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Mr. Mike O'Brien: The UK played a pivotal role in securing the unanimous adoption of UN Security Council resolution 1441, which offers Saddam Hussein a final chance to give up his weapons of mass destruction peacefully. We will continue to give the UN weapons inspectors all possible help to complete their task effectively. But ultimately it is up to the Iraqi regime to decide whether or not to co-operate. If it chooses not to, resolution 1441 makes clear that it will face serious consequences.
Mr. Rammell: The United Nations Mission to Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE MACC) has reported that no recent estimate has been made of the number of unexploded landmines in Eritrea as a whole. It is estimated that no more than 100,000 of the approximately 250,000 landmines laid during the 19982000 conflict remain in the UNMEE-monitored Temporary Security Zone on the border with Ethiopia,
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from which approximately 4,000 landmines have so far been cleared. There is no reliable data on contaminated areas or numbers of landmines for the rest of the country. A country-wide Landmine Impact Survey is currently being conducted by the UN Development Programme, the results of which are due in mid-2003.
John Barrett: To ask the Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs what assessment he has made of the impact of unexploded landmines on the demarcation of the disputed border between Ethiopia and Eritrea. 
Mr. Rammell: The United Nations Mission to Ethiopia and Eritrea Mine Action Co-ordination Centre (UNMEE MACC) has reported that, based on detailed reconnaissance of the new border line, it is estimated that up to 150 border pillar sites may be contaminated by landmines or unexploded ordnance (UXO). All access routes to the border to be utilised by the demarcation survey and pillar construction teams have to be checked and cleared of mines where necessary. UNMEE has been mandated by the Security Council to conduct demining operations in support of the demarcation teams, and UNMEE MACC is co-ordinating and managing this project. The EU has provided Euro 1 million to the Border Commission Trust Fund for Quality Assurance and Explosive Detection Dog support contractors to supplement the UNMEE assets to be utilised for the demining support project.
Mr. Mike O'Brien: The UK has good relations with the Republic of Yemen. We welcome President Saleh's co-operation in the fight against terrorism. We are in close touch with the Yemenis on this and on other issues.
Mr. Mike O'Brien: We regularly discuss the situation in Yemen, and other countries, both formally and informally with the US Government. These discussions cover a wide range of subjects, including counter-terrorism, security, democracy, human rights, the economy and development.
John Barrett: To ask the Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs what reports he has received of the use of public funds by the ruling MMD party in Zambia during the presidential election in December 2001. 
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Mr. Rammell: My right hon. Friend the Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs has received no such reports. However, the second interim statement by the European Union Election Observation Mission, which was issued before the Presidential election in December 2001,alleged the use of Government resources for party political purposes. Evidence of this has been presented to the Zambian Supreme Court as part of the on-going petition challenging the legitimacy of the election result.
Mr. Edwards: To ask the Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs what recent representations he has received about the use by the Zimbabwe Republic Police of tear gas from the UK; and if he will make a statement. 
Mr. Rammell: We have received a report from Amnesty International in the UK about the alleged use by the Zimbabwean Police of British made tear gas against Zimbabwean students in November 2001. There has been a UK arms embargo on Zimbabwe since May 2000. We have urged Amnesty to pass any evidence to HM Customs and Excise, who are responsible for the enforcement of UK export controls.
Lynne Jones : To ask the Secretary of State for Education and Skills what assessment he has made of the impact of university staff turnover on the quality of academic research and higher education in the last five years. 
Margaret Hodge: The Department has carried out no specific assessment of the impact of university staff turnover on the quality of academic research and higher education. However, the 2001 Research Assessment Exercise showed that 55 per cent. of research staff now work in Departments containing work of international excellence compared with 31 per cent. in 1996. In addition, the recently completed QAA eight year cycle of HE subject reviews, which included an assessment of teaching quality, identified only 1 per cent. of unsatisfactory provision. The Higher Education Funding Council in September 2002 pointed to some subject areas where it is difficult to recruit including some shortage areas particularly ICT, business, science and engineering. We recognise these difficulties and the challenges our universities face recruiting and retaining in an international market. Top US universities, in particular, pay some academics and researchers salaries, which can be twice as much as their British counterparts earn.
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Julie Morgan: To ask the Secretary of State for Education and Skills what discussions he has had with the teaching unions on his proposals to educate some children seeking asylum in accommodation centres. 
Mr. Stephen Twigg [holding answer 18 November 2002]:My hon. Friend the Parliamentary Under Secretary of State for Sure Start, Early Years and Childcare, has had discussions with the National Union of Teachers and the NASUWT on the Government's proposals to educate in accommodation centres some children whose family is seeking asylum.
Linda Gilroy: To ask the Secretary of State for Education and Skills what plans he has to provide assistance to pupils with Asperger's syndrome to ensure that they can enter public examinations on an equal footing, with respect to part 4 of the Disability Discrimination Act 1995. 
Mr. Stephen Twigg: Schools are required under part 4 of the Disability Discrimination Act 1995 to take reasonable steps to prevent disabled pupils from being put at a substantial disadvantage compared to non-disabled pupils in respect of education and associated services. This would include, where appropriate, negotiating special arrangements for pupils with disabilities who are taking public examinations. What constitutes a reasonable step will depend on the circumstances of individual cases and schools will need to take into account any relevant factors, including the need to maintain academic, musical, sporting and other standards, the financial resources available to them and the costs of taking a particular step.
In addition, both the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority and the examination boards make special arrangements for children with special educational needs, with and without statements, where it can be shown that they usually have additional or different provision in school. For pupils with Asperger's syndrome special arrangements are likely to take the form of extra time or rest breaks. The tests or examinations can also be taken in a separate room if that is appropriate.
Mr. Chope: To ask the Secretary of State for Education and Skills how many car parking spaces are available to (a) employees of his Department and (b) visitors to his Department within the proposed Central London Road User Charging Zone. 
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