Select Committee on Science and Technology Appendices to the Minutes of Evidence


Annex 1

FINANCIAL SUMMARY OF COUNCIL'S INVESTMENTS IN NON-CARBON ENERGY RD&D

THE RESEARCH COUNCILS RD&D PROGRAMMES

  1.  The Research Councils fund mostly "blue skies" basic research and as such, expenditure mainly falls into the research category of RD&D. Some larger programmes may include all categories of RD&D but due to the nature of programme funding we are unable to itemise the expenditure on each category and have identified which programmes cover all areas of RD&D.

  2.  Tables 1 to 7 provide information on BBSRC's, EPSRC's and NERC's past investment in energy RD&D from 1998-99 to the present, and provide an indication of planned investment in 2002-03. Information is also provided on ESRC investments from 2000-01 to the present and future spending plans, and information on the current research programme at the Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research. The data show the Council's investment in subject areas that are clearly identifiable as relevant to this inquiry. The nature of the research is such that it is likely that research funded by EPSRC and other Councils, in different areas may also give rise to useful results in this field. Full details of all of the projects identified as relevant to the inquiry can be supplied if required.

  3.  Details of the Tyndall Centre's research programme is set out below, with information on the research programmes of the individual Councils provided in Annexes B to F, and on EPSRC's research programme in its own submission.

TYNDALL CENTRE FOR CLIMATE CHANGE RESEARCH RD&D PROGRAMME

  4.  The core funding of the Tyndall Centre (£10 million over five years) is composed of contributions of £5 million from NERC, £1.25 million from ESRC and £3.75 million from EPSRC. DTI also contributes funding to support the research-business community interface at the Tyndall Centre.

  5.  The Tyndall Centre's research programme is organised around four research themes. Some research funds are allocated to the core research of each theme and other research funds are allocated to research projects (grouped by theme), which are selected through a competitive bidding process.

  6.  Research funds allocated to research on low or zero-carbon energy technology research are described in Table 7. The highly interdisciplinary nature of the research being carried out at the Tyndall Centre means that there are in addition a number of research projects not mentioned here which do still have some connection or relevance to low or zero-carbon energy research.

  7.  One of Tyndall's key research themes "Decarbonising Modern Societies" concentrates on trans-disciplinary assessments of ways to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases, and to subsequently limit the increase in their concentration in the atmosphere. This will provide information to help achieve national and global emissions reduction targets. Researchers are investigating the many technical, economic, social and policy issues that need in-depth evaluation and integration for large reductions in emissions to occur. For example, they are exploring ways to remove carbon from the atmosphere and considering promising technologies for new and renewable energy sources. The research will compare practices across organisations and communities and extend techniques to other countries and the globe. The work will lead to an integrated assessment of the prospects for significant decarbonisation in the UK and internationally over the coming century. There is a need for continued work in this area including further co-operation with European institutes.

  8.  The Tyndall Centre is currently involved in collaborative research with the following organisations: the Environment Agency, CGNU plc, Forestry Commission Research Agency, DEFRA, Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Natural Resources Institute, North Highland College, and NERC's Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory. The Tyndall Centre is also a founding member of the European Climate Forum.

  9.  In terms of energy type and R&D categories, all of the projects listed in Table 7 are concerned with the implementation and assessment of low and zero-carbon energy technologies, and not with the technical development of specific technologies per se. In addition to the research listed, the Tyndall also has a portfolio of externally funded research, some of which relates to low or zero-carbon energy technologies.

  10.  The total figure for spending on research of direct relevance to low or zero-carbon energy research is £1,981,258 over the period from October 2000 (when the Tyndall Centre came into operation) to 2003. A few of the projects listed in Table 7 will be spending some of their budgets during 2004 and 2005. Approximately £1 million of Research Council funds have yet to be allocated to specific research projects in the Tyndall Centre.

RESEARCH COUNCIL EXPENDITURE ON NON-CARBON ENERGY RD&D

TABLE 1: BBSRC EXPENDITURE ON NON-CARBON ENERGY RD&D1 (£K)


Research area
1998-99
1999-2000
2000-01
2001-02
2002-032
Total

Biomass3
512
379
333
255
272
1,751
Solar4
1,275
1,066
1,134
1,130
1,157
5,762
Total
1,787
1,445
1,467
1,385
1,429
7,513

Notes
(1)All research
(2)Predicted spend
(3)Keywords used to identify biomass projects were as follows: fuel, biofuel, fuel cell, biomass*, carbon sequestration, energy crop, renew* energy, bioenergy, willow
(4)Keywords used to identify light harvesting projects were as follows: light harvesting complex, LHC, LHl, LH2, LH11, photosystem, PS1, PSI, PS2, PSII, reaction centre, photov*.


TABLE 2: EPSRC EXPENDITURE ON NON-CARBON ENERGY RD&D1 (£k)—GRANTS


Research area2
1998-99
1999-2000
2000-01
2001-02
2002-033
Total

Biofuel
0
0
22
52
142
216
Biomass
359
357
289
477
515
1,997
CHP
36
63
77
267
372
815
CO2 Sequestration
0
0
23
42
67
132
Fuel cells
1,016
703
899
1,145
1,487
5,250
Geothermal
0
0
0
7
4
11
Hydrogen
136
59
83
319
536
1,133
Photovoltaic
3,002
2,760
2,992
3,536
2,685
14,975
Nuclear
81
62
128
325
293
889
Wave & tidal4
0
0
185
491
452
1,128
Wind
216
167
261
330
481
1,455
Waste
10
40
40
96
125
311
Conventional
1,317
1,260
1,428
2,058
2,211
8,274
Total
6,173
5,471
6,427
9,145
9,370
36,586

Notes
(1)Not possible to determine the split
(2)Keywords used to identify low / zero carbon energy grants: biofuel, biodiesel, bio-fuel, biodiesel; biomass; CHP, *-CHP; sequestration; fuel cell*; geothermal; hydrogen storage, hydrogen generation, hydrogen fuel, hydrogen economy, production of hydrogen; PV, solar, photovoltaic*; wave power, wave energy, tidal power, wave turbine, tidal turbine, current turbine; wind turbine, wind power, wind farm*; Incineration of waste, combustion of waste, energy from waste, waste combustion, waste incineration, waste pyrolysis; conventional generation: EPSRC research topic classification system used; nuclear: EPSRC research topic classification system.
(3)Predicted spend
(4)The data presented are for expenditure on grants in the financial years shown. The data vary from those provided in the evidence presented by EPSRC to the Select Committee Inquiry on Wave and Tidal Energy in 2001. The 2001 data were based on the total value of the then portfolio of current grants.


TABLE 3: ESRC EXPENDITURE ON NON-CARBON ENERGY RD&D1,2 (£k)—ENERGY RELATED PROJECTS IN THE SUSTAINABLE TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAMME 2002-06


Research area
2002-03
2003-04
2004-05
2005-06
Total

Wind—planning process
18
50
50
30
148
Wind—innovation process (one of three cases studies)
15
55
55
15
140
Fuel cells—innovation, adoption and use
40
75
75
40
230
Low carbon technology (electricity generation)—innovation policy (one of two cases studies)
50
105
55
55
265
Household energy consumption (domestic appliances)
13
48
56
56
173
Total
136
333
291
291
1,051

Notes
(1)Predicted spend
(2)Where a single project includes work/case studies on other sectors in addition to energy as a part of an integrated work programme the full costs of the project are included above.


TABLE 4: ESRC EXPENDITURE ON NON-CARBON ENERGY RD&D1,2 (£k)—OTHER ENERGY RELATED RESEARCH


Research area
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
Total

Environmental policy instruments (energy policy one of four policy sectors)
25
25
25
0
75
Regulation of energy companies (impact on prices and consumers)
0
28
82
46
156
Household behaviour (energy saving one of four areas)
0
20
40
50
110
Total
25
73
147
96
341

Notes
(1)Predicted spend 2002-03 onwards
(2)Where a single project includes work/case studies on other sectors in addition to energy as a part of an integrated work programme the full costs of the project are included above.


TABLE 5: NERC EXPENDITURE ON RD&D ON THE EXTRACTION OF ENERGY RESOURCES (£k)—LINK AND THEMATIC PROGRAMMES


Research programme
1998-99
1999-2000
2000-01
2001-02
2002-031
Total

Ocean Margins (LINK)
0
0
122
230
319
671
Micro to macro (thematic)
13
303
645
529
415
1,905
Total
13
303
767
759
734
2,576

Notes
(1)Predicted spend


TABLE 6: NERC EXPENDITURE ON NON-CARBON ENERGY RD&D (£K)


Research area1
1998-99
1999-2000
2000-01
2001-02
2002-032
Total

Carbon sequestration3
Fossil fuels4
71
71
71
71
71
355
Solar
11
10
0
0
0
21
Tidal
4
4
4
4
34
50
Wind
10
11
0
0
0
21
Wave5, 6
153
171
112
111
111
658
Wind/solar7
21
21
100
0
0
142
Wind/wave8
28
28
28
28
28
140
Total
298
316
315
244
210
1,383

Notes

(1)Financial information on investment in research grants at Higher Education Institutes are based on a search of NERC's MANTRA database using the following key words: Wind, wave, hot rock, hydro- electric, hot dry rock, geothermal, wave energy, solar, tidal, tides, biofuel, energy, biomass, sustain, renewable, fuel, nuclear, radioact*, sequestration, CHP, aquifer heat, hydrogen, photovoltaic.

(2)Estimated spend

(3)British Geological Survey: Income from non-BGS sources (industry, EO and TI) spent by BGS on CO2 sequestration over the period 1998—2003 totals £1,008,567 (RD&D)

(4)British Geological Survey: Sustainable energy and geophysical surveys. This programme researched CO2 capture, transport and underground storage (RD&D)

(5)These figures include a £118k grant researching deterministic sea wave prediction (DSWP) (1998-99—2000-01) the findings of which could be used for underpinning the exploitation of sea wave energy (Research)

(6)Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory: Offshore wave modelling and nearshore wave measuring. This research could underpin offshore wave power studies and may be used in commissioned research concerning wave power (Research)

(7)British Antarctic Survey: Money invested in utilising wind and solar power in remote locations in the Antarctic for scientific instrumentation. The higher figure in 2001-02 relates to the development of the power system for the remote SODAR and the deployment of seven Low Power Magnetometers (Development)

(8)Southampton Oceanography Centre: Wave climate research in the North Atlantic and British shelf seas is valuable for assessing the "available resource" for wave energy and some of the risks for all offshore installations (including wave and offshore wind) (Research)


TABLE 7: TYNDALL CENTRE SPENDING FROM 2000-03 ON ZERO AND LOW-CARBON ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES


Theme
Project Title
Description
Expenditure 2002-03 (£k)

Theme 1: Integrating FrameworksProject IT1.19: Modelling technological change Technology and the economy-energy system in an integrated assessment of climate change
107
Project T2.12: E Tech+: Technology policy and technical change, a dynamic global and UK approach
326
Theme 2: Decarbonising Modern Societies Theme 2 core research programA flagship project consisting of a system—wide analysis of the transition to a decarbonised UK. An estimated £100k worth of research having a direct relevance to low or zero-carbon energy research
100
Project IT1. 7: How can we reduce carbon emissions from transport? Behavioural response and lifestyle change in moving to low carbon transport futures
97
Project IT1.22: Evaluating the options for carbon sequestration Carbon sequestration: a pilot stage multi-criteria evaluation of biological and physiochemical approaches
30
(1)Project IT1.26: Hydrogen's role in reducing greenhouse gases The hydrogen energy economy: its long-term role in greenhouse gas reduction
156
ProjectIT1.30: Connecting new and renewable energy sources to the UK electricity system Integrating renewables and CHP into the UK electricity system
157
Project IT 1.33: Integrating small energy generators in buildings Micro-grids—distributed on-site generation
104
(1)Project IT1.36: Encouraging the use of fuel cells to provide heat and power Fuel cells: Providing heat and power in the urban environment
100
Project. T2.21: An integrated assessment of geological carbon sequestration in the UK
241
Project T2.22: Critical issues in decarbonising transport
28
Project T2.23: The 40%. House Research on energy efficient and low-emission housing
240
Project T2.24: Security of decarbonised electricity systems
148

Notes

(1)These projects are led by CCLRC scientists based at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory





 
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