Select Committee on Environment, Food and Rural Affairs Written Evidence


Memorandum submitted by the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (U9)

PART I: THE FORTHCOMING REVIEW OF THE UK CLIMATE CHANGE PROGRAMME DURING 2004-05, LOOKING PARTICULARLY AT WHAT NEW POLICIES MIGHT BE NEEDED TO KEEP THE UK ON TRACK IN REDUCING ALL GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS

REDUCING GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS

  1.  The Kyoto Protocol is the first important step towards establishing an international framework for agreeing further cuts and future actions in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The UK's target under the Kyoto Protocol is to reduce emissions of a basket of six greenhouse gases[5] by 12.5% below base year levels by 2008-12. The UK has also set a national target to move towards a reduction in carbon dioxide emissions by 20% below 1990 levels by 2010. Additionally, the Energy White Paper[6] published in February 2003 established a new goal for energy policy; to reduce total carbon dioxide emissions by some 60% by 2050, with real progress made by about 2020.

UK CLIMATE CHANGE PROGRAMME 2000

  2.  The UK Climate Change Programme (CCP), published in 2000, set out the Government's and devolved administrations' strategic approach to tackling climate change. It contains a package of practical measures that it was felt would enable the government to deliver the UK's commitment under the Kyoto Protocol and move towards the domestic goal. Main developments since the CCP was published in 2000 include:

The Climate Change Agreements

  3.  Climate Change Agreements (CCAs) are agreements with 44 industrial sectors to meet challenging energy efficiency targets in return for paying a reduced rate of the Climate Change Levy (CCL). They began in April 2001 and cover over 5,000 companies and 10,500 sites. Targets are set every two years, and we are now approaching the end of the second target period. Operators will report early in 2005.

  4.  The results of the first target period in 2002 were very encouraging[7]. The absolute energy savings compared to the baseline years was the equivalent to 16.4 million tonnes (mt) carbon dioxide. The absolute savings figure is dependent on changes in industry activity as well as on energy efficiency improvements. For example, the steel industry's emissions fell by 2.6 million tonnes Carbon (mtc) per annum, partly reflecting a 27.5% decline in output compared with the base year. It is clear that energy management has now become a boardroom issue, with chief executives and finance directors taking a direct interest and substantial additional investment in energy efficiency measures has already taken place.

  5.  The targets for existing sectors and operators for 2006-10 are currently under review. Defra has also invited applications from new sectors under extended eligibility criteria announced in the budget 2004.

UK Emissions Trading Scheme

  6.  The UK Emissions Trading Scheme (UK ETS) was launched in April 2002, running for five years from 2002 to 2006. It has 31 Direct Participants who have committed to reduce their baseline greenhouse gas emissions by 3.96 million tonnes of carbon dioxide emissions. In the first two years the Scheme has achieved significant emissions reductions against baselines of 4.64mt of carbon dioxide in 2002 and 5.2Mt in 2003. These were 3.8mt and 3.6mt respectively, in excess of the targets.

  7.  The experience gained from the Scheme, has placed the UK at the forefront of emissions trading. Participants now have a better understanding of the benefits that Emissions Trading can bring to them and are gaining valuable experience in monitoring, reporting and verification processes as well as trading. Defra has gained valuable knowledge in administrating the Scheme as well as in registry development, that has led directly to the development of an European Union (EU)/United Nations (UN) registry.

Transport

  8.  The transport sector is the third largest source of greenhouse gas emissions in the UK. It is also the fastest growing source of emissions. Whilst the UK's total (net) carbon dioxide emissions have fallen since 1990, the emissions of carbon dioxide from transport have increased from 116,581 kilo tonnes (ktonnes) in 1990 to 122,792ktonnes, representing a rise of some 5% over the period. Transport currently accounts for some 22% of all UK carbon dioxide emissions. Road transportation is responsible for some 95% of all emissions of carbon dioxide from the transport sector.

  9.  The recent Transport White Paper[8] described the action already taken and noted that it may be necessary in the long term to move beyond today's vehicle and fuel technologies to radically different alternatives. These might include vehicles powered by hydrogen fuel cells, or fuels produced entirely from energy crops or other forms of biomass. We are committed to facilitating the development of these and other promising alternative technologies, as a potentially cost effective way of achieving carbon savings from road transport in the future. The White Paper acknowledged that the prospect of a transport system powered substantially by biofuels and hydrogen is some years away and committed the Government to introducing a range of measures (listed in paragraph 10.22) in the short term to put the UK on a path to a low carbon transport system.

  10.  The EU voluntary agreements on new car fuel efficiency with car manufacturers have proved an effective mechanism for improving cars' fuel efficiency and reducing carbon emissions. This approach, which focuses on the levels of carbon emitted rather than on dictating particular technologies, gives manufactures the flexibility to develop the most cost-effective solutions. The agreements are on course to reduce emissions from the average new car from 186 grammes per kilometre (g/km) in the EU in 1995, the base year for the agreements, to 140g/km by 2008, a reduction of around 25%[9]. The UK market profile of carbon dioxide performance is similar to comparable markets like Germany and Sweden, all of which currently exhibit fleet average emissions slightly above the EU average of 163g/km.

  11.  The Community target for carbon dioxide is supported in the transport sector by the voluntary commitments as one part of three pillars, the other two being fuel efficiency labelling and fiscal measures, for example, in the UK, the Government has introduced changes to vehicle excise duty and company car taxation.

  12.  Changes to company car tax were introduced in 2002 and provide incentives for employers and company car drivers to choose cars which produce lower levels of carbon dioxide emissions. Although the long term impact of the reform will not be known for some years, Inland Revenue research[10] suggests that the average carbon dioxide emissions of new company cars decreased significantly from a level of around 196 g/km in 1999 (when the intention to switch to a new company car tax system was announced) to 182g/km in 2002. The research also suggests that in 2003 there was a reduction of around 0.15-0.2mtc due to the reform.

  13.  The Air Transport White Paper[11] acknowledged the increasing impact that aviation emissions are making towards total emissions. Forecasts have suggested that by 2030 carbon dioxide emissions from UK aviation will amount to some 16 to 18mtc, of which 97% would be from international flights. This could amount to about a quarter of the UK's total contribution to global warming by that date. The Government is actively pursuing the inclusion of intra-EU aviation in the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) and will make this a priority for the UK Presidency in 2005. We will also continue to explore the scope for the use of other economic instruments to tackle aviation emissions.

The Energy White Paper

  14.  The Energy White Paper sets out policies and measures to implement the objectives set out in the CCP for 2010, and provides a foundation for the further carbon cuts needed by 2020 and beyond. With the principles of sustainable development in mind, the White Paper's long-term strategic vision for energy policy has four overall goals:

    —  to put UK on a path to cut its carbon dioxide emissions by some 60% by about 2050, with real progress by 2020;

    —  to maintain the reliability of energy supplies;

    —  to promote competitive markets in the UK and beyond, helping to raise the rate of sustainable economic growth and to improve our productivity; and

    —  to ensure that every home is adequately and affordably heated.

  15.  The White Paper stated that the new EU emissions trading scheme would be a central plank of future emission reduction policies. It also identified further energy efficiency and new renewable energy as main measures to achieve the UK's energy policy goals.

Energy Efficiency: The Government's Plan for Action

  16.  The White Paper identified energy efficiency as the safest and most cost-effective way to achieve all of our energy policy goals. Reducing energy use can reduce carbon emissions, enhance the security of energy supplies, improve the competitiveness of UK businesses and reduce fuel poverty.

  17.  To achieve these goals, a step-change in the rate of improvement in energy efficiency will be needed. The April 2004 Action Plan fulfilled a commitment in the White Paper to publish a detailed implementation plan setting out how the Government will deliver this step change.

  18.  The policies and measures in the Action Plan have been designed to provide savings of 12mtc annually by 2010. This is a 20% increase over the level of savings anticipated at the time of the White Paper, and will save UK households and businesses over £3 billion per year on their energy bills.

  19.  Implementation of the Action Plan is coordinated by Defra's Sustainable Energy Policy Division and monitored by the Sustainable Energy Policy Network (SEPN).

  20.  The Government will continue to look for ways to further strengthen the contribution from energy efficiency as part of the review of the CCP later this year.

The Energy Efficiency Commitment

  21.  Under the Energy Efficiency Commitment for 2002 to 2005 (EEC), electricity and gas suppliers are required to achieve targets for the promotion of improvements in domestic energy efficiency. This current phase of the EEC is expected to save about 0.4mtc per annum. The Energy White Paper firmly set EEC in a continuing key role in the Government's carbon abatement strategy in the domestic sector and committed Government to "consult on an expansion of the EEC to run from 2005 to at least 2008 at possibly twice its current level of activity". Following an informal consultation process with key players (Including energy suppliers, the energy efficiency industry, energywatch and Ofgem) Defra launched the formal public consultation on 21 May. The consultation proposals suggest that the second phase of EEC could save up to 0.7mtc pa in 2010. The consultation period closed on 13 August and analysis of the responses is ongoing. The Government expects to put relevant legislation to Parliament in November and launch the next phase of the EEC in April 2005.

The Energy Saving Trust

  22.  Since 1996-97 the Government has provided funds to the Energy Saving Trust (EST) to run a wide ranging programme of work to promote energy efficiency EST was established as part of the UK Government's response to the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro. This addressed worldwide concerns on environmental issues such as climate change.

  23.  The Trust works to promote, through partnership, the sustainable and efficient use of energy in the domestic and small business sectors by improving awareness of energy efficiency, providing information and advice, and working with the market to develop and market energy efficient goods and services. The Trust is also active in encouraging local authorities to develop energy efficiency strategies

  24.  In April 2000 the Energy Efficiency Partnership for homes was launched. The Partnership, which is facilitated by the Trust, brings together all those with an interest in promoting domestic energy efficiency. It aims to create a long-term framework for implementing energy efficiency in homes.

The Carbon Trust

  25.  The Carbon Trust (CT) is a private company launched in April 2001, as part of the CCL package to take the lead on business and public sector energy efficiency and encourage the development of a low carbon sector in the UK.

  26.  The CT operates the UK's main information, advice and research programme for organisations in the public and private sectors. CT took over the management of the Government's non-domestic Energy Efficiency Best Practice programme in July 2002 and re-launched it, including an interest free loan scheme for Small and Medium sized enterprises.

  27.  The CT took over the administration and promotion of the Energy Technology List of energy efficient technologies eligible for 100% first year capital allowances under the Enhanced Capital Allowance Scheme in August 2002.

  28.  The CT looks to accelerate the development of new and emerging low carbon and energy efficient technologies in the UK. Innovation activities focus on providing a funding continuum across the low carbon innovation process that invests in projects and leverages further funding.

Electricity from renewable sources

  29.  The Government set a target to increase the proportion of electricity provided by renewable sources to 10% of electricity supplied by 2010, subject to the cost to consumers being acceptable. The Energy White Paper confirmed the 10% target, and set out our aspiration of doubling this by 2020.

  30.  The 2010 target is challenging, as we are starting from a low base, but we are working hard to meet it. In this context, the Renewables Obligation, which requires all licensed electricity suppliers in England and Wales (there is a similar obligation in Scotland) to supply a specific and growing proportion of their electricity from renewables, is working well. Since the Obligation came into force, over 1,500 Mega Watts (MWs) of wind capacity has received consent. It is estimated that some 350 MWs of new capacity will be built by the end of this year (three times as much as last year). In order to provide a stable and long-term market for renewable energy, the Obligation will remain in place until 2027. The level of the Obligation was 3.0% when it was introduced in 2002-03 and it is 4.9% for the current year, and increases to 10.4% in 2010-11.

  31.  In December, the Government announced that the level of the Obligation would be increased for the years after 2010-11 so that it will rise in stages to 15.4% in 2015-16 and continue at this level until 2027. A statutory consultation exercise is currently under way. In addition there will be a review of the Renewables Obligation in 2005-06.

  32.  In 2003, Electricity from all renewables amounted to 2.9% of all electricity generated.

EU Emissions Trading Scheme

  33.  The EU ETS is one of the policies in the European Climate Change Programme. The scheme will begin on 1 January 2005, with the first phase running from 2005-07 and the second phase running from 2008-12 to coincide with the first Kyoto Commitment Period.

  34.  The scheme will work on a "Cap and Trade" basis. EU Member State governments are required to set an emission cap for all installations covered by the scheme. Each installation will then be allocated allowances for the particular period in question. The EU ETS is central to our work to move towards a low carbon economy. It is a key measure in helping us to move towards our 20% domestic emission reduction goal and international commitments to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. Emissions trading is the most cost-effective way of achieving emissions reductions. Emitters can choose either to reduce their own emissions or to buy allowances from other emitters in Europe, who are reducing their emissions, whichever is the cheaper. The overall level of allowances to be allocated in the UK in phase 2 of the EU ETS (2008-12) will be strengthened to be consistent with the trading sector's contribution to achieving the national climate change target of moving towards a 20% reduction in emissions of carbon dioxide by 2010).

  35.  The EU ETS Directive required all Member States (MS) to transpose the Directive into national law by 31 December 2003 and to submit a National Allocation Plan (NAP) to the European Commission by 31 March 2004. The UK was the only MS to meet the challenging transposition deadline and was the first MS to publish a draft NAP in January 2004, thus reinforcing the UK's role at the forefront of tackling climate change.

  36.  The UK submitted its provisional NAP to the European Commission on 30 April 2004, which sets out the UK's proposals for the allocation of allowances to operators of installations covered in the first phase of the EU ETS. The limit on the overall allocation for this phase is based on securing the same amount of savings from emission trading as we had expected when the climate change programme was published in 2000. The UK NAP was approved by the Commission on 7 July (subject to conditions) along with NAPs from a further seven Member States. Further work on the UK NAP is ongoing which may lead to a revised NAP being submitted to the European Commission in the autumn. Decisions on NAPs from the remaining MS NAPs are expected towards the end of 2004.

  37.  The UK is leading in the implementation of the EU ETS and is thereby demonstrating its commitment to tackling climate change. Industry is being encouraged to invest in emissions abatement and innovation, and is being given opportunity to take full advantage of the benefits that trading offers. Furthermore, industry now has more time to decide on and prepare carbon management strategies, so that the UK can take full advantage of the European-wide trading scheme.

PROGRESS TOWARDS TARGETS

  38.  The UK remains on course to achieve its Kyoto target to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 12.5% below 1990 levels by 2008-12. Total UK emissions of greenhouse gases in 2003 are provisionally estimated to have fallen by 14% compared to 1990. Emissions of carbon dioxide for 2003 are provisionally estimated at about 7% lower than in 1990. Emissions increased by about 1½%[12] between 2002 and 2003, although they remain lower than in 2001. The increase was largely because of greater use of coal in electricity generation and a decrease in net imports of electricity from the continent.

  39.  The updated climate change "headline" sustainable development indicator[13] is shown below.

CLIMATE CHANGE HEADLINE INDICATOR[14]


  40.  Current projections suggest that the UK is on course to something around a 15% reduction in carbon dioxide on 1990 levels by 2010. The DTI published a working paper[15] on Updated Energy Projections in May 2004. Allowing for the impacts of the CCP, but not the EU Emissions Trading Scheme, this projects carbon dioxide emissions in 2010 at around 14.3% below 1990 levels. A reduction of 1.5mtc in the allocation of allowances within the EU ETS, in line with the UK's NAP, takes this reduction to 15.2%.

  41.  Work to finalise projections to feed into the UK's NAP, and to the review of the CCP, is continuing. We expect to publish a further update alongside the amended UK NAP to be submitted to the European Commission in late autumn.

CLIMATE CHANGE PROGRAMME REVIEW

  42.  The 2000 CCP included a commitment for the Government to carry out a formal review of it in 2004. The review will aim to provide a comprehensive assessment of the progress the Government and the devolved administrations have made in reducing greenhouse gas emissions since the programme was published to see if we are still on track towards our 2010 domestic goal. If we are not, we will look carefully at whether we should introduce new policies and measures, and/or strengthen existing ones.

  43.  The review will take into account developments since, including the Energy White Paper, the Energy Efficiency Action Plan, the "Future of Transport" White Paper and the EU Emissions Trading Scheme. The review will also consider the action that the UK will need to take to ensure it is on course to make the "real progress by 2020" towards the longer-term goal of reducing carbon emissions by some 60%, as set out in the Energy White Paper.

  44.  The review was launched on 15 September with the publication of the Terms of Reference for the review[16]. Please find these enclosed in the Annex. It will be a wide ranging and comprehensive review, covering not only the policies and measures to reduce emissions but also the parts of the CCP that deal with, for example, climate change science, impacts and adaptation.

  45.  It is too early to say what new measures or policies will be included in the revised programme. Our aim is to carry out an open and inclusive review; following the evaluation of key elements of the existing programme, we intend to consult stakeholders, both on the findings of the evaluation and on possible policy options for the future. A full appraisal of the options along with the results of this consultation will be used to help design the revised programme.

  46.  Defra will submit a supplementary memorandum on its initial assessment of progress for use by the Committee.

PART II: THE ROLE THAT THE GOVERNMENT WILL PLAY IN 2005 AS CHAIR OF THE G8 AND AS PRESIDENT OF THE EUROPEAN COUNCIL IN DRIVING FORWARD THE KYOTO AND POST-KYOTO AGENDAS

  47.  The UK's dual Presidencies of the G8 and the EU offer a unique opportunity for to re-inject some positive momentum into the international process. With our presidencies coinciding with the start of negotiations on a post-2012 regime in December 2005, we can also ensue that the UK is at the forefront of this process.

  48.  Next year is a crucial year for the Kyoto Protocol and the international climate change process as a whole. The Protocol is yet to come into force, having not yet been ratified by 55 countries including annex 1 (developed) countries responsible for 55% of this group's greenhouse gas emissions in 1990.

  49.  The United States, the world's largest greenhouse gas emitter (responsible for 20% of global emissions), has said it will not ratify the Kyoto Protocol. It still remains a signatory of the United Nations Convention on Climate Change (UNCCC) and our scientists agree on the basics: the US National Academy of Science has confirmed that climate change is happening and is caused by human activity. The UK Government will continue to encourage the United States to re-engage in the international climate change process. The G8 has been one of the few areas in which we have had constructive dialogue with the US on climate change and we will pursue this during our Presidency next year.

  50.  Following the US withdrawal from Kyoto, only Russian ratification (and deposition of its ratification instrument with the UN in New York) can realistically now deliver its entry into force. The Kyoto Protocol is the first and only serious global attempt to deal with the problem of climate change, and the UK Government remains fully committed to it. Securing Russian ratification of the Kyoto Protocol continues to be a key objective on the international climate change agenda and we continue to encourage them at every available opportunity.

  51.  Under the Kyoto Protocol, 2005 is when the Protocol envisages starting negotiations on the post-2012 regime. This is likely to be at the Ministerial Conference of the Parties in November 2005, during which the UK will hold the Presidency of the EU, as such the UK will have an influential role to play in the negotiations. The UK will continue to do what it can to ensure early entry into force, but we are aware that Kyoto alone is not enough and deeper cuts will be needed in the future. This is evidenced in our domestic policy on carbon dioxide emissions, as set out in the Energy White Paper, which put us on the pathway towards reductions of some 60% by 2050.

  52.  2005 is also the date by when Annex 1 (developed) countries must show they are making "demonstrable progress" against their reduction targets. Leadership will be required to ensure that the EU member states are able to do this, which will be essential to put us in a strong position for negotiations on future action.

G8

  53.  The Prime Minister has identified climate change as one of our priority issues for the UK's Presidency of the G8 next year. The Government wants to take a strong case for action on climate change to the G8, with the aim of securing some positive outcomes at the UK's G8 Summit in July 2005.

  54.  Given that the G8 account for over 65% of global GDP, their actions have extensive political and economic clout, and profile. The G8 are an important engine behind technological development and account for the lion's share of scientific effort globally, reflected in their responsibility for 70% of the world's scientific papers and 75% of science citations. Against this background, securing radical and ambitious action on climate change by the G8 would have huge impact, not least because the G8 is responsible for about 47% of global carbon dioxide emissions. Moreover, ensuring developing countries' engagement in the future, demands developed countries taking the lead to reduce emissions. It is vital that we engage meaningfully with other major countries with growing energy demand, such as India and China. Not only on how they can increase energy supply in a sustainable manner, but also to help them adapt to the adverse effects of climate change we are already locked into.

  55.  We hope to secure agreement on the basic science of climate change and the threat it poses. This would be new and would underpin the debate on further action. We will also be seeking agreement on a process to speed up the development of technology and other measures necessary to meet the threat. To facilitate this, we propose holding an international scientific meeting at the Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research in Exeter in February. This will tackle the big questions to which we need answers—"what level of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is self-evidently too much?" and "what options do we have to avoid such levels?". Held prior to the G8 Summit itself, we hope that the answers to these questions will help inform discussion in the G8.

  56.  Action taken under the G8 will be complementary to the goals of the UNFCCC. Work streams taken forward under the G8 would not seek to establish new processes unnecessarily but rather explore where G8 action can add extra value.

  57.  There will be follow up the cleaner energy technologies part of the "Action Plan on Science and Technology for Sustainable Development" which was agreed in Evian in June 2003 and followed up by the US this year. This seeks to promote the uptake of existing cleaner technologies and spur innovation into new ones, a key aspect of tackling climate change. These technologies will be needed if we are to succeed in making the deep cuts in greenhouse gas emissions which will be necessary, while still providing the products and services one can expect in a modern world. These technologies will also provide secondary benefits such as reducing local air pollution, improving energy security and producing more affordable and accessible energy for remote areas.

  58.  The Prime Minister's other priority for the Presidency of the G8 is Africa and Defra has already commissioned a joint study with DfID to look at Africa and climate change. This study will review what information is available on climate change in Africa and evaluate the adequacy of existing data to inform policy decisions. This provides an opportunity to identify and raise key issues that the international climate change community and system needs to collectively consider and respond to in order to support African development and bring African concerns into international climate change negotiations and assessments. The position in Africa is very different from the more advanced developing countries where there is a good (and growing) appreciation of the climate problem and how its impacts. Much less scientific work has been carried out on the impacts of climate change on Africa and there is much we simply do not know. The study can add considerable value by identifying these knowledge gaps and what needs to be done to plug them.

EU

  59.  With the deadline for showing demonstrable progress under the Kyoto Protocol falling within the UK's presidency of European Union, one of the UK's priorities will be to ensure that the European Union can do this. We will need to work closely with our fellow member states and the Commission to ensure that this is, not only shown, but shown convincingly. This would demonstrate that the European Union is taking its responsibilities seriously and sends signals out to developing countries that developed countries are taking action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

  60.  This acknowledgement of what the EU has already achieved will be accompanied by a commitment to further reductions. This needs to be an ambitious but still credible commitment to medium and long-term strategies and targets so that other parties to the UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol see our intent and commitment. This will be an opportunity for the EU to show what is possible and lead the way in setting more ambitious targets.

  61.  During the second half of 2005 we expect a number of important issues contributing to the EU's reduction programme in the first Kyoto commitment period, and to the base for reductions thereafter, to come before the Environment Council and other EU Council formations. It is difficult to predict how matters will go in the intervening Dutch and Luxembourg Presidencies, but the Energy Services Directive contains a number of measures that could be of great importance to greenhouse gas reductions and could well be negotiated during the UK Presidency. The negotiations on another round of EU voluntary agreements with vehicle manufacturers aimed at forcing down emissions from the transport sector by improving the fuel efficiency of the new vehicle fleet could still be under way. The negotiation of the second phase of the EU ETS, particularly its extension to other sectors perhaps including aviation, could take place in this period. These three issues together amount to a large proportion of the potential for emissions reduction across Europe, and their negotiation will be of crucial importance.

  62.  Our position in the EU and the good bilateral relationships we have with other MSs will also be key in the negotiations for the second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol. Ahead of the Ministerial Conference of the Parties in November 2004, there will be much discussion within the European Union on what should follow the Kyoto Protocol. The UK is well placed to be at the forefront of this and will be representing the EU at the Conference of the Parties.

  63.  The UK's Presidency of the EU is not just an opportunity to secure action and make progress within the EU, but is another avenue through which the international climate change process can be reinvigorated. Action taken towards agreeing ambitious targets and strategies within the EU would send positive signals to the international community about the EU's level of ambition with regard to progress on climate change. The EU, under the UK Presidency, would maintain the momentum of the international climate change agenda.

30 September 2004



5   The greenhouse gases covered by the Kyoto Protocol are carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons and sulphur hexafluoride. Back

6   Our Energy Future-creating a low carbon economy can be found at: http://www.dti.gov.uk/energy/whitepaper/ourenergy future.pdf Back

7   NAO report: http://www.nao.org.uk/publications/nao_reports/03-04/0304517es.pdf Back

8   The Future of Transport, published by DfT dated July 2004. http://www.dft.gov.uk/strategy/futureoftransport/ Back

9   All figures relating to the voluntary agreements are for "tank to wheel" emissions. Back

10   Report on the Evaluation of the Company Car Tax Reform, Inland Revenue (29 April 2004). www.inlandrevenue.gov.uk/cars/cct_eval_rep.pdf Back

11   "The Future of Air Transport", published on 16 December 2003 by DfT. http://www.dft.gov.uk/aviation/whitepaper/ Back

12   Provisional 2003 estimates of percentage changes since 1990 and 2002 are subject to a range of uncertainty of at least +1/2%. Back

13   This table was first published in a Press Notice issued on 25 March 2004. It represents the first release of data from the National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory for 1970-2002, produced for Defra and the Devolved Administrations by the National Environmental Technology Centre (NETCEN). For further information on the Inventory see the NAEI web site at www.naei.org.uk Back

14   The climate change indicator is one of the Government's 15 headline indicators of sustainable development. These are a "quality of life barometer" measuring everyday concerns like housing development, health, jobs, air quality, educational achievement, wildlife and economic prosperity. They are intended to focus public attention on what sustainable development means and to give a broad overview of whether we are "achieving a better quality of life for everyone, now and for generations to come". The latest information on all the headline indicators is available at: www.sustainable-development.gov.uk/indicators/index.htm Back

15   Updated UK Energy Projections, May 2004: http://www.dti.gov.uk/energy/sepn/uep.pdf Back

16   Press notice for the launch of the Terms of Reference for the review of the UK Climate Change Programme-www.defra.gov.uk/news/2004/040915b.htm Back


 
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