Select Committee on Public Administration Fifth Report


ANNEX: STATISTICAL SUPPLEMENT

Data have been made available to us by the Cabinet office on both awards and nominations over a number of years.

A complete data set is available for all the awards made from the Birthday Honours list in 1999 to the New Years Honours list in 2004. This comprises over 10,000 individual data items and is sufficiently comprehensive to analyse statistically.

Awards

The data on awards are fairly stable over the years and there appear to have been no major changes in the period from the Birthday Honours in 1999 to the New Year Honours in 2004.

Nominations are made by members of the public (about 45%) and also come directly from government departments. When nominations are received, they are examined by subject specialist Committees. The numbers and level of Honours awarded by these Committees are listed in Table 1.

Table 1

  
State
Med/S&T
ACI
Maec
Local
Sport
Media
Millennium
PM
Total
GCB
3
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
3
D/KCB
24
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
24
D/KBE
2
7
4
15
36
1
2
1
2
70
Kt
15
38
61
39
83
8
10
0
10
264
CH
  
2
  
8
  
  
  
  
  
10
CB
129
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
  
129
CMG
9
  
9
  
3
  
  
  
  
21
sub Total
182
47
74
62
122
9
12
1
12
521
CBE
178
105
269
124
315
26
22
3
2
1044
OBE
374
167
477
150
1151
69
43
20
4
2455
MBE
682
138
797
218
4181
223
60
33
35
6367
Total
1416
457
1617
554
5769
327
137
57
53
10387


The columns in the table are as follows:
State—awards made to civil servants
Med/S&T—awards made for services in the field of medicine, science and technology
ACI—awards made for services in Agriculture, Commerce and Industry
Maec—awards made for services to the Arts
Local—awards made for local services
Sport—awards made for services of sport
Media—awards made for services to the Media
Millennium—special awards made in 2000
PM—special awards

In order to determine whether the differences in the percentage of each type of award made by the Committees are significant, all awards at Knighthood level or above have been amalgamated. The last two columns have also been excluded from the statistical analysis as the numbers of awards involved are small. However they are all included in the diagram (Figure 1) shown below.

A Chi-squared contingency table test was carried out on the data and the differences in the levels of award made by each Committee were found to be statistically highly significant. The probability that the Committees awarded the same percentage of each type of awards is less than 0.0001. (Chi-Sq = 1135.048, DF = 18, P-Value < 0.0001). We have learned that the Committees are not meant to recommend awards in the same proportion as each other. Each Committee has a broad allocation of awards at each level and they do vary significantly.

The key in Figure 1 refers to MBEs, OBEs and CBEs and K/D represents the amalgamated data for each Honour at or above the Knighthood level.

Figure 1


State and Non-State Awards

The data for the level of award for state and non-state honours is given in Table 2

Table 2


State
Non-State
Total
  
182
339
521
K/D
178
866
1044
CBE
374
2081
2455
OBE
682
5685
6367
MBE
1416
8971
10387
Total



Figure 2


The data are illustrated in Figure 2.

A chi-squared contingency table test was carried out on the data and the differences in the levels of award made to state servants and members of the public are statistically highly significant. The probability that each category receives the same percentage of each type of award is less than 0.0001. (Chi-Sq = 262.78, DF = 3, P-Value < 0.0001).

Data are also available on the numbers of state and non-state awards made between 1955 and 2004 and these are illustrated below in Figure 3.

Figure 3


There are peaks shown in Honours to the public at the time of the Queen's Jubilee celebrations in 1977 and again at the Millennium in 2000 when additional awards were made. In 1966, Harold Wilson's reforms to the Honours system resulted in a sharp decline in the numbers allocated to state servants. This decline can be seen more easily in Figure 4, which shows only the State awards. There is also an obvious and continuing increase in the number of awards made to the public in 1995. This was as a result of the changes made to the system by the then Prime Minister John Major. The British Empire Medal which had hitherto not been included in the Honours list became an MBE and was included after 1995.

Figure 4


Black and Ethnic Minority Awards

The ethnicity of the recipient of each award is included in the data from 1999 to 2004 and this is shown in Table 3. However, this has been declared by the nominator rather than the recipient and may be subject to error.Table 3

  
B&E
Non-B&E
K/D
14
507
CBE
42
1004
OBE
147
2308
MBE
378
5989



Figure 5


The differences in the two categories are less noticeable that the differences between the different awarding Committees. However, these differences are still statistically significant. (Chi-Sq = 15.415, DF = 3, P-Value < 0.001). There are significant differences between the categories of awards to Black and Ethnic Minority people and others.

According to the 2001 census the percentage of black and ethnic minority in the UK is 7.9%. But the percentage of black and ethnic minority people receiving awards varies from 4.2% to 7.0% of the awards made.

Data on nominations made are also available but these are less reliable. The Cabinet Office receives around 6000 nominations each year and a random sample of around 300 has been extracted. From the usable sample of 292, 14 are of unknown ethnic origin. Of the remaining 278, 17 are Asian and 3 are black. This indicates that about 7.2% of the nominations come from a black or ethnic minority background. However this is subject to an error of plus or minus 3%, and is too unreliable for conclusions to be drawn.

Awards to Women

Data on the awards made to women and men are available from 1965 - 2004 and are illustrated below in Figure 6. The peaks evident in previous data are also obvious here. However, it appears that women did not benefit from John Major's reforms of 1995 as much as the men. It is possible that women received fewer British Empire Medals and therefore the numbers were not increased to the same extent when this became an MBE.

The percentage of the awards made to women varies from 14.5% to 40%.

Figure 6


Regional Awards

Data on the level of awards for each region are available for three years 2002-2004. These are given in Table 4 and illustrated in Figure 7.

Table 4

  
K/D
CBE
OBE
MBE
Scotland
2
15
29
77
N Ireland
1
5
8
28
Wales
1
2
14
45
NE
1
5
8
14
NW
4
5
14
42
East
2
9
20
44
E Mid
7
7
34
W Mid
1
5
21
37
London
14
23
42
67
SE
7
28
33
105
SW
2
6
20
56
Y&H
1
6
15
41


Figure 7


The differences appear to be large but the numbers are too small for any statistical analysis of the whole table.

One submission we received suggested that Scotland did badly in terms of its share of the higher awards. In order to test whether this was the case in 2004, the data has been tabulated for Scotland against the rest of the UK. This is given in Table 5. The statistical analysis did not reveal any significant differences between Scotland and the rest of the UK in the level of the awards given. (Chi-Squared = 1.64, Degrees of freedom =3, not significant)

Table 5

  
K/D
CBE
OBE
MBE
Total
Scotland
2
15
29
77
123
Rest of UK
34
101
202
590
927
Total
36
116
231
667
1050


The population of the UK is distributed as follows in Table 6 and illustrated in Figure 8:
Table 6

  
Pop (m)
Scotland
5.05
N Ireland
1.70
Wales
2.92
NE
2.53
NW
6.79
East
5.45
E Mid
4.21
W Mid
5.3
London
7.24
SE
8.08
SW
4.96
Y&H
5.01

Figure 8


Regional data are available for the Birthday Honours list 2003 and the New Year's Honours List for 2003 and 2004. These are given in Table 7 and illustrated in Figure 9.

Table 7

Scotland
NY2004
NY2003
BD2003
N Ireland
123
126
119
Wales
42
73
65
NE
62
49
57
NW
28
27
21
East
65
70
69
E Mid
75
51
75
W Mid
48
52
41
London
64
73
76
SE
146
148
143
SW
173
166
159
Y&H
84
81
86
Scotland
63
47
51


Figure 9


It is noticeable that there are some large winners and losers. Scotland receives 13% of the awards but has only 9% of the population of the UK. Northern Ireland does well with 6% of the awards and only 3% of the population. London and the South East receive 31% of the awards but have only 27% of the population. The main loser is the North West. The North West received 7% of the awards and has 11% of the population.

The differences between the regional distribution of the awards and the regional distribution of the population are highly statistically significant. (Chi-squared = 343.8, Degrees of freedom = 11, p<0.0001)

Nominations

The remaining data are taken from those nominations received in a single month in 2003. These were nominations emanating from England. All the nominations from elsewhere in the UK go to the devolved administrations. Table 7 and Figure 10 show the regional distribution of the nominators.

Table 8

Area of Nominator   
E England
26
E Midlands
16
N E England
14
N W England
19
London
28
S E England
69
S W England
30
W Midlands
21
Yorks/Humberside
19
Northern Ireland
6
Scotland
16
Wales
14
Abroad
6
Unknown
8

Figure 10


33% of the nominations come from London and the South East, but those regions have only 27% of the population.

Occupation of Nominees

Table 8

Occupation of Nominees   
Occupation   
Armed forces
3
Benefactor
6
Business
20
Ceremonial
1
Church
1
Construction
4
Cultural
21
Domestic
5
Education
41
Environment
11
Government
14
Health
71
Legal
9
Literature
1
Media
8
Out of time
22
Public Services
16
Sports
14
Unknown
20
Work in Industry
2
Youth
2


Figure 11



Table 9

Activities Nominated for  
Animal Welfare
4
Benefactor
12
Business
2
Church Activities
6
Cultural
16
Education
8
Law
4
Elderly
13
Environmental
6
Black minority work
3
Forces charities
6
General voluntary
43
Health
32
Paid job
106
Religious activity
1
Sport
12
unknown
4
Youth work
14


Figure 12


Figure 13


Figure 14





 
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Prepared 13 July 2004