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Mrs. Roche: To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department what training is provided to senior caseworkers in the Immigration and Nationality Directorate to help them provide support and advice to junior officials. 
In addition, all senior caseworkers have direct access to policy experts in the Asylum Policy Unit, country information specialists in the Country Information Policy Unit and, in appropriate cases, to legal advice from the Home Office Legal Advisers Branch.
Mr. Browne: Asylum caseworkers are trained to make asylum decisions without discrimination and on their individual merits in accordance with the criteria set out in the 1951 UN convention relating to the status of refugees.
Training focuses on the skills, knowledge and ability required to make effective decisions based on the law. Caseworkers are instructed on how to identify an asylum claim and to then apply the salient facts to the legislation.
Mr. Charles Clarke:
Figures for the number of people removed or deported from the United Kingdom are published regularly and are available from the Home Office website www.homeoffice.gov.uk.
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Dr. Pugh: To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department (1) how many individuals entering the country with questionable identification have been detained at John Lennon airport but have subsequently absconded from the airport in the last 12 months; 
Mr. Browne: The Immigration Service provides a 24-hour service at John Lennon airport. Two immigration officers are scheduled for duty throughout the period, except from 07.30 to 10.00 hours when there is one. This shift coverage takes into account the schedule of incoming flights.
There are no customs officers permanently based at Liverpool John Lennon airport. Customs attendance is determined on the basis of risk. Customs officers deploy to the airport in accordance with flight or passenger profiles or more specific intelligence. Mobile staff are deployed from the local area, or from the regional or national strike forces on a flexible basis in order to be able to respond to any identified risk. They attend selected arrivals for class 'A' drugs, revenue goods and other prohibited or restricted items, and selected departures for work in connection with the Proceeds of Crime Act. Therefore, there will be no customs staff on duty for some arrivals/departures, but a much larger number of mobile staff for others, where a risk has been identified.
Peel Holdings, as the airport operator, has overall responsibility for the security of John Lennon airport. A representative from the Immigration Service attends regular meetings with Peel Holdings, the police, HM Customs and Excise and other control authority partners, to discuss new airline routes and airport development. The Immigration Service also attend a monthly multi-agency threat and risk assessment meeting with other security stakeholders to make accurate assessments of any threats to John Lennon airport.
Between April 2004 and January 2005 there have been three occasions where passengers whose identity was in doubt have absconded from the immigration control at John Lennon airport. To reduce the risk of this happening again, the Immigration Service are in
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negotiations to improve security at the immigration control there. Records of such absconders prior to April 2004 are not available.
Mr. Tyler: To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department when he will reply to the parliamentary question reference 205820 tabled by the hon. Member for North Cornwall on 20 December 2004. 
Mr. Amess: To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department how many serving police officers were convicted of an offence in (a) England and Wales, (b) Scotland and (c) Essex in each year since 1997, broken down by type of offence; and what the average sentence was in each case. 
David Davis: To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department what estimate he has made of the time taken to receive authorisation to enable police officers to undertake (a) covert and (b) directed surveillance of (i) named and (ii) as yet unidentified criminal associates of individuals under Part II of the Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000. 
Mr. Charles Clarke: The time taken by a police officer to make a written application for authorisation for covert directed surveillance and by an authorising officer to consider that application and, if appropriate to do so, grant the authorisation will depend on the circumstances of the specific investigation or operation. No estimate or assessment has been made by the Home Office of the average time involved.
To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department whether it is his policy to require a police officer to obtain a new authorisation to undertake (a) covert and (b) directed surveillance of (i) named
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and (ii) as yet unidentified criminal associates of individuals if they were not originally named in authorisation of surveillance, under Part II of the Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000. 
Mr. Charles Clarke: Guidance on authorisation procedures is contained in the statutory code of practice on the use of covert surveillance, adopted by Parliament pursuant to section 71 of the Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000. Paragraph 2.8 provides guidance on circumstances when an investigation or operation unexpectedly interferes with the privacy of individuals not covered by the authorisation. The Code states
When the identities of previously unknown subjects or their associates become known they should be identified in a renewal authorisation, so long as it is consistent with the original authorisation. If the scope of the investigation or operation is to be broadened a new authorisation will be required.
David Davis: To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department what process of authorisation he requires a police officer to complete to undertake (a) covert and (b) directed surveillance of (i) named and (ii) as yet unidentified criminal associates, of individuals, under Part II of the Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000. 
Mr. Charles Clarke: Guidance on the use of covert direct surveillance by public authorities, and the authorisation procedures involved, is contained in the code of practice on covert surveillance adopted by Parliament pursuant to section 71 of the Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000. The code of practice is available from TSO (The Stationery Office) (ISBN 0113412843) or on the Home Office website at: http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/crimpol/crimreduc/regulation/codeofpractice/surveillance/index.html
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