Written evidence submitted by the Foreign
and Commonwealth Office
UK-SOUTH AFRICA RELATIONS
1. The Foreign and Commonwealth Office responds
to a request from the House of Commons Foreign Affairs Select
Committee for a memorandum in connection with the Committee's
inquiry into South Africa, including reference to South Africa's
role in the region, and within relevant regional and international
bodies; the New Partnership for Africa's Development and the G8
Africa Action Plan; and South Africa's contribution to the war
2. The memorandum opens by setting out the areas
where the UK and South Africa are working together, and summarises
South Africa's influence within Africa and within international
organisations. There are five annexes: joint UK-South Africa communique«,
June 2003 (Annex A); details of the UK diplomatic presence in
South Africa (Annex B); Entry Clearance and Visa operations (Annex
C); Consular activity (Annex D); and UK-South Africa trade figures
3. South Africa is a parliamentary republic.
President Mbeki took office in June 1999. The African National
Congress (ANC) has been in office since the first fully democratic
elections in April 1994. Next elections are due in 2004.
4. South Africa is an important partner
for the UK across a broad spectrum of international issues, but
especially those affecting Africa. Since 1994, South Africa has
been fully involved in the international organisations to which
it has been admitted or re-admitted. For example, it was Chair
of the Non-Aligned Movement from 1998-2003; Chair of the Commonwealth
from 1999-2002; Chair of the African Union from 2002-03. South
Africa has also been one of the main drivers behind the creation
of the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD). The Foreign
Secretary visited South Africa (Johannesburg, Pretoria and Cape
Town) in May 2003 (a copy of the joint UK/South Africa communique«
issued at the end of the visit is attached at Annex A), and held
talks with the South African President and Foreign Minister in
the margins of the UN General Assembly in New York in September
5. The UK's and South Africa's shared history
mean that there are close personal links between the two countries.
An estimated 750,000 UK nationals live in South Africa. During
2002, 420,000 Britons visited South Africa, and 282,000 South
Africans visited the UK.
6. The UK-South Africa relationship is broad
and deep. We have mutual interests in a range of international
issues. With South Africa, we share:
a strong interest in working together
for long-term stability in Africa, supporting South Africa's peace-making
efforts, through diplomatic and practical measures (a British
Peacekeeping Support Team is based in Pretoria);
a strong interest in ensuring progress
a commitment to eliminating poverty
in Africa, including through NEPAD, and support for the International
Finance Facility (a joint DfID/HMT lead) proposal to help meet
the Millennium Development Goals by 2015;
agreement on key NEPAD priorities
(eg conflict resolution, better governance, trade, increased effectiveness
of development assistance);
a strong interest in ensuring progress
in the Middle East Peace Process;
a commitment to trade liberalisation
in the Doha trade round;
an interest in sustainable development
issues, including those addressed at the World Summit on Sustainable
Development (Johannesburg, 2002), eg the Renewable Energy and
Energy Efficiency Partnership (REEEP), and the Sustainable Tourism
Initiative (both FCO leads); and the Extractive Industries Transparency
Initiative (EITIDfID lead);
a commitment to work together on
crime prevention within South Africa, and to combating international
organised crime, drug trafficking, money laundering and terrorist
a commitment to work in partnership
to combat communicable diseases, notably HIV/AIDS, malaria and
a commitment to developing strong
business partnerships and increasing two way trade.
7. Successful UK-South Africa bilaterals
at Head of Government level have been held in 1997 (UK), 1999
(South Africa), and 2001 (UK). There have also been recent State
Visits: Her Majesty The Queen to South Africa in 1995 and 1999.
President Mandela visited the UK in July 1996; and President Mbeki
in June 2001.
8. The official resources deployed to promote
UK interests and achieve the above are outlined in Annex B.
9. The UK and South Africa have a substantial
development partnership, focussed on poverty elimination in South
Africa, and partnership with South Africa in addressing poverty
issues across the continent. The Department for International
Development is investing £30 million a year to support South
African partners' work in four broad thematic areaspoverty
strategy and analysis; governance, democracy and service delivery;
growth, jobs and equity; and HIV/AIDS. The UK and South African
Governments agreed a new five-year strategy in October 2002. The
EU development budget for South Africa is set at around
120 million per year until 2006. DfID will contribute
some £16 million per year to the EU's programme in South
Peace Support Partnership
10. HMG is involved in helping to build
the South African armed forces' own peacekeeping skills. After
eight years of assisting South Africa to integrate seven pre-democratic
armed forces into a single National Defence Force, the British
Military Assistance and Training Team (BMATT) has now been re-mandated
as a smaller British Peace Support Team. This aims to prepare
South African troops for regional peace support operations.
Support for Law and Order in South Africa
11. High crime levels negatively affect
all South Africans and are a disincentive to domestic and foreign
investment. With strong support from the UK, the British High
Commission and DfID Southern Africa are helping to tackle these.
Our partnership includes a twinning arrangement between British
and South African police to explore community/police relations;
assistance with oversight and accountability; training officers
to combat financial crime (which also helps in the joint efforts
on counter-terrorism and counter-narcotics); assistance to the
elite counter-corruption "Scorpions" force; and a programme
to assist in redesigning correctional services in South Africa.
These activities are funded, in part, by the Foreign and Commonwealth
Office's new Global Opportunities Fund, to complement and augment
EU/South Africa Trade Agreement
12. On 11 October 1999, the European Union
signed a bilateral Trade, Co-operation and Development Agreement
(TDCA) with South Africa. Most of the Agreement's provisions came
into force on 1 January 2000. The remainder will come into force
when all 15 EU Member States and the Republic of South Africa
ratify the Agreement. To date, 11 EU members have ratified; South
Africa has not yet done so. The UK ratified the Agreement earlier
this year. The TDCA has an unspecified duration.
13. The TDCA governs trade relations, financial
aid and development co-operation as well as a range of other fields,
such as socio-cultural co-operation and political dialogue. The
Agreement is supplemented by four additional agreements: the Science
and Technology Agreement, the Wine and Spirits Agreement, the
Fisheries Agreement (still in dispute) and by the existing Cotonou
Agreement between the EU and the ACP states.
14. The TDCA contains provisions on, inter
alia: establishing a Co-operation Council to oversee the Agreement
and to conduct regular political dialogue; creating a free trade
area over a transitional period; liberalising trade in services
and the right of establishment; liberalising current payments
and capital movement; preventing public aid distorting competition;
promoting and protecting investment; and development co-operation.
15. South Africa plays a significant role
on African peace and security issues. It contributes troops for
peace support operations, and is emerging as the most influential
peace broker on the continent. South Africa was a primary architect
of the peace and security principles in NEPAD, and helped to ensure
these were adopted by the African UnionNEPAD Peace and
16. In February 2000, and again in February
2001, Mozambique suffered from flooding that caused widespread
devastation. The Mozambican Government issued an appeal for international
support. In both years, South Africa provided military forces
to rescue people from flooded areas and to fly in humanitarian
aid supplies. In addition, South Africa provided food and medical
supplies, and medical personnel.
17. South Africa was a member of the Commonwealth
Troika that took the decision in March 2002 to suspend Zimbabwe
from the Councils of the Commonwealth for a year. On 16 March
2003, the Commonwealth Secretary General announced that Zimbabwe
would remain suspended from the Councils of the Commonwealth,
pending discussions by Heads of Government in Abuja (5-8 December
18. Following Zimbabwe's suspension from
the Councils of the Commonwealth in 2002, South Africa and Nigeria
appointed facilitators in April 2002 to encourage inter-party
dialogue between the Government of Zimbabwe and the Opposition.
South Africa continues to encourage the resumption of dialogue
between ZANU(PF) and the MDC. South Africa is also providing humanitarian
support to Zimbabwe.
19. South Africa has been instrumental in
brokering peace in the Great Lakes Region. As well as leading
the diplomatic initiative, South Africa has provided peacekeeping
forces in the Democratic Republic of Congo and is leading and
commanding the first African Union multinational force, which
is deployed in Burundi.
20. As President of the African Union, President
Mbeki attended the January 2003 Paris summit on Cóte d'Ivoire.
21. He also travelled to Liberia in August
2003 to attend the ceremony organised by Charles Taylor to mark
the latter's departure from the country. South African forces
helped to secure the airport.
22. Following the holding of the first free
and fair elections under universal suffrage in South Africa in
April 1994, South Africa was admitted or re-admitted to a number
of international organisations. Since then, South Africa has played
its part within those bodies in promoting internal restructuring
in order to make them more effective.
23. The Southern African Development Community
(SADC) was established in 1992 and currently has 14 membersSouth
Africa joined in 1994, and has played an active role, with its
partners, in the formulation of SADC's Regional Indicative Strategic
Development Plan, which was adopted by SADC Heads at its Summit
in Dar-es-Salaam in August 2003. The Plan is geared to enhance
regional economic development.
24. The African Union legally came into
being in May 2001 but its formal launch took place in Durban in
July 2002. The last Assembly of Heads of State from the Organisation
for African Unity (OAU) was held on 8 July 2002. It was immediately
followed by the Inaugural Summit of the African Union from 9-10
July 2002. The Constitutive Act of the African Union puts greater
emphasis on good governance, democracy and constitutional rule
than did the Charter of the Organisation for African Unity. Again,
South Africa played an active role in taking forward change. President
Mbeki was the first President of the new Union.
25. South Africa assumed the Chair of the
Commonwealth at the Heads of Government Meeting in Durban in November
1999. The meeting established a ten-country High Level Group (chaired
by South Africa). The Group's mandate was to review the role of
the Commonwealth and report to the next Heads of Government Meeting
(Coolum, Australia, March 2002) on how best the Commonwealth could
respond to the challenges of the new century. South Africa remains
a member of the Commonwealth Troika.
26. Recently, South Africa has hosted two
major United Nations conferences. In 2001, the World Conference
Against Racism (WCAR) was held in Durban. In 2002, the World Summit
on Sustainable Development (WSSD) was held in Johannesburgthe
biggest meeting ever. As host on both occasions, South Africa
played a key role in the pre-conference preparation, chairing
the meetings and producing conference documents.
27. South Africa is a major player in the
G77 and Non-Aligned Movement. As Chair of the NAM from 1998 to
2003, they played a key role in guiding the input of that movement
in multilateral fora. In 2003, they were co-ordinator for the
African Group at the UN Commission on Human Rights, which voted
against a number of EU initiatives, including a proposed resolution
on the human rights situation in Zimbabwe.
28. South Africa is a founding nation of
the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) initiative
and continues to play a leading role in its development and implementation.
At its Summit meeting in July 2003, the African Union agreed that
the NEPAD Secretariat should continue to be based in South Africa.
29. NEPAD is a long-term strategy for Africa's
sustainable growth and development. It evolved from earlier African
strategies and was further developed by a small group of African
Working with others, President Mbeki has mobilised political support
for NEPAD among African and international leaders.
30. President Mbeki's contribution to NEPAD's
development came from his own initial strategy for Africa's regeneration,
the Millennium Partnership for the African Recovery Programme
(MAP). MAP was inspired by President Mbeki's concept of African
which features in South Africa's domestic and foreign policies.
As such, President Mbeki is regarded as one of the chief architects
of the NEPAD strategy and a leading proponent of a regenerated
African Union, Africa's primary continental body.
31. Endorsed by the OAU (now African Union)
in 2001, NEPAD is African owned and led. It recognises African
responsibility for creating the conditions for the continent's
development. It also calls on developed countries to enter into
a new partnership with Africa, based on mutual responsibility
and trust, with commitments and obligations on all parties.
32. South Africa is a member of the NEPAD
Heads of State and Government Implementation Committee. The Committee
sets NEPAD policies, priorities and programmes and reports to
the annual summit of the African Union Assembly (at Heads of State
and Government level).
33. South Africa chairs the NEPAD Steering
Committee, which comprises personal representatives of the initiating
Presidents of the five founding NEPAD countries.
The Steering Committee is responsible for developing terms of
reference for programmes and projects and for overseeing the NEPAD
Secretariat. South Africa also chairs the NEPAD sub-committee
on Peace and Security, and has been instrumental in converging
the African Union (AU) and NEPAD peace and security objectives
into what is now referred to as the AUNEPAD Peace and Security
34. The centrepiece of APSA is the AU Common
African Defence and Security Policy. Implementation at regional
and continental levels should lead to a defence and security architecture,
including the establishment of an African Standby Force. At the
AU Summit in Maputo in July 2003, President Mbeki (the outgoing
Chair) urged AU members to ratify the protocol that will enable
the Peace and Security Council to be legally established. So far
less than 20 countries have done so.
35. The Democracy and Political Governance
Initiative includes the establishment of an African Peer Review
Mechanism (APRM), a voluntary process to review and raise governance
standards in Africa. South Africa was among the first countries
to volunteer for the APRM and seeks to encourage other African
states to do the same. The UK welcomes the development of the
Review Mechanism. Sixteen countries have now agreed to be reviewed.
The first reviews are expected to start in autumn 2003.
36. South Africa contributes to the development
of NEPAD policy and programmes in other priority areas by supporting
studies and hosting seminars. To popularise the African Union
and NEPAD within South Africa, President Mbeki initiated an AU/NEPAD
Outreach Programme in 2002.
37. The importance attached to NEPAD by
South Africa is also reflected in its foreign policies. The Department
of Foreign Affairs Strategy Plan for 2003-05 lists implementation
of NEPAD as a priority.
NEPAD and the G8 Africa Action Plan
38. The United Kingdom Government strongly
supports NEPAD. We recognise that NEPAD is a long-term agenda
requiring sustained engagement and political commitment. The Government
played an active role in developing the G8 Africa Action Plan,
announced at the G8 Summit in Kananaskis in 2002, as a response
to support NEPAD. The Action Plan sets out G8 commitments in a
range of areas such as peace and security, governance, trade,
health and education. The Government is implementing its commitments
through its wider development programme.
39. NEPAD and G8 leaders and representatives
have met regularly to discuss NEPAD and the G8's response since
the G8 Summit in Genoa 2001. South Africa has played a key role
in these meetings.
UK Support for NEPAD
40. British High Commission officials, with
their DfID colleagues, have been in regular contact with the NEPAD
Secretariat to offer support and to gauge progress. Similarly,
there has been constant dialogue with South Africa at political
and senior official level.
41. South Africa responded swiftly to the
attacks in New York on 11 September 2001. The Government condemned
terrorism without equivocation, offering the US humanitarian support
and the full co-operation of its security agencies. In a follow-up
statement, the South Africans said they recognised the right of
the US Government to track down the culprits and bring them to
justice, though this should be coupled with a longer term response
of isolating terrorists through international co-operation "to
eradicate poverty and underdevelopment".
42. South Africa has just joined the Financial
Action Task Force (FATF), an inter-governmental body that sets
the global standards in combating money laundering and terrorist
financing. South Africa is also a member of the Eastern and Southern
Africa Anti-Money Laundering Group (ESAAMLG), the only FATF-style
regional body in Africa.
43. The South African Government's intentions
and actions on countering terrorism are laudable. The Counter
Terrorism Bill is working its way through Parliament, but faces
obstacles over the detention without trial of suspected terrorists,
owing to objections to similar repressive Apartheid-era legislation.
The work of South African agencies involved in countering terrorism
is not always fully co-ordinated, but is improving. The South
African Police Service is confident that it is on top of recent
domestic terrorist threats from domestic groups, including People
Against Gangsterism and Drugs (PAGAD) and the Boermag (a white
UK/South Africa Co-operation
44. The British High Commission has worked
with the South African authorities to mutual benefit, particularly
in anti-money laundering activities. It has been active in supporting
South Africa in the creation of a Financial Intelligence Centre
to monitor and police money-laundering activities by both terrorist
and organised criminal groups. Further co-operation continues
and is aimed at jointly encouraging neighbouring countries to
strengthen their anti-money laundering regimes.
45. The UK is one of South Africa's largest
trade and investment partners with over £5 billion in two-way
trade in goods and services and £12 billion of UK investment
in South Africa (see statistics at Annex E). Strong business ties
are an important element of the overall bilateral relationship.
The UK Trade and Investment operation is headquartered in Johannesburg,
with additional commercial coverage in Cape Town and Durban. Collectively,
we see over 500 visiting UK business people a year, and assist
12-15 trade missions and 4-5 exhibition groups visiting South
46. Following the end of apartheid and the
opening up of South Africa's economy, a major campaign, "Britain
and South Africa: Partners in Opportunity", ran from 1998-2000,
to raise UK awareness of the opportunities in the market. This
has evolved into a sector-focused approach, with strategies currently
drawn up in 12 sectors to help UK companies take advantage of
specific opportunities. There has been a strong emphasis on those
expected to arise from the privatisation programme and the promotion
of Public Private Partnerships (PPPs). These include opportunities
in the water, airports, ports, healthcare, telecommunications
and railways sectors. Education and training, IT, tourism, creative
industries, agriculture and automotive are also key areas. Since
1999 UK trade in goods and services with South Africa has followed
an upward trend, with the latest figures (2002) showing UK exports
of goods at £1,597 million. This is an increase of 25% over
1999. The UK share of world exports to South Africa is 9.1% (up
from 8.7% in 2001).
47. The UK is the largest foreign investor
in South Africa, estimated at £12 billion and covering a
wide range of sectors. Nine of the top 20 foreign employers are
British, and UK companies employ more than 40% of those working
for foreign firms. Lonrho is the largest foreign employer, while
BP, Shell, GSK, Barclays, BAE Systems, Unilever, HSBC, British
Airways and Rio Tinto are other important investors.
48. South Africa is the 18th largest investor
in the UK in net book value, with investments of £757 million
recorded in 2001. Over 200 South African companies are in the
UK, with ICT, light engineering, creative industries, financial
services and consultancy being the most prominent. Large investors
include Old Mutual, SAB Miller, Investec and Sasol. Several companies
have listed on the London Stock Exchange in recent years.
49. Following a 1996 Strategic Defence Review
of post-apartheid South Africa's changing defence priorities,
the South African Parliament agreed in 1997 to a comprehensive
Strategic Defence Procurement Package. Primary contracts for the
aviation element of the package were subsequently awarded in 1999.
The lion's share went to a BAe Systems bid (with SAAB Aeronautical
alongside) to supply 24 Hawk trainers and 28 Gripen light fighter
aircraft. The value of the Hawk/Gripen contract to BAe Systems
was approaching £1.5 billion, with an overall "offset"
commitment to generate additional investment in South Africa of
nearly £5.5 billion.
50. Other purchases included Agusta A109
helicopters (from 2004), four German corvettes (2004-05), three
French submarines (2005-07) and 15 domestic Rooivalk attack helicopters
(delivery underway). The total value of the package was £3.3
billion. The UK's share of the package has recently been increased
by an order for four Lynx helicopters.
51. The UK offset commitment of £5.5
billion was split between Defence Industrial Participation and
National Industrial Participation (NIP). The offset programme
has to be achieved over eleven years. MOD officials are keeping
a close eye on BAE Systems efforts and form part of the Joint
Monitoring Team that oversees the offset obligation.
Black Economic Empowerment and Commerce
52. Black Economic Empowerment (BEE) is
the strategy initiated by the South African Government in 1995
to improve black participation in the ownership and management
of the economy and the highly unequal distribution of wealth inherited
from the apartheid era. The South African Government has attempted
to drive BEE by encouraging the private and public sectors to
demonstrate an increase in black participation in ownership, management,
employment equity, skills development, affirmative procurement
and income levels. Following concern over the way that the Mining
Charter was handled before agreement was reached with industry
last year, other sectors have been given the flexibility to decide
how to take BEE forward. UKTI staff urge UK companies to consider
BEE as a competitive advantage and provide advice on how this
can be done well, including identifying local partners with access
into the previously disadvantaged communities.
The UK-SA SME Partnership Programme
53. In 1999 Trade Partners UK launched the
pilot UK/SA Small and Medium Enterprises (SME) Partnership Programme,
which aims to develop long-term business partnerships between
UK and South African small and medium sized companies, with particular
emphasis on SMEs in South Africa owned and managed by previously
disadvantaged groups. Thirty-two partnerships were achieved in
The Southern African Commercial Hub
54. Southern Africa offers significant business
opportunitiesfrom huge infrastructure projects to regional
distribution networksand South African-based companies
are well placed to take advantage of them due to their location,
cost, structures, local knowledge and access to donor funding.
Since 2001, the Southern African Commercial Hub, located in the
Johannesburg office, has worked with colleagues in regional posts
to help UK companies, both in the UK and the region, trade and
invest in Southern Africa, often in partnership with companies
based in South Africa. This has included introducing companies
that have formed a consortium to bid for infrastructure projects.
This approach also provides a good fit with the NEPAD agenda.
55. The full range of ECGD export credit
facilities is available to support UK exports of capital goods
and services to South Africa, including financing in Rand. Total
ECGD exposure to South Africa stands at about £1.78 billion
which largely reflects the cover agreed for the large defence
deal won by BAE Systems and SAAB of Sweden. South Africa is regarded
as an acceptable risk, and the Medium Term Case Indicator is £80
million. Along with 10-15 of its most concentrated markets, ECGD
is introducing its Active Portfolio Management (APM) programme
to South Africa. This aims to hedge or transfer risks through
reinsurance, credit derivatives or structured instruments.
56. The United Kingdom Government's policy
towards South Africa is to create a strong partnership, building
on our shared history and major commercial links. This paper demonstrates
the wide ranging agenda addressed by the two Governments, and
sets out in detail in the annexes the way the Foreign and Commonwealth
Office, with its partner Departments, engage with the South African
Government, and with British and South African nationals.
57. The Foreign Secretary's visit to South
Africa in May 2003 confirmed agreement on the broad agenda the
two governments will pursue together.
Foreign and Commonwealth Office
JOINT COMMUNIQUE« ON THE OFFICIAL VISIT
OF THE RT HON JACK STRAW MP, SECRETARY OF STATE FOR FOREIGN AND
COMMONWEALTH AFFAIRS, TO SOUTH AFRICA FROM 13 TO 14 MAY 2003
At the invitation of the Honourable Dr. Nkosazana
Dlamini Zuma, MP, and Minister of Foreign Affairs, the Rt. Hon.
Jack Straw, MP, Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth
Affairs, paid an official visit to South Africa from 13 to 14
Minister Dlamini Zuma was accompanied by Deputy
Minister of Foreign Affairs, Mr A Pahad. The British Secretary
of State, Mr J Straw was accompanied by Mr Michael Meacher, Environment
Minister, Department of Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) and Mr
Stephen Twigg, Schools Minister, Department for Education and
Skills (DfES). Ms Joyce Mabudafhasi, Deputy Minister of Environmental
Affairs and Tourism and Mr Michael Meacher as well as Mr Mosibudi
Mangena, Deputy Minister of Education and Mr Stephen Twigg held
Consequent to the bilateral discussions the
overall political relationship between South Africa and the United
Kingdom have been strengthened with the agreement to enhance and
formalise the Joint Bilateral Forum (JBF). In addition officials
will meet frequently to take forward a common agenda agreed to
by the principals.
In the political sphere the Ministers discussed
issues such as: the African Union (AU) and NEPAD; Conflict resolution
in the Middle East and Iraq; the Democratic Republic of Congo,
Zimbabwe and the Great Lakes as well as other African issues;
Co-operation within multilateral fora of the United Nations (UN)
and the reinforcement of the UN as the primary multilateral organisation
responsible for world peace and security.
Minister Dlamini Zuma provided an update of
developments relating to NEPAD and the African Union. Foreign
Secretary, Mr Jack Straw congratulated South Africa on the establishment
of the NEPAD Secretariat and on the leadership of President Mbeki
up to and following the launch of the African Union. The United
Kingdom remains committed to supporting NEPAD, the African Union,
and South Africa. It was agreed that both countries will work
together to look for ways in which to implement the NEPAD Agenda
and to meet the targets set out in the G8 Africa Action Plan as
agreed on at Kananaskis.
The Ministers welcomed the invitation extended
to the leaders representing the South to the G8 Summit in Evian,
France. Furthermore, the Ministers expressed their hope that the
Agreements expected to be reached at Evian on NEPAD'S Africa Action
Plan be implemented equitably as agreed upon by all parties at
the Summit. It was further agreed to pursue meaningful discussions
Foreign Secretary Straw reiterated that the
United Kingdom remains firmly committed to supporting South Africa's
democratic transformation. He stated that the United Kingdom's
Department for International Development (DFlD) has recently finalised
a new strategy for development co-operation on Southern Africa.
This strategy is closely aligned with the achievement
of the UN Millennium Development Goals, and with South Africa's
own development priorities. It commits the British Government
to increasing co-operation with South Africa on global and continental
issues such as conflict resolution, trade and NEPAD as well as
to supporting South African efforts in four thematic areas:
growth, jobs and equity;
democracy, governance and service delivery; and
HIV/AIDS. An annual amount of 30 million pounds for
a period of three years, has been allocated for the four thematic
Both Ministers acknowledged the burden and challenges
facing Africa in the form of communicable diseases such as Malaria,
TB and HIV/AIDS etc. The United Kingdom supports South Africa's
National 2000-05 Strategic Plan through its development assistance
programme at government to government level, in partnership with
civil society, and aiding small, grassroots community organisations.
It was agreed that the United Kingdom's Department for International
Development (DfID) and South Africa's National Treasury should
work together to bring forward new co-operation programmes for
consideration, which will include local government, communicable
diseases, land reform, and justice.
The Ministers also noted the continued recruitment
of skilled South Africans to the UK, and undertook to work together
to ensure such recruitment does not undermine the economic and
social development of South Africa.
The Ministers welcomed the appointment of Mahmud
Abbas (Abu Mazen) as Prime Minister in the Palestinian National
Authority and the appointment of a new Cabinet, as well as the
consequent publication of the Quartet's Road Map. They agreed
to share with the parties to this conflict the relevant experience
that their respective Governments gained in the democratic transformation
process, in the case of South Africa and in Northern Ireland in
the case of the UK.
The Ministers discussed the aftermath of the
war in Iraq. Long-term peace, security, development, and a sustainable
solution in Iraq can only be achieved with and by the full participation
of the Iraqi people themselves. In this regard it was agreed that
the first priority now is to address the humanitarian situation
and to work towards the stabilisation of Iraq.
In addition to the bilateral discussion held
by the Foreign Ministers, two Working Groups met on Africa and
On the Great Lakes Region, the Working Group
on Africa concurred that both South Africa and the United Kingdom
share a strong interest in the long-term stability and prosperity
of this Region, acknowledging that development and poverty alleviation
can only come about through stability and the total cessation
of conflict. The United Kingdom warmly welcomed South Africa's
success in July 2002 in brokering a Peace Agreement between Rwanda
and the Democratic Republic of Congo. It was noted that the United
Kingdom has provided practical support for South Africa's commitment
of troops in support of MONUC operations in the DRC. The United
Kingdom expressed their government's readiness to provide further
assistance, if requested.
The Working Group welcomed the signing of the
Final Act of the Peace Agreement on 2 April 2003 at Sun City,
as well as the endorsement of the Global and Inclusive Agreement
on the Transition in the Democratic Republic of Congo and the
Transitional Constitution. The Working Group welcomed the sterling
efforts of the Facilitator, Sir Ketumile Masire, and of the United
Nations Secretary-General's Special Envoy, Mr Moustapha Niasse,
and the spirit of reconciliation displayed by the Congolese parties,
which have contributed to this important step towards a united,
peaceful and prosperous Democratic Republic of the Congo. Both
expressed their concern on recent developments in eastern DRC.
They underlined their support for efforts to stabilise the situation
and protect the civilian population.
On Burundi the Working Group strongly supported
South Africa's continuing efforts to narrow the differences between
the protagonists. The Working Group welcomed the smooth transfer
of power and congratulated all the parties for taking the peace
process forward. The Working Group welcomed the plan to deploy
the Africa mission to Burundi and noted that this was the first
African Union multinational force of Ethiopia, Mozambique and
On Angola the Working Group shared a strong
commitment in ensuring that the progress in the Angolan peace
process is maintained and strengthened. Both countries are aware
of the development challenges facing Angola in the post-war phase
and support policies and programmes aimed at alleviating the suffering
of the people and ensuring the long-term stability of the country.
On Zimbabwe, the Ministers welcomed the visit
of President Bakili Muluzi of Malawi Olusegun Obasanjo of Nigeria
and Thabo Mbeki of South Africa, to Zimbabwe on 5 May 2003. While
in Harare, the three leaders held discussions with both President
Robert Mugabe and the MDC leader, Mr Morgan Tsvangirai, in an
attempt to remove all the remaining obstacles towards the resumption
of Inter-Party Dialogue between ZANU-PF and the MDC. Both countries
agreed on the need to encourage the parties to commit themselves
to removing the obstacles to the negotiations. They underlined
that the longer the problems in Zimbabwe remain unresolved, the
more entrenched poverty will become. They stressed their commitment
to an outcome in which the people of Zimbabwe enjoy independence,
freedom, peace, stability, democracy and prosperity. The Working
Group noted unequivocally, that no lasting solution to the challenges
that face Zimbabwe can be found, unless that solution comes from
the people of Zimbabwe themselves.
On Cóte d'Ivoire the Working Group expressed
concern about the continuing unstable situation in Cóte
d'Ivoire, and the delay in the full implementation of the provisions
of the Marcoussis Agreement. They welcomed the mediation efforts
undertaken by President Kufuor of Ghana on behalf of the Economic
Community of West African States (ECOWAS), which has the support
of the African Union.
Furthermore, they expressed concern at the ongoing
reports of continuing violence in the western parts of Cóte
d'Ivoire. In this regard, the Working Group stated that all parties
to the conflict should desist from violent actions, including
the recruitment of mercenaries, which could lead to further suffering
and commit themselves to a process of negotiation.
The Multilateral Working Group stressed their
commitment to and the importance of, the multilateral system of
governance for peace, sustainable development, and strong and
equitable growth. The Working Group had a helpful exchange on
the British proposal for the International Financing Facility
(IFF), which aims to promote enhanced aid flows to the poorest
countries. Both sides agreed to keep in close contact as the idea
is taken forward. The Working Group agreed that the United Nations
has an indispensable role to play, not only in the delivery of
humanitarian assistance to people in post-conflict situations,
but also in assisting with the full range of peace-building, reconciliation
and reconstruction activities.
On the WTO and International Trade the Working
Group noted that the United Kingdom and South Africa share a good
understanding of each other's perspectives on international trade
issues and globalisation enhanced by the close interaction between
our respective Trade and Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors.
The Ministers agreed that the lack of progress in talks at the
WTO in Geneva is of concern. It was agreed to continue to engage
each other at all levels to make progress on the negotiations
ahead of Cancun, particularly in the areas of agriculture and
TRIPS to meet the mandate of the Doha Development agenda.
Both countries noted with approval that the
United Kingdom remains the largest foreign investor in South Africa
and welcomed the steady stream of inward trade missions from potential
British investors. Over 200 United Kingdom companies have now
endorsed the principles behind NEPAD as they see South Africa
as a country where good governance, transparency and sound business
practice thrive. The Working Group welcomed the South African
Government's release of the Black Economic Empowerment (BEE) strategy.
It noted that the strategy had been broadly welcomed by investors
as key to providing both a strong framework and greater certainty
for social transformation and economic growth.
In order to enhance further co-operation and
to promote two-way trade and tourism, the Working Group agreed
that air services and other transport issues will be discussed
at senior political level in the near future.
The Working Group remained committed to the
Kimberly process in order to help promote international peace
and security. It was agreed that the active co-operation between
South Africa and the United Kingdom has contributed to the success
of the recently held meeting of the Kimberly Process in Johannesburg.
On the WSSD the United Kingdom is targeting
its development assistance programme towards achieving the goals
set out in Johannesburg regarding access to water, energy and
sanitation as part of an overriding objective to alleviate poverty.
During the bilateral meeting between Deputy
Minister Mabudafhasi and Junior Minister Meacher, the two Ministers
agreed to work together to find a satisfactory solution to serious
environmental contamination in Kwazulu-Natal concerning Thor chemicals.
On Climate Change the two Ministers discussed
an urgent need for action to tackle the threat of climate change
and emphasised the positive role that new technologies, as well
as the business sector, could play in the process. The Ministers
also emphasised the need of all countries to ratify the Kyoto
The two ministers agreed that South Africa and
the UK could each play a vital role in ensuring that the international
community delivered on commitments made in Johannesburg on water
and sanitation. The ministers emphasised the importance of mobilising
all possible resources at all levels to ensure adequate investments
in these sectors, in order to provide the necessary infrastructure,
technology and capacity-building.
Stephen Twigg, Parliamentary Under-Secretary
of State for Schools, participated in an extended programme in
Pretoria and Cape Town. Mr Twigg held warm and productive meetings
with Education Minister Kader Asmal and Deputy Education Minister
Mosibudi Mangena, sharing experiences and identifying a number
of areas for follow-up and further co-operation including: IT,
tertiary education reform, prompting high learning achievement
regardless of race, and the incorporation of sound values and
citizenship ideals into education policy.
On behalf of Secretary of State for Education
Charles Clarke, Mr Twigg welcomed Mr Asmal's participation in
the meeting later this year of Commonwealth Education Ministers
in Edinburgh, and invited Mr Asmal to take part in a further series
of bilateral discussions during his visit to the UK.
At the invitation of both National and Provincial
Education Departments, Mr Twigg also visited schools in Soshanguve
and Mitchells Plain, experiencing first-hand the issues facing
education in South Africa. At the invitation of both National
and Provincial Education Departments Mr Twigg took part in further
in-depth discussions of these issues, and the common ground between
the UK and South Africa in how these issues are tackled.
In conclusion the two parties agreed that the
next meeting of the Joint Bilateral Forum will be held in South
Africa during 2004 to coincide with South Africa's 10th Anniversary
The Rt. Hon. Jack Straw MP, Secretary of State
for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs during his visit also had
the opportunity to pay a courtesy call on H.E. Mr Thabo Mbeki,
President of the Republic of South Africa.
UK PRESENCE IN SOUTH AFRICA
1. UK interests in South Africa are dealt
with by four principal offices: our High Commission in Pretoria,
Consulate General in Cape Town, British Trade and Investment Office
in Johannesburg and Consulate General in Durban, plus two Honorary
Consulates in Port Elizabeth and East London. In managing these
assets, the Foreign and Commonwealth Office has sought to meet
high standards of value for money.
Estate in South Africa
2. In Pretoria, the main part of the High
Commission is located in a listed building which was gifted to
the British Government by a local businessman, of British origin,
in the 1930s. Since then extensions have been built to accommodate
the High Commission's management and press and public affairs
sections. Visa and consular services are run out of a separate
leased building in Pretoria. UK staff in South Africa are housed
in 31 owned and 13 leased properties. The High Commissioner has
residences in Pretoria and Capetown. Annual estate expenditure
in Pretoria alone is £305,000.
3. The former High Commission buildings
in Cape Town, located within the South African Parliament's compound,
were sold earlier this year to the South African Government for
R6,350,000 (£530,000). The British Consulate General in Cape
Town is located on one floor of a leased office block. The British
Consulate in Durban will shortly take on a purely commercial role
funded by British Trade International.
Staff in South Africa
4. A comparative summary of staffing is
contained in the table below.
||Locally Engaged Staff|
5. Since 1994 considerable effort has gone into increasing
the diversity of locally employed staff so that it is more representative
of South Africa's population. A number of initiatives have been
employed to ensure that this diverse mix works as an effective
team. All staff attend an employment equity course which aims
to give an overview of new employment laws. Specialist trainers
from the UK ran a "Managing Inclusion" course in 2002.
Team building sessions, mentoring, staff Away-days and induction
training for new staff have all been introduced in the last two
THE ENTRY CLEARANCE AND VISA OPERATION IN SOUTH AFRICA
1. All UK Entry Clearance and visa work in South Africa
is centralised in Pretoria. The Visa Section currently consists
of one Entry Clearance Manager, 5 Entry Clearance Officers and
22.5 Locally Engaged staff. 29,335 visa applications were received
in the financial year 2002-03, an increase of 28% on the previous
year. 93.1% of all the applications received were approved.
Performance against PSA Targets
2. In the financial year 2002-03, the visa post in Pretoria
met all three PSA targets:
92% of Tier 1 and Tier 2 (straightforward non-settlement applications)
were resolved within 24 hours (target was 90%)
average waiting time for a Tier 3 (non-settlement applications)
interview was one working day (target was 10 working days)
average waiting time for a Tier 4 (settlement applications)
interview was one week (target was 12 weeks)
3. Visa work has increased year on year since South Africa
rejoined the Commonwealth in 1994. Since then South Africans have
benefited from two categories of entry clearance previously denied
to them: working holidaymaker and permit free employment on the
grounds of UK ancestry. One-half of applications are submitted
in person at the Visa Section, One-third through commercial visa
agents of the applicant's choice. The rest are sent by post or
4. Although they do not need prior entry clearance to visit
the UK, approximately 85-90% of applications are from South Africans.
Most of them are employment or settlement related.
|Permit free employment on the grounds of UK ancestry (plus accompanying dependants)
|Visitors (mainly third country visa nationals)
|Work permit dependants||5
|EEA family permits||1
|Other categories of permit free employment
5. The waiting queue for a tier three interview currently
(September 2003) stands at 12 working days, but is usually below
the PSA target of 10. The queue is mainly composed of applicants
who have not submitted their application in person. Personal callers
are usually interviewed on the same day, if this is required.
6. There is no separate queue for tier four settlement
applications. Most of these can easily be resolved on paper, as
they are usually from long established couples.
EU Residence Permits Scheme
7. From 13 November 2003, South African nationals will
be affected by the UK Government's implementation of the EU-wide
Residence Permits scheme, ie those who wish to stay in the UK
for more than six months will need to apply for Entry Clearance
8. Based on IND statistics for the number of South African
nationals admitted to the UK in 2001-02 for more than six months,
we estimate that this change in policy will generate around 19,000
visa applications in the first year following its introduction.
UK Visas have agreed the additional deployment of three Locally
Engaged staff (one of them will be an Entry Clearance Officer
(ECO) on a six month contract initially) and extra funding to
pay for new application forms, furniture and office equipment
(such as computer terminals, cash-tills and printers).
Working Holidaymakers (WHM) Scheme
9. The recent revisions to the Working Holidaymakers
Scheme are expected to generate a considerable increase in the
post's workload. For the last financial year, 64% of visa applications
received by the post were for WHM visas. As the changes only started
from 25 August 2003, UKvisas are monitoring the situation closely
and maintaining close contact with post. Additional staff and
resources will be deployed, if necessary.
UK CONSULAR WORK IN SOUTH AFRICA
1. Consular work in South Africa is split into three
consular districts. The Consulate General in Cape Town covers
Northern, Western and Eastern Cape Provinces. KwaZulu Natal is
currently covered by our Durban office, although in early 2004
the office will handle trade matters exclusively. Straightforward
or emergency consular work will then be covered locally by an
Honorary Consul but assisted, where required, by consular staff
from Pretoria. The remaining five provinces are covered from Pretoria.
2. Pretoria's consular staffing consists of the Consul,
Vice Consul (Passports and Nationality), an LE II Consular Protection
Officer, an LEII Nationality Officer and 17 other Locally Engaged
staff. Cape Town's consular staffing comprises an LE II Vice Consul
and three Locally Engaged consular assistants. There are also
Honorary Consuls in Port Elizabeth and East London, mainly to
provide assistance to the large numbers of British nationals (including
many retirees) residing in the Eastern Cape. The total number
of British nationals living in South Africa is estimated at around
750,000, of which 500,000 reside in the Cape provinces. Many of
these are dual nationals.
3. Approximately 420,000 British citizens visited South
Africa last year. Most visit the coastal areas (notably Cape Town),
although South Africa's tourism authorities estimate that a third
of all tourists visit Mpumulanga, primarily to see the Kruger
4. The last annual return shows approximately 50,000 personal
callers to our consular offices (including collection and delivery
of applications), 200,000 telephone enquiries, and 17,000 postal,
fax or e-mail enquiries. Over 500 received advice or assistance
in respect of financial assistance and repatriation, and assistance
was given to 23 detainees (either serving sentences in prison
or having been held for more than 24 hours). Twenty nine hospital
visits were recorded, although this figure does not fully record
the numerous visits made by a number of High Commission staff
to the victims of the Piet Retief bus crash over a period of several
weeks. Seventy eight deaths were recorded, involving varying degrees
of assistance from our staff to the families and relatives.
5. Last year around 23,000 passports were issued, over
90% in less than 5 working days. Documentation anomalies and form
filling errors account for nearly all the delayed issues. However,
in the recent months Passport Section has achieved a near 100%
issue within five working days.
6. Despite the best efforts of the South African authorities
to address the problem, the country's high crime rate cannot be
denied or ignored. This, allied to the large number of British
residents and the substantial (and growing) volume of visitors,
some, inevitably, become victims of crime.
UKSOUTH AFRICA TRADE IN GOODS & INVESTMENTKEY
Exports of Goods
|Imports of Goods||2,553
|Balance in Goods||-1,140
|Exports of Services||952
|Imports of Services||516
|Balance in Services||436
Trade in goods
UK exports to South Africa increased by 2% in 2002
UK imports from South Africa fell by 7% in 2002
South Africa is the UK's 21st largest export market (2002)
South Africa is the UK's 16th largest source of imports (2002)
UK is South Africa's largest export market (2002)
UK is South Africa's 3rd largest source of imports (2002)
UK share of world exports to South Africa increased from
8.7% in 2001 to 9.1% in 2002.
Main UK exports to South Africa by value during 2002 (with
changes over 2001)
Non-Metallic Mineral Manufactures (primarily diamonds)
£286 million (+29%)
£149 million (+25%)
Office Machines & ADP Equipment
£100 million (-24%)
Power Generating Equipment
£96 million (+83%)
Around 91% of UK exports to South Africa are
Main UK imports from South Africa by value during 2002
(with changes over 2001)
Non-Metallic Mineral Manufactures (primarily diamonds)
£853 million (-12%)
£310 million (+38%)
£269 million (-24%)
Vegetables and Fruit
£223 million (+13%)
South African Investment into the UK
South Africa is the 18th largest investor in the UK in net
book value, with investments of £757 million recorded in
2001. Over 200 South African companies are in the UK.
LETTER TO THE PARLIAMENTARY RELATIONS AND DEVOLUTION DEPARTMENT,
FOREIGN AND COMMONWEALTH OFFCE, FROM THE SECOND CLERK OF THE COMMITTEE,
29 JANUARY 2004
At its meeting on Tuesday, the Committee discussed the South
Africa inquiry and its forthcoming evidence session with Mr Mullin.
Given the time that will have elapsed between the session and
the receipt of the Foreign Office's memorandum for the inquiry
(30 September), the Committee agreed that it would greatly value
a supplementary note from the Office to bring the submission up-to-date.
There would of course be no need to repeat any of the details
provided in the original memorandum, although it would be helpful
if the information could be set out under the same headings.If
the submission could be received by Monday 23 February, to allow
time for circulation to all Members prior to Mr Mullin's session,
the Committee would be grateful.
Second Clerk of the Committe
LETTER TO THE SECOND CLERK FROM THE PARLIAMENTARY RELATIONS
AND DEVOLUTION DEPARTMENT, 23 FEBRUARY 2004
Thank you for your letter of 29 January asking for a supplementary
note in relation to the Committee's current inquiry into "South
Africa," ahead of Mr Mullin's appearance before the Committee
on 2 March.
I enclose the memorandum herewith. It should be read in conjunction
with our earlier memorandum on South Africa, which we submitted
23 February 2004
Angola, Botswana, DRC, Lesotho, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique,
Namibia, Seychelles, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia
and Zimbabwe. Back
Presidents Bouteflika of Algeria, Mubarak of Egypt, Obasanjo of
Nigeria, Wade of Senegal, and Mbeki of South Africa. Back
African Renaissance can be described as a social and economic
development agenda for the revival and renewal of Africa, recognising
the continent's culture and history while setting out a path to
address the challenges of globalisation. Back
South Africa, Nigeria, Senegal, Egypt and Algeria. Back