Select Committee on International Development Minutes of Evidence

Attachment 2


  We use both terms in this paper, as well as "the Community" and "the Commission".

  The European Community was established by the Treaty of Rome in 1956. Its central feature is the Single Market but it also encompasses a range of other policies, including development cooperation. The EC is served by a number of institutions, including the European Commission, the Council of Ministers and the European Parliament.

  The European Union was established by the Maastrict Treaty (Treaty on European Union in 1992. It comprises what are often known as three pillars:

    —  the EC, as described above;

    —  inter-governmental co-operation (ie co-operation between national governments) in foreign and security policy;

    —  inter-governmental co-operation in justice and home affairs.

  Although the same institutions (Council, Commission, Parliament etc) serve the three pillars, the roles of the Commission and Parliament in the two inter-governmental pillars is much smaller.

  We use the term EC (or the Community) to refer to policies and actions undertaken under the first pillar, where the Commission is responsible for implementing EC development policy. We use the term EU to refer to policies or actions that go beyond this into areas governed by inter-governmental cooperation under the second or third (usually the second) pillar. This is particularly the case in the area of conflict.

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