for all humanitarian agencies is shrinking by the day.

  This crisis, compounded by the onset of winter, poses severe threats to child survival, protection and development. Malnutrition, acute respiratory infections and vaccine-preventable diseases will claim many more child lives in the coming months. As families flee their homes, children's access to education and basic health services becomes even more limited than before the current crisis. In these mass population movements children run the risk of being separated from their families or of losing family members who are recruited to fight. Landmines and cluster bombs pose serious risks of death or disability to children.

  Save the Children is deeply concerned that whilst there appears to be little evidence of the military campaign reaching its objectives, the humanitarian situation, which was at crisis point prior to September 11, has further deteriorated. It is important to consider the implications of statements made recently by Geoff Hoon and others on the possible length of the military operation in Afghanistan, suggesting it could drag on for up to four years or "as long as it takes". It is very difficult to conceive of an effective humanitarian relief operation that could compensate for the lack of infrastructure, services and disrupted agricultural production over such a period.

  It is a dangerous illusion to think that political, military and humanitarian objectives can be easily aligned in the current situation. For its part, Save the Children believes there is a humanitarian imperative to intensify relief efforts and to increase significantly the volume of aid reaching the people of Afghanistan while there is still time. It is the role of the UN to manage the interface between all aspects of complex interventions and ensure that space is negotiated for humanitarian organisations to operate and meet the current needs of the people of Afghanistan. The UN must be fully resourced and empowered to fulfil its complex role in an impartial manner.


  Save the Children believes that the UK government must act now to prioritise children during the current crisis and is calling on the government to:

    —  Recognise the separation of humanitarian objectives from military and political objectives to ensure that humanitarian assistance remains impartial—a precondition for humanitarian organisations to be able to carry out their work effectively in conditions of violence and insecurity.

    —  Take the lead in helping to ensure the immediate creation of an environment in which humanitarian aid providers can act impartially to ensure that humanitarian assistance can be effectively distributed to those in urgent need.

    —  Ensure that the UN has overall responsibility for effectively co-ordinating the humanitarian operation and is empowered to create conditions for an impartial response the UN should be responsible for negotiating humanitarian access with parties on the ground in Afghanistan.

    —  Provide the political support that is necessary to guarantee the provision of a humanitarian space within which humanitarian organisations can operate over the longer term in an impartial way.

    —  Declare a moratorium on the use of cluster bombs and seek urgent assurances from other members of the military alliance that they will cease using cluster munitions, and take responsibility for the complete clearance of any unexploded ordnance bomblets that remain.

    —  Ensure sustained political commitment and financial and technical support to rebuild Afghanistan and bring about the fulfilment of children's right within that country.

    —  Ensure that child protection and the monitoring of children's rights is integrated into all aspects of the political and humanitarian response led by the UN.

    —  Call on all parties to the conflict to respect provisions of international humanitarian law and human rights law.


  The UN and all participants in the hostilities should ensure that child protection is integrated into all aspects of their actions and at every stage—from the relief effort through to post-conflict attempts to re-establish institutions:

    —  The team assembled by Ambassador Brahimi should include an adviser on child protection in order to ensure that issues concerning, and of concern to, Afghan children are integrated into any political and humanitarian response led by the UN.

    —  Human rights, and child rights in particular, must be fully incorporated into any UN initiative, not only on paper but also in practice.

    —  The participation of children in the design and implementation of any programmes intended to advance their rights is essential.

    —  In the establishment of any UN peacekeeping operation in Afghanistan, training of peacekeepers in child protection is essential.

    —  There should be effective monitoring of human rights, including children rights during any peacekeeping operation.

    —  Given the involvement of child combatants in the conflict, the UN should ensure that specific planning and resource allocation for child combatants is included in disarmament, demobilisation and rehabilitation programmes.

    —  As children are often the victims of unexploded ordnance's such as landmines and cluster bombs, there should be a considerable increase in the resources for their removal and disposal.

    —  The UN should initiate and support the establishment of viable local, regional and national institutions in Afghanistan for the protection of human rights generally, and child rights in particular.

    —  Education must be the cornerstone of the rebuilding of Afghanistan and its future stability. It is fundamental that all agencies working in Afghanistan come together under UN co-ordination to develop a comprehensive plan for assistance to education that builds on the achievements of agencies working in the education sector in Afghanistan.


Baseline conditions before 11 September

  1.  Before the 11 September terrorist attacks on the United States, Afghanistan's 22.7 million population were already suffering from the effects of a three-year drought exacerbated by two decades of war. About 1.7 million people had died as a result of years of conflict and another two million have been permanently disabled.[4]

  2.  The drought: The drought in Afghanistan is the worst the country has experienced in 30 years. According to OXFAM data, the 2001 harvest—in the third year of severe drought—has been about 50 per cent of a normal year's (and much lower in some regions). Before recent events, this was already leaving five million people, around 20 per cent of the population, at risk of severe food shortages and depleted coping mechanisms.

  3.  The economy: Afghanistan was the poorest country in Asia. The war has had a severe impact on the economy, disrupting infrastructure throughout the country, particularly in the interior. Many skilled and highly educated people have left, leaving the country with staffing problems in many sectors such as health and education. Although the primary occupation is agriculture, only an estimated 10 per cent of land is currently cultivated as a large portion of the country's arable land has been damaged by war and neglect. According to the World Food Programme (WFP), an estimated five to six million people—almost a quarter of the population were dependent on food aid.

  4.  Population Movements: By September 2001, civil war, drought and extreme poverty had forced a staggering total of over 4.6 million Afghans to flee their homes.[5] Almost one million are internally displaced and around 3.7 million currently live in exile as refugees in neighbouring Pakistan, Iran and other countries.[6]

The situation of children before 11 September

  5.  Afghanistan's total population is estimated at 22.7 million,[7] with approximately 49 per cent of these children under eighteen.[8] Children's health and nutritional status before 11 September was already deeply unsatisfactory. Government capacity to deliver other basic services such as education and social services was virtually non-existent.

  6.  Health: Afghanistan has one of the worst child health care records in the world. Diarrhoea, acute respiratory infections (ARIs) and vaccine-preventable diseases account for approximately 60 per cent of child deaths in Afghanistan.[9] Of deep concern are the following statistics:

    —  A quarter of the country's children die before they reach their fifth birthday. This is the fourth highest child mortality rate in the world.

    —  Almost half of children under five are underweight, with global acute malnutrition in rural areas typically at five per cent.[10]

    —  Poor facilities and a lack of properly trained staff in hospitals contribute to a high number of women dying during or after childbirth.

    —  The overall life expectancy—46 years—is one of the lowest in the world.

  7.  Education: Afghanistan has one of the lowest literacy rates in the world—less than one third of the population over 15 can read or write. It is estimated that only 39 per cent of boys and 3 per cent of girls had access to education. An estimated 90 per cent of all women are illiterate. Most schools in Afghanistan were destroyed during the Soviet war after 1979 and about 85 per cent of the country's teachers have fled. Girls continue to be excluded from formal education with only 3 per cent of girls enrolled in school.

  8.  Landmines: Afghanistan is the second most heavily mined country in the world, with an estimated 10 million live mines throughout the country. One third of Afghanistan's 100,000 mine victims have been children—an average of four children are injured every day across the country. Children are particularly vulnerable to becoming landmine casualties as they fetch water, collect firewood, herd animals or even walk to school. The poorest Afghans are the most affected as it is the desperate and destitute who risk entering minefields to seek food and fuel.

  9.  Divided Families and the impact on Children: Conflict and economic desperation have separated families as increasing numbers of younger men leave Afghanistan either out of fear of recruitment by the Taliban or in search of work in Pakistan or Iran. In addition, there are an estimated 700,000 war widows in Afghanistan. As a result, high numbers of female-headed households are surviving with extremely fragile livelihoods.[11] As women are not allowed to work outside the home under the Taliban regime, their primary source of income is begging. Children of such households are often the primary wage earner. There were an estimated 50,000 children working on the streets of Kabul alone before the start of hostilities.[12]

  10.  Child soldiers: According to the Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers, warring parties in Afghanistan have used children as soldiers.[13] Forced and compulsory recruitment by the Taliban and Northern Alliance continues to be reported, despite international commitments to the contrary. Young recruits are drawn from within Afghanistan, the Afghan refugee diaspora and religious schools in Pakistan. However, many young and adolescent boys join up voluntarily because it is in accordance with their upbringing, or because it is a way of surviving.


  11.  Although detailed statistical evidence is difficult to assemble, we know that since 11 September there has been further displacement, flight and deterioration in law and order, with the inevitable negative consequences for children. UNICEF has warmed that 100,000 Afghan children could die this winter unless food reaches them in sufficient quantities before winter sets in.

  12.  Internal displacement: Up to one million children and adults in Afghanistan were already internally displaced from their homes before the most recent crisis. According to UNHCR, they were located in five main regions—Badakshan (94,000), the Northern region (387,000), Hazarajat region (75,000), Herat (200,000) and the Southern provinces (200,000).[14] The UN forecasts that this figure—with large numbers of children included in it—will double to 2.2 million during the winter. With the start of the bombing campaign most of the cities were deserted. Between 50 and 70 per cent of the population of cities like Herat, Kabul, Jalalabad or Kandahar have reportedly fled to surrounding areas to avoid the ongoing bombing.[15]

  13.  Refugees: Since 11 September, an estimated 100,000 to 110,000 refugees have crossed the Pakistan border with most of them blending into existing refugee camps or being accommodated with the local population.[16] Others have been less fortunate and are massing along a closed border in the hope that they will be able to apply for asylum. A few thousand IDPs are sheltered in camps created by the Taliban near the borders of Iran and Pakistan. For those fleeing the bombings to reach the borders the trek is tedious and dangerous. Some of the IDPs now reaching camps close to the Iranian border have travelled 2,000 kms during 15 days and the flow of people registering is likely to increase in the following days and weeks.[17]

  14.  Local populations: As the Office for the Co-ordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) points out, in the midst of potentially massive population movements, perhaps of deepest concern will be those Afghans who remain behind, who are "often the poorest, unable to afford transportation and depending on the aid community for life saving assistance".[18]

  15.  Health: The combination of poor health, extreme susceptibility to acute respiratory infections (ARIs) which will be largely left untreated and increased food insecurity resulting from decreased flows of aid will very likely lead to a substantial increase in children's malnutrition levels and mortality rates.

  16.  Food, Supply and Famine Risk: Military operations have disrupted the delivery of food supplies and are making it more and more difficult to reach areas outside the main urban centres. In addition, there appears to be increased lawlessness throughout the country. Looting and attacks on aid agencies by unidentified persons have further disrupted aid efforts. The WFP is continuing to deliver food to Afghanistan, but at a reduced level. The WFP estimates that 52,000 tonnes of food needs to be moved into Afghanistan each month, but that a further 70,000 tonnes must be stockpiled in Afghanistan before winter. During October, approximately 700 tonnes of food was moved in each day, which is less than half of WFPs target figure. Certain parts of the country will be at highest risk of food shortages as they are usually inaccessible during the winter, in particular the Ghor, Bagdhis and Faryab regions where local insecurity, winter and drought have made this region one of the worst hit and hardest to serve. Although precise estimates remain impossible recent work done by NGOs and WFP, within the last two weeks, building on the last survey of nutritional needs done by WFP in July-August estimates that the number of people in need of food support and who will be extremely difficult to access during the winter is approximately 1,668,000.[19] Further food shortages, exacerbated by the lack of basic health services, is likely to have a devastating impact on young, vulnerable children throughout the country—who were already suffering from extremely high child mortality rates before the most recent crisis.

  17.  Winter: Winter is now setting in; the first snowfall in the North-East was on 31 October leaving many of the roads in Afghanistan impassable until March or April and making the delivery of humanitarian aid extremely difficult. Night-time temperatures in the winter months range from minus 10 to minus 50 (more exceptional) throughout Ghor, Parwan, Badakshan and Kapisa, with average temperatures of minus 10 to minus 15. Some of these areas are already experiencing night-time lows of minus three or lower.

  18.  Landmines: As population movements increase and as people flee their homes in fear of retaliation and in search of food, there is an increased risk of mine-related deaths and accidents. A quarter of last year's landmine victims were people on the move either because they were fleeing or because of their nomadic lifestyle.[20] With health services cut-off throughout the country, it is more likely that mine victims will not have access to potentially life-saving medical assistance.

  19.  Cluster bombs: Cluster bombs have been used against targets around the cities of Kabul, Kandahar, Herat and Mazar-I-Sharif. Cluster bombs present a similar hazard to civilians as landmines. Cluster bombs have a wide dispersal pattern and cannot be targeted precisely, making them especially dangerous when used near civilian areas. Cluster bombs have a high initial failure rate which results in numerous explosive "duds" that pose the same post-conflict problems as antipersonnel mines.[21] In the current context, there is the potential for children to mistake the colourful yellow bomblets released by cluster bombs for either air dropped food packets—which are also yellow—or for toys. De-miners are now scrambling to deal with the problem of training their staff to deal with this new threat under very difficult conditions.

  20.  Separated children: In addition to the existing separated children among the "old caseload" of displaced, current and expected population movements are likely to result. In other comparable emergencies 2-5 per cent of children have been separated from their families. Although there are no firm statistics, a recent UNHCR situation report stated that, many Afghan families arriving in the Peshawar area had become separated during their escape. Some had to leave behind weak or disabled family members who could not manage the long walk to Pakistan. Others were left behind because they could not afford to pay for the journey and entry into Pakistan.[22] In addition, reports that the Taliban are preventing men from crossing the Pakistan border raises particular concerns that boys under 18 may be included in this group. Particularly disturbing is the continued lack of attention around child protection and child separation issues.


  21.  Save the Children UK is working in Afghanistan and Pakistan with its sister agencies of the International Save the Children Alliance. Three of these agencies—Save the Children UK (SC-UK), Save the Children Sweden (SC-S) and Save the Children USA (SC-US)—have well established Pakistan/Afghanistan offices and have run programmes for Afghans within Afghanistan and as refugees for over 25 years. SC-UK and SC-US have teams of expatriate and local staff in Peshawar and Islamabad and 210 local staff in Afghanistan. SC-UK also has programmes in Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Much of the current Save the Children emergency response programme was on going before the terrible events of 11 September and the current military campaign. These activities are now being further developed building on existing strengths, experience and priorities, Save the Children's response focuses on health; immediate shelter; provision of essential non food items and child protection.[23]

  -  To continue and strengthen Save the Children's existing food assistance/security and drought relief interventions for drought-affected regions of Northern Afghanistan.

  -  To protect internally displaced and stranded children and their families from the impact of displacement and/or exposure to winter conditions by distributing essential shelter and non-food items.

  -  To promote health and prevent illness and mortality among Afghan children and childbearing age women in rural, urban, and displaced/stranded communities in Kabul and northern Afghanistan.

  -  To respond to the protection needs of Afghan children and ensure that the consequences of the humanitarian crisis for children and their families in all areas where SC has a presence is monitored, analysed and information disseminated, and to provide structure and stability in children's lives, and opportunities for development, through the provision of structured play and education activities.

Immediate Needs in Pakistan:

  -  To protect refugee children and their families from the impact of displacement and exposure to winter conditions by distributing essential shelter and non-food items.

  -  To promote health and prevent illness and mortality among Afghan refugee children and childbearing age women.

  -  To respond to the protection needs of Afghan children and ensure that the consequences of the humanitarian crisis for children and their families in all areas where SC has a presence is monitored, analysed and information disseminated and used as the basis for advocacy, and to provide structure and stability in children's lives, and opportunities for development, through the provision of structured play and education activities.

  -  To facilitate a protective environment for newly arrived Afghan refugee children by making sure that camps are designed with the specific needs of children in mind and that procedures are in place to ensure the proper protection of children.

Ongoing and Longer-Term Response—Afghanistan's Children are Afghanistan's Future:

In addition to addressing the immediate survival needs of Afghans, Save the Children Alliance members are committed to co-ordination around the common aim of promoting sustainable environments ensuring the survival, protection, development and participation of Afghan children.


  22.  Concerned that the commencement of military action would undoubtedly disrupt relief activities and exacerbate the existing crisis in Afghanistan, Mike Aaronson, Director General of Save the Children UK wrote to the Prime Minister on 11 October urging him to take a lead internationally to ensure that the humanitarian dimensions of the crisis were properly addressed. He also pointed out to the Prime Minister the difficulties faced by humanitarian agencies when attempts are made to pursue military and humanitarian objectives in parallel.

    "It is a dangerous illusion to think that political, military and humanitarian objectives can be perfectly aligned in the current situation: right now there is a humanitarian imperative to stop the bombing and resume food deliveries on a massive scale which clearly conflicts with the political and military objectives that have been set. It is far more honest to accept that political and military goals must be kept separate from humanitarian action, and that the complementary roles of the different players must be respected".[24]

  As of 6 November, no substantive reply has been received to this letter.

  23.  Save the Children shares the concerns of the other agencies which have given evidence to the International Development Committee that whilst there appears to be little evidence of the military campaign reaching its objectives the humanitarian situation is reaching crisis proportions. Like others we stress the urgency of the situation because of the approaching onset of winter. It is important to consider the implications of statements made recently by Geoff Hoon and others on the possible length of the military operation in Afghanistan, suggesting it could drag on for up to four years or "as long as it takes". It is very difficult to conceive of an effective humanitarian relief operation compensating for the lack of infrastructure, services and disrupted agricultural production over such a period.

  24.  Save the Children's observation is that the attempt to bring political, military and humanitarian objectives within the same framework there is now a real danger of humanitarian objectives and principles becoming compromised. The Strategic Framework for Afghanistan (SFA) which was formerly set up by the UN in September 1998 attached certain conditions and ground rules, (such as those covering progress towards peace) to the continuation or resumption of humanitarian activity. When conditions were not met, humanitarian aid was reduced to a trickle. The humanitarian agencies were in effect prevented from carrying out their mandate because political objectives remained out of reach. The lack of progress towards peace restricted humanitarian assistance and protection at the very time it is needed most.

  25.  This recent example from Afghanistan and experience in other recent complex emergencies suggests that "impartially" is coming to mean different things to different organisations. Lakhdar Brahimi, recently re-appointed as the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Afghanistan, took the drive for the integration of UN activities a significant step forward in the Report of the Panel on United Nations Peace Operations (2000). Whilst NGOs regard the report as an important development in strengthening the peace making, peace keeping and peace building work of the UN, and welcome many of its recommendations on doctrine, strategy, planning, decision-making, staffing levels, logistics, rapid deployment and public information, they have a fundamental concern. The report invokes impartially as a "bedrock principle" of any peace operation but the impartiality referred to in the report relates quite specifically to enforcement of the United Nations Charter in the context of a Security Council directive. "Impartiality for United Nations operations must therefore mean adherence to the principles of the Charter: where one party to a peace agreement clearly and incontrovertibly is violating its terms, continued equal treatment of all parties by the United Nations can in the best case result in ineffectiveness and in the worst may amount to complicity with evil".

  26.  "Impartiality" as it is understood by humanitarian organisations is something different, and is based on a stated obligation to deliver aid on the basis of need, "regardless of race, creed or nationality of the recipients and without adverse distinction of any kind.[25] This is the language of the NGO Code of Conduct—the bedrock principles of humanitarian action.


  27.  In both our initial briefing[26] and in the letter to the Prime Minister, Save the Children stressed the importance of working within an international framework. Like many others we welcomed the re-appointment of Lakhdar Brahimi as the Secretary General's Special Representative for Afghanistan, and the fact that Mr Brahimi is charged with ensuring that the humanitarian and human rights dimensions of the evolving crisis are central to political and military discussions. The concern at the moment is that there are declining expectations of what Mr Brahimi can achieve. Whilst we believe it is correct that coherent response and lasting solutions must be managed and sought through the UN there is a danger, in this case, that the UN is being set up to fail.

  28.  On occasions in the past the impression has been created that powerful states, principally the USA and her allies can chose to resort to the UN or ignore it, depending on whether they can obtain a favourable Security Council Resolution. On this occasion the US and the coalition is basing its action on Security Council Resolution 1368 (2001) and article 51 of the UN Charter, which permits military action in self-defence. UN member states, especially permanent members of the Security Council should act within an international legal framework and provide the necessary political, financial and technical support to strengthen a fully co-ordinated UN response in Afghanistan.

  29.  Both short-term humanitarian action and longer-term reconstruction are, in theory, to be undertaken with a UN framework. However, brokering a peace in Afghanistan and taking on the complex mission of reconstructing the state will be made even more difficult by an inconclusive and long-drawn out war. The UN must be fully resourced and empowered to fulfil its complex role. Currently, there are shortfalls in every component of the consolidated appeal. Mr Blair and others must keep to the verbal commitments they have made to provide support over a long time frame.

  30.  It is also essential that Mr Brahimi is able to co-ordinate at the regional level and that his relationship with other top-level UN personnel in the region, particularly the Humanitarian Regional Co-ordinator and the UNHCR Regional Representative is clear and that a coherent regional approach is adopted; this needs to go beyond information sharing to joint policy making.

  31.  Difficulties in the effective co-ordination of UN agencies with different mandates in Afghanistan before 11 September were described in a recent Review of the Strategic Framework for Afghanistan, commissioned by the Strategic Monitoring Unit of Afghanistan.[27] The Strategic Framework for Afghanistan (SFA) was set up with the objective of promoting greater coherence between the assistance and political wings of the UN and its partner organisations in the interests of more effectively promoting peace and stability. The review concludes that "whilst the SFA is a bold and imaginative initiative it has not yet achieved the objective of coherence between political, human rights and assistance objectives". It is important the lessons of this experience are fully incorporated into current planning.

  32.  It is the role of the UN to manage the interface between all aspects of complex interventions and ensure that space is negotiated for impartial humanitarian organisations to operate and meet the current urgent needs of the people of Afghanistan.

Save the Children UK

6 November 2001

3   "Afghanistan's Children-Speak to the UN Special Session 19-21 September 2001." The report is the outcome of a series of consultations organised by Save the Children to solicit the views and messages of Afghan children in preparation for the UN General Assembly Special Session on Children. The Special Session on Children, which was due to take place on 19-21 September, was postponed following the attacks of 11 September. Back

4   Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers estimate ( Back

5   UNHCR Afghan Refugees Statistics, 10 September 2001. Back

6   UNHCR's statistics indicate that 1,500,000 are refugees in Iran; 2,000,000 in Pakistan and 195,000 are in other regions including Russia, Central Asian republics, Europe, North America, Australia and India. "UNHCR Afghan Refugee Statistics", 10 September 2001. Back

7   UNFPA estimate. Back

8   Coalition to Stop Use of Child Soldiers estimate. Back

9   Watchlist on Children and Armed Conflict report on Afghanistan, October 2001. Back

10   A recent Save the Children survey in northern Afghanistan found slightly higher rates of 7 per cent GAM. Nutritional Survey Report, Kohistan District, Faryab Province, Northern Afghanistan; Save the Children, April 4-10 2001, p11. Back

11   Save the Children US estimates that between 1 per cent and 5 per cent of all households appear to have no adult male above the age of 15. Back

12   Save the Children US statistics. Back

13   To date, there has been no accurate estimate of the number of child soldiers in either Afghanistan or Pakistan. Back

14   UNHCR Afghan Refugee Statistics, 10 September 2001. Back

15   IRIN 24 October 2001; Amnesty International 9 October 2001; USAID 2 October 2001. Back

16   UNHCR, 29 October 2001. Back

17   IFRC, 30 October 2001. Back

18   Afghanistan OCHA Situation Report No 2, UN Office for the Co-ordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), 19 September 2001. Back

19   British Overseas Aid Group letter to Clare Short, Secretary of State for Development 2 November 2001. Back

20   ICRC, 4 October 2001. Back

21   Cluster bombs in Afghanistan, A Human Rights Watch backgrounder, 31 October 2001. Back

22   UNHCR Humanitarian Update No 25, 25 October 2001. Back

23   Immediate Needs in Afghanistan: Back

24   Letter from Mike Aaronson to Rt Hon Tony Blair MP, 11.10.2001. Back

25   The Code of Conduct-Principles of Conduct for the International red Cross and Red Crescent Movement and NGOs in Disaster Response Programmes. Back

26   Save the Children briefing on the terrorist attacks on the United States of America and their potential short- and long-term implications, 27 September 2001. Back

27   Review of the Strategic Framework for Afghanistan, Mark Duffield, Patricia Gossman, Nicholas Leader, Commissioned by the Strategic Monitoring Unit, Afghanistan, October 2001. Back

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