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3 Dec 2002 : Column 726Wcontinued
Mr. Jack: To ask the Secretary of State for Education and Skills if he will publish the results of cost-benefit studies undertaken by his Department in the last five years which show the value of its graduate labour force. 
Margaret Hodge [holding answer 2 December 2002]: The cost-benefit studies we have undertaken relate to the private and social rates of return to a degree. Private rates of return compare the costs and benefits of higher education to individuals, including their contribution towards course costs and post-tax earnings benefits. Social rates of return include these private costs and benefits, but also take into account the costs and benefits to society as a whole. Social rates of return estimate the value to the economy of investment in higher education by, broadly, expressing the net increase in national output relative to the resource cost of the higher education courses. The increase in national output is proxied by the difference in graduates' pre-tax earnings compared to those with only two or more A levels, after taking into account non-wage labour costs, which also reflect the value associated with employing a graduate.
Private rates of return to a first degree are higher than social rates. This is primarily because individuals contribute only partially to the costs, but also because social rates are likely to be under-estimates because they exclude social benefits that are difficult to quantify in financial terms, such as health benefits, longer life expectancy, lower infant mortality and reduced crime.
3 Dec 2002 : Column 727W
|Current estimates: social||Dearing estimates: social||Dearing estimates: private|
|Entrants aged 18||Men and women||911||(18)||(18)|
|Entrants all ages||Men and women||810||79||1114|
(18) Not estimated.
1. Dearing estimates are based on General Household Survey data for 19891995.
2. Current estimates are based on Labour Force Survey data for 1998.
3. The lower figures in each cell assume that only 60 per cent. of the difference in graduate and A level earnings is specifically attributable to having a degree, and the higher figures assume 80 per cent.the remaining proportion assumed to be attributable to other factors, such as innate ability.
John Mann: To ask the Secretary of State for Education and Skills what proportion of children whose fathers are coal miners or former coal miners entered higher education in each year since 1997; and how this compares with the national average. 
Margaret Hodge: The available information, showing participation by young people in higher education for each of the standard social class categories, is shown in the following table. Participation rates for individual occupations within these categories are not held centrally. There was an increase in entrant numbers in 1997 related partly to the funding arrangements for higher education, with students choosing to enter HE rather than wait until 1998. There was a corresponding reduction in 1998 before the entry rates started to increase again in 1999.
The Government is committed to raising the participation rates for people from less affluent family backgrounds, and has introduced Excellence Challenge, including the AimHigher campaign, which is targeted at raising attainment and aspirations among young people who traditionally would not consider going to university.
|Per cen.t entering HE in academic year beginning|
|IIIN Skilled non manual||31||29||30||33|
|HIM Skilled Manual||19||18||18||19|
|IV Partly skilled||18||17||17||19|
(19) The API is defined as the number of GB domiciled initial entrants to full-time and sandwich undergraduate HEaged under 21, expressed as a percentage of the average number of 18 and 19 year olds in the population.
3 Dec 2002 : Column 728W
Mr. Derek Wyatt: To ask the Secretary of State for Education and Skills how many units there are to deal with excluded pupils aged under 11 in (a) Kent, (b) East Kent education division, (c) Sittingbourne and (d) Sheppey; and if he will make a statement. 
Mr. Ivan Lewis: Currently, in Kent there is one Dedicated Pupil Referral Unit (PRU) for Key Stage 1 and 2, and five others with provision for Key Stage 1 and 2. These include 1 PRU in East Kent with provision for Key Stages 1 and 2. There are no PRUs with such provision in either Sittingbourne or Sheppey.
The Department is aware of the challenging circumstances in East Kent, and is liaising closely with the Authority to ensure that every excluded child receives an education. Kent has indicated to the Department that every permanently excluded child is currently receiving a suitable, full time education.
Helen Jones: To ask the Secretary of State for Education and Skills how many expressions of interest in forming school federations have been received by his Department; and if he will make a statement. 
Mr. Miliband [holding answer 2 December 2002]: We have received 42 expressions of interest to date. Federations have been discussed at a series of conferences across England running from October to December 2002, to which all secondary heads have been invited. The response from these conferences has been very positive.
Jeremy Corbyn: To ask the Secretary of State for Education and Skills how many teaching vacancies there were in (a) primary and (b) secondary schools in each of the past five years in each London borough. 
|City of London||0||0||1||0||0||1|
|Hammersmith and Fulham||35||12||15||8||14||8|
|Kensington and Chelsea||17||3||3||6||3||2|
|City of Westminster||13||4||14||11||15||14|
|Barking and Dagenham||10||7||12||3||8||9|
|Kingston upon Thames||5||1||6||3||1||7|
|Richmond upon Thames||2||1||2||2||3||12|
3 Dec 2002 : Column 729W
|City of London||0||0||0||0|
|Hammersmith and Fulham||15||28||37||44|
|Kensington and Chelsea||19||16||2||5|
|City of Westminster||35||12||10||15|
|Barking and Dagenham||13||10||0||5|
|Kingston upon Thames||9||12||3||12|
|Richmond upon Thames||9||18||6||19|
(20) Advertised vacancies for full-time permanent appointments (or appointments of at least one term). Includes vacancies filled on a temporary basis for less than one term.
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