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Select Committee on Home Affairs Written Evidence


9. Memorandum submitted by PeaceMaker

ABOUT PEACEMAKER

  First developed in 1997, PeaceMaker is an anti-racist youth development organisation that aims to bring together young people from a diversity of backgrounds in positive environments to foster active citizenship and social responsibility. PeaceMaker creates opportunities for shared learning where young people can work together to challenge and overcome prejudice—both their own and that of the communities in which they are growing up.

  The organisation is managed through a management committee, many of whose members were, at the time of PeaceMaker's inception, young people themselves. Some had experience of operating within anti-racist youth development programmes; all had direct experience of living in communities that were divided by racism and inequality. Managed on an entirely voluntary basis, PeaceMaker continues to benefit from the support of experienced professionals in the field of youth and community work, social work, drugs work, solicitors and the business sector.

  PeaceMaker's role today is more relevant than ever, as our communities engage with the urgent task of building bridges following the recent disturbances. As we all work towards finding ways for young people to prosper and share in the rich and diverse heritage of our communities, PeaceMaker is increasingly at the forefront of this vital work.

  The organisation is showing itself to be capable of engaging with disaffected and marginalised young people, whose sense of having a stake in the future of their community is all but shattered by their life experience to date. With innovative and often challenging programmes and projects, PeaceMaker has been able to turn round young people's attitudes, so that they become active advocates of a positive outlook in their own communities.

  The experience of PeaceMaker's young people finds an echo in inner cities and conurbations across Britain. The techniques being developed by PeaceMaker to work in such environments will have a direct relevance to planners, policy makers and communities themselves. If we can learn the lessons embedded in PeaceMaker's practice, we will be opening up an opportunity for the next generation to make a multicultural, peaceful future.

  "It is so important that groups like PeaceMaker are bridging the racial divide, working together and bringing the issues alive. Young people can get involved in the debate over why racism exists and work towards breaking down barriers and building cohesive communities".

  Althea Efunshile, Director of the Children and Young People's Unit

  "PeaceMaker are providing a really valuable service in terms of spreading messages about citizenship and community engagement and also reaching out to the local schools which is absolutely crucial in this area of work. I am very grateful to you for this and for the excellent example you are providing to other groups."

  David Blunkett, Home Secretary

INTRODUCTION

  In October 2004, the Home Affairs Committee (HAC) requested that PeaceMaker consult with young people about the impact of the threat of terrorism on community relations and social cohesion, including public concerns about the terrorist threat, the impact on relations between different sections of the community, any rise in exploitation of racial tension and the consequences of anti-terrorist measures.

  The three questions we were asked to consider are as follows:

  1.  Are attitudes to minorities amongst white people worse than before 9/11?

  2.  What are the practical consequences for Muslim young people?

  3.  Have there been any consequences for other Asian people who are not Muslims?

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

  The PeaceMaker consultation programme ran throughout November 2004. We worked with a variety of groups across the Greater Manchester area as we felt it was important that the young people we worked with represented the diverse cultures and religions living in our region. The young people who participated in the programme were from a wide range of backgrounds including white British, Pakistani, Indian, Bangladeshi, African, White and Black Carribean, Iraqi and other mixed backgrounds.

  Prior to delivering the consultation programme across Greater Manchester we consulted our established group of peer educators in order to ascertain the extent of knowledge of young people concerning the events of 9/11. We were surprised to find that most of our group did not have a clear understanding of the attack and the subsequent wars and threat of terrorism. This proved to be consistent throughout the consultation programme and we found that although young people knew about the events of 9/11 their knowledge appeared to be surrounded by myths and conspiracy theories gained mainly from families, communities and the media.

  The vast majority of the young people we consulted with associated 9/11 with the war in Iraq and blamed the Government for getting us involved. We also found that many young people were unclear of the difference between Osama Bin Laden and Saddam Hussain and/or unable to distinguish between events involving Al Qaeda and those concerning Iraq.

  Of all the groups we worked with, the Muslim young people were the most politically aware, although many appear to look at things from a "them and us" perspective. Where we worked within mixed communities there was generally a good appreciation of Muslim young people. In the exclusively white areas this was usually not the case. This appeared to be due to two facts—either due to the fact that they had not had contact with Muslim young people and therefore did not feel that they could understand the issues they may face, or through overt racism. For some white young people the attacks had made them more aware of Muslims as a separate group of people and had raised their suspicion towards them.

  A number of young people felt that 9/11 had, for many people, legitimised racism. The general consensus was that 9/11 did not make people racist but if someone was racist before the attack this now "gave them an excuse".

Are attitudes to minorities amongst white people worse than before 9/11?

    —  Muslim young people in particular felt that they were being treated worse than before 9/11.

    —  The majority of young people believe that the overall attitude towards Muslims is worse than before 9/11. As one young person stated "they now stand out".

    —  For a small, exceptional group of young people it made them want to reach out and be positive.

What are the practical consequences for Muslim young people?

    —  Muslim young people felt they were being blamed and that racism had increased since the events of 9/11.

    —  The main view of non-Muslim young people was that Muslims would be ashamed of what took place and would be scared that repercussions of 9/11 would be taken out on them personally.

    —  Both groups spoke of a greater level of practicing Muslims and an increase in segregation.

    —  Once again there were exceptions from a small group of young people who felt that they would need to make more of an effort to get along with Muslim young people.

Have there been any consequences for other Asian people who are not Muslims?

    —  All of the young people struggled to identify Muslims as separate to other Asian communities unless they were dressed in a particular way or through appearance, such as a beard.

    —  Although young people could recognise the difficulty in distinguishing Muslims they still felt that many people would look at all groups of Asian heritage and class them as Muslims.

    —  Many young people also expressed the possibility of fear within non-Muslim ethnic minority communities of being accused of being Muslims and hence, the possibility of being targeted.

  We at PeaceMaker found this consultation programme to be extremely interesting and informative for all the young people who took part. We would like to thank The Home Affairs Committee for allowing us to support their work.


PEACEMAKER CONSULTATION PROGRAMMES

  Initially PeaceMaker consulted our established group of peer educators to ascertain the extent of knowledge of young people concerning the events of 9/11 and the subsequent threat of terrorism. Our peer educators then went on to assist us in developing a series of half-day consultation workshops to be delivered across the Greater Manchester region. We felt it was important to first ensure that the young people had all the information they needed to hold an educated discussion. We designed a programme incorporating a presentation on the events of 9/11 and a number of group activities, questions, scenarios and forms to enable us to consult with young people using a variety of methods.

  The PeaceMaker team contacted the ten Greater Manchester Local Authorities of Bolton; Bury; Manchester; Oldham; Rochdale; Salford; Stockport; Tameside; Trafford; and Wigan to inform their education department that we would be contacting schools and youth groups in their area to invite them to participate in the consultation programme. We asked them to contact us directly should they have any preference as to which schools we worked with. Out of all 10 Local Authorities contacted, only two replied to our telephone calls or emails.

  We then contacted a range of schools and youth groups to ensure that we would consult with a diversity of young people from different backgrounds. We found it difficult to access schools and youth groups where we could consult with young people. This was mainly due to administrative issues within institutions. In a number of schools it was clear that the first point of contact, usually the receptionist or secretary, felt that they were able to make the decision not to involve their school in the programme.

  Within participating schools, we were fortunate to gain the support of key teachers (PSHE co-ordinator and Head of Year) who immediately saw the benefits for their school and students. Of all the schools and groups that we worked with, the vast majority fully supported our work. However, on one occasion our staff team felt that we had been brought in solely to occupy a group of students with issues around behaviour.

  Whilst we feel it is important to highlight the difficulties we encountered in accessing young people, once we were able to consult with them we were encouraged by their level of participation and the contributions that they made.

PARTICIPATING SCHOOLS AND GROUPS

  Following is a breakdown of the schools, youth groups and young people who participated in the consultation programme.


Local Authority:Bolton
School/Group:Bolton Young People's Forum
The Group:The forum has been running for approximately four years and the young people we worked with have been involved for one year. The group aims to bring young people from across Bolton together to discuss issues around Government legislation, eg Anti-social behaviour and sexual offences Bills. Recently these young people have raised local issues with the Police and GMPA.
Participants:We were only able to consult with two young people at this workshop as many of the others didn't turn up for the evening session. These two young females were white British, aged 14 and 15 and from the Harper Green area of Bolton, which is classed as an area of deprivation. They live on the Flower Estate, a traditional white working class estate with a number of issues around anti-social behaviour.


Local Authority:Bolton
School/Group:Bolton Council of Mosques
The Group:These young people don't yet have a name for their group as this is one of the first times they have worked together. The members were from the Derby ward of Bolton where 49% of residents are Asian, 39% of which are Muslim.
Participants:We worked separately with two single sex groups of young people during this consultation due to the religious nature of the venue. The eight females we worked with were aged between 11 and 16 years old with the majority aged 14. They were from Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi backgrounds. The nine young men were aged between 14 and 17 years old and all were from Indian backgrounds.


Local Authority:Bury
School/Group:Prestwich Community High School
The School:Prestwich Community High School serves the local area but also takes increasing numbers of pupils from Manchester and Salford and provides comprehensive education for girls and boys aged 11-16. There are 801 pupils on the roll and there are a high number of students who speak English as an additional language. The majority of these pupils are from Pakistani and Indian backgrounds, with a small percentage from Chinese families and a number of refugees from the Middle East. Numbers of pupils with special educational needs are average and the proportion having statements is just above average, the majority of which are for dyslexia or emotional or behavioural problems. An above average proportion of pupils qualify for free school meals. The profile of pupils' attainment on entry to the school is below average and gradually falling and GCSE results are generally average compared to the country as a whole.
Participants:We worked with a group of 15 X Year 9 students aged 13 and 14 years old. Of the nine female students, seven were white British and two identified themselves as white and black Caribbean. Of the six male students, five were white British and one was white and black Caribbean.


Local Authority:Oldham
School/Group:Breeze Hill School
The School:Breeze Hill School is a comprehensive school for boys and girls aged 11-16 years old. The school is managed locally by the governers within the Metropolitan Borough of Oldham. There are 728 pupils in the school and 73% speak English as an additional language. The majority of these pupils are from Pakistani backgrounds and a significant minority are Bangladeshi. The proportion of pupils registered with special educational needs is well above the National average, many of these have moderate learning difficulties. The proportion of pupils eligible for free school meals is well above the National average at 51%. Most pupils enter from the six main feeder primary schools serving disadvantaged communities in Oldham, with a small number of pupils entering from another 14 schools. The attainment of pupils on entry to the school is well below average.
Participants:We worked with a class of 12 X Year 9 students aged between 13 and 14 years old. Of the six males, five were from Pakistani backgrounds and one was white British. Of the six females, four were from Pakistani backgrounds and two were white British.


Local Authority:Tameside
School/Group:Littlemoss High School For Boys
The School:Littlemoss High School is a smaller than average boys school situated in an area of some social and economic disadvantage in Droylsden, Tameside. There are 589 pupils on roll aged 11 to 16. Pupils come from a wide range of socio-economic backgrounds, with around 75% being from Tameside and 25% from neighbouring Manchester. No pupils speak English as an additional language and the majority of pupils are white British. Approximately 30% of pupils are on the special educational needs register and a higher than average proportion of these have a statement of special educational need. 21% of pupils are entitled to free school meals, which is above the National average. A high percentage of pupils enter the school with reading ages well below those expected for their age. The school is involved in the Excellence in Cities initiative and was awarded the Schools Achievement Award and Sportsmark in 2002.
Participants:We worked with a group of 17 X Year 8 male students who were aged between 12 and 13 years old. Of these students 15 were white British, one was from another white background and one was from a Pakistani background.


Local Authority:Trafford
School/Group:Stretford High School Community Language College
The School:Stretford High School Community Language College is a secondary modern school for boys and girls aged 11-16 years old. The school is below average size with 746 pupils on roll. The socio-economic background of the pupils who attend are disadvantage overall. 78% of the students are from ethnic minority groups, predominantly of Indian and Pakistani heritage. Approximately 3% of pupils are at an early stage of learning English. Approximately 2% of students are in public care and a small number are asylum seekers, refugees and Traveller pupils. Overall attainment is well below average. Four in every 10 pupils are eligible for free school meals. An above average 32% of pupils have special educational needs. The school is a specialist community language college.
Participants:The young people we worked with were members of the Year 9 student council. There were 12 boys and girls aged 13 and 14 years old. One of the male students was white British and the other stated that he was from another mixed background. Out of 10 female students there were five white British, two Pakistani, one African, one White and Black Caribbean and one Iraqi.


Local Authority:Wigan
School/Group:St John Fisher RC High School
The School:St John Fisher is a mixed Catholic comprehensive school situated within the Archdiocese of Liverpool and the Metropolitan Borough of Wigan. Situated to the North of the centre of Wigan, the schools intake is mainly from the Beech Hill ward or neighbouring ones, which are mainly wards of social disadvantage. The school is almost 100% white British. The percentage of pupils entitled to free school meals is above the National average. Four out of five pupils continue in full time education or training after they leave school at the age of 16.
Participants:We worked with a group of 14 young people aged between 13 and 14 years old. There were seven males and seven females in the group, all identified as white British.


Additional Area:Gamesley, High Peak, Derbyshire
School/Group:Café Nites Youth Group
The Group:Gamesley is a deprived white estate, originally built to house people from the Manchester over-spill. Café Nites is a drop in session that runs from a local café in the Gamesley area. The group is open to 13-19 year olds between 7-10pm on Monday evenings. The group has been running for 12 months and most weeks there are 30-50 people dropping in throughout the session. Some of the projects they have carried out include: young people acted, edited and produced a short story video called "Three Quick Halves" about the affects of alcohol on young people; a music project where they will produce and market a CD containing their own tunes; and a number of open discussions around drugs, sexual health, personal well-being, mental health, race and sexuality.
Participants:This group consisted of 15 young people aged between 13 and 19 years old. There were 11 males and four females and all identified themselves as white British.


FEEDBACK FROM YOUNG PEOPLE—KEY FINDINGS

  Throughout the workshops we gained a large amount of feedback from a diversity of young people. Following is a summary of what we feel to be the key points raised with regard to the three questions we consulted on. We have broken down the feedback into the following groups:

  1.  Predominantly Muslim groups.

  2.  Predominantly white groups.

  3.  Multi-cultural groups.

PREDOMINANTLY MUSLIM GROUPS

Question 1:   Are attitudes to minorities amongst white people worse than before 9/11?

    —  Muslim young people feel that other groups now have an excuse to be racist towards them.

    —  They feel there is more violence towards Muslim people.

    —  The media stirs up trouble by creating stereotypes of Muslim terrorists.

    —  As a consequence, Muslim young people feel that white people think all Muslims are terrorists.

Question 2:   What are the practical consequences for Muslim young people?

    —  They are scared.

    —  They are angry.

    —  Life has become very difficult and confusing for Muslim young people.

    —  There has been an increase in racism towards Muslim young people.

    —  Communities appear to have become more segregated and insular.

    —  Many Muslim young people have become more serious about practising their religion and feel they need to do more for their religion.

Question 3:   Have there been any consequences for other Asian people who are not Muslims?

    —  Muslim young people often find it quite difficult to identify other Muslims unless they are wearing specific clothing.

    —  They feel that most of these other Asian groups are now more prejudiced towards Muslims.

    —  They may be scared that people will think they are Muslims.

    —  Muslim young peoples feelings towards these groups haven't changed.

PREDOMINANTLY WHITE GROUPS.

Question 1:   Are attitudes to minorities amongst white people worse than before 9/11?

    —  White young people feel that most white people are quicker to judge minorities after 9/11.

    —  Some white young people clearly stated that they did not like Muslim people.

    —  Many white young people appear to be scared of Muslims.

    —  They feel that there is more racism since 9/11.

    —  White young people state that people blame ordinary Muslims for not doing anything to stop terrorism.

Question 2:   What are the practical consequences for Muslim young people?

    —  They feel that Muslim young people will be worried about what white people think.

    —  Some white people may feel that Muslims should get out of Britain.

    —  They feel that Muslim young people keep a lower profile than before 9/11.

    —  White young people feel that Muslim young people "stand out" more now.

    —  White young people feel that Muslims now follow their religion more seriously.

    —  They feel that Muslim young people are scared.

Question 3:   Have there been any consequences for other Asian people who are not Muslims?

    —  White young people on the whole felt that they could not identify Muslims from other Asian groups unless they were wearing religious clothing and/or the men had beards.

    —  Most stated that they didn't feel any different towards other Asian groups than before 9/11.

    —  However where young people felt they could tell the difference statements included "they do not bother me as they are not Muslims" and "slightly suspicious of them".

MULTI-CULTURAL GROUPS

Question 1:   Are attitudes to minorities amongst white people worse than before 9/11?

    —  Yes, they feel people treat Muslims differently.

    —  Young people from mixed groups felt that adults were more prejudiced than young people.

Question 2:   What are the practical consequences for Muslim young people?

    —  They felt that Muslim young people are being discriminated against unfairly.

    —  They feel Muslim young people would have been targeted by racists as it was Muslims who were blamed for the attack on 9/11.

    —  They said that some Muslim young people are now more serious about their religion.

    —  They think they would feel intimidated.

Question 3:   Have there been any consequences for other Asian people who are not Muslims?

    —  Many young people find it quite difficult to identify Muslims from other Asian people unless they are wearing specific clothing and quotes include "all Indian people have similar features, colours and traits".

    —  They clearly stated that they have heard of people who confuse Muslims with other Asian groups and therefore "terrorise" all Asian people.

    —  They think that non-Muslims from Asian communities feel that people think they are Muslims.

    —  They think that other Asian groups feel targeted and are scared of getting terrorised.

FEEDBACK FROM YOUNG PEOPLE—BREAKDOWN BY GROUP

  In order for us to fully explore these questions with young people, we found it necessary to split each one into three sections and use activities and scenarios to help extract views and opinions. Following is a breakdown by school/group to the specific questions we asked.

Question 1

Are attitudes to minorities amongst white people worse than before 9/11?

  Bolton: Bolton Young People's Forum.

Q1.   Do you think people treat Muslims differently after 9/11?

    —  Yes, people are quicker to judge.

    —  People are scared.

Q2.   Do you believe there are Muslim terrorists living in Britain?

    —  Yes we do because there are people from Al Qaeda in Britain.

Q3.   Who would you blame if there was an attack on this country?

    —  Osama Bin Laden.

    —  Saddam Hussain.

    —  IRA.

  Bolton: Bolton Council of Mosques

Q1.   Do you think people treat Muslims differently after 9/11?

    —  DAMN RIGHT!

    —  Yes, racist remarks, eg guns bombs, go back to Afghanistan.

    —  Yes, they feel they can make remarks now.

    —  More violence towards Muslim people.

    —  Veil/Purdah (Burka) wearers get worse comments.

    —  Media stirs things up making people believe that Muslims are evil.

    —  Extremist Muslims, eg Abu Hamza instigate hatred and fear of Muslims.

    —  Promote the stereotypical idea of a Muslim being a terrorist.

Q2.   Do you believe there are Muslim terrorists living in Britain?

    —  No.

    —  There could be.

    —  Some people say why don't we do it anyway.

    —  Minority are angry, majority are peaceful.

    —  America and Israel kill innocent civilians for political gain and yet are still considered as innocent and righteous states—Al Qaeda and Hamas are acting in similar manner and are branded as terrorists.

Q3.   Who would you blame if there was an attack on this country?

    —  Depends where attack is.

    —  One religious group would blame another religious group.

    —  Think Muslims would be blamed first—other groups may use this knowing Muslims would be blamed.

    —  Even if they don't have proof they link it to Muslims.

    —  Wouldn't mention religion if other groups attacked, eg. IRA.

    —  Believe Government would be to blame.

Other verbal comments in response to these questions:

    —  Jewish people were responsible for 9/11 as lots of them didn't go in work that day.

    —  Consequences of 9/11 = confusion—created a lot of anger and shock.

    —  Government took advantage of the situation—taking out laws against Muslims and using it as excuse to frame Iraq and invade countries.

    —  Government have created fear—Tony Blair is deliberately scaring people.

    —  Feel there is incorrect use of terms such as Jihad.

  Bury: Prestwich Community High School

Q1.   Do you think people treat Muslims differently after 9/11?

    —  Didn't know many Muslims before 9/11 so can't really comment.

    —  Yes because people don't know the full truth about what happened on 9/11.

    —  If people were more open minded they might look outside the box and realise that its just Al Qaeda's fault.

    —  At home and around my local community I was being made aware of racism.

    —  It didn't change in children but in adults I think it changed a little.

    —  I think that the Muslims that I know and see every day are not to blame and should not be punished.

Q2.   Do you believe there are Muslim terrorists living in Britain?

    —  There's got to be because how do they get inside information.

    —  Yes, but not every Muslim.

    —  I believe that there are many people with strong issues.

Q3.   Who would you blame if there was an attack on this country?

    —  I wouldn't be able to decide or believe anything until it was made clear.

    —  I would blame Tony Blair for not preparing us for an attack.

    —  I would blame Al Qaeda.

    —  I would blame Tony Blair and George Bush because they are sending troops into Iraq and it's going round in circles.

    —  Muslims would be attacked as a consequence of an attack on this country.

  Oldham: Breeze Hill School

Q1.   Do you think people treat Muslims differently after 9/11?

    —  Yes, people are scared so they blame the attack on Muslims.

    —  Everyone thinks that all Muslims are involved in the attack.

    —  Call people with beards terrorists or Bin Laden.

    —  Racism is worse since 9/11.

    —  Because of they way Muslims dress.

Q2.   Do you believe there are Muslim terrorists living in Britain?

    —  Yes.

    —  They are all linked to Osama Bin Laden—there must be some who follow him and think he is right.

    —  We don't know because they haven't caught anyone yet.

    —  You don't have to be a Muslim to be a terrorist.

Q3.   Who would you blame if there was an attack on this country?

    —  We would blame Tony Blair because he is the Prime Minister.

    —  George Bush.

    —  Osama Bin Laden.

    —  The Government as they helped America.

  Tameside: Littlemoss High School For Boys

Q1.   Do you think people treat Muslims differently after 9/11?

    —  Yes.

    —  Don't like them.

    —  Some people think all Muslims are terrorists.

    —  If you are scared they will invade you.

    —  They are scared and think Muslims will attack them.

    —  People think they might be supporting Bin Laden.

    —  Yes—racism and bullying.

    —  People think Muslims believe in terror "God of Death".

    —  Scared of them.

Q2.   Do you believe there are Muslim terrorists living in Britain?

    —  Yes.

    —  Every country is involved in terrorism.

    —  Hear about terror on newspapers.

    —  Loads of them could be living with us.

Q3.   Who would you blame if there was an attack on this country?

    —  Bin Laden (Al Qaeda).

    —  Other wanted terrorists.

Other verbal comments in response to these questions:

    —  Asian people won't let white people near community centres.

  Trafford: Stretford High School Community Language College

Q1.   Do you think people treat Muslims differently after 9/11?

    —  Yes, because now people think that every Muslim is a terrorist.

    —  It's not showed much.

Q2.   Do you believe there are Muslim terrorists living in Britain?

    —  Yes there are Muslim terrorists living in Britain.

    —  There are some terrorists that live in Manchester.

Q3.   Who would you blame if there was an attack on this country?

    —  We will probably blame whoever did it.

    —  Terrorists.

  Wigan: St John Fisher RC High School

Q1.   Do you think people treat Muslims differently after 9/11?

    —  More racism.

    —  Innocent Muslims are frightened.

    —  Yes, people blame ordinary Muslims for not doing anything.

    —  Muslims think they have more power.

Q2.   Do you believe there are Muslim terrorists living in Britain?

    —  Yes.

    —  Asylum seekers.

    —  Majority are not.

Q3.   Who would you blame if there was an attack on this country?

    —  Muslims.

    —  Al Qaeda.

    —  Terrorists.

    —  Tony Blair.

    —  George Bush.

    —  Taliban.

    —  Saddam Hussain.

Other verbal comments in response to these questions:

    —  If people are racist they will always be racist but this gives them more of an excuse.

  Gamesley: Café Nites Youth Group

Q1.   Do you think people treat Muslims differently after 9/11?

    —  Yes Muslims are treated differently.

    —  Racist comments in football.

Q2.   Do you believe there are Muslim terrorists living in Britain?

    —  Yes there are Muslim terrorists living in Britain.

    —  Shoe bomber.

Q3.   Who would you blame if there was an attack on this country?

    —  Tony Blair.

    —  Terrorists.

    —  People who did it.

    —  People with dark skin.

    —  We would retaliate.

Other verbal comments in response to these questions:

    —  17 million Muslims live in Britain.

    —  Better to have America on side than against us.

Question 2

What are the practical consequences for Muslim young people?

  Bolton: Bolton Young People's Forum

Q1.   What do you think life has been like for Muslim young people living in Britain since 9/11?

    —  Worried about what British people think.

    —  Has been hard for them.

Q2.  Do you think Muslim young people have changed since 9/11? If so, how?

    —  Yes they have changed because they follow religion more.

    —  Yes, because they are scared of being killed or battered because of what they are.

Q3.   Have your views towards Muslim young people changed since 9/11? If so, how?

    —  No and yes.

    —  No, I still treat them the same because they are the same as us.

Other verbal comments in response to these questions:

    —  Muslims stick together because they feel they are being targeted.

    —  People might judge them all as terrorists.

    —  People have a problem with Asian people moving onto their estates.

    —  Need to be careful what you say in case Muslim people take offence.

  Bolton: Bolton Council of Mosques

Q1.   What do you think life has been like for Muslim young people living in Britain since 9/11?

    —  Life has become very difficult and confusing—have to face verbal and physical abuse.

    —  Even though it happened abroad they blame all Muslims.

    —  It has been terrible—racist remarks towards me have increased.

    —  Think English people think that Muslims are terrorists.

    —  Violence is increasing by the hour.

    —  Muslims in Britain now create their own small communities and do not mix.

    —  More attention being paid to Muslims wearing religious dress.

    —  Muslims are on alert.

Q2.   Do you think Muslim young people have changed since 9/11? If so, how?

    —  Some young people now support terrorism even though they don't understand what happened.

    —  More cautious.

    —  Feel pressured to "squeeze out the bad".

    —  Not that I know of.

    —  Anti-America views.

    —  Yes, more Muslim people, especially women, are scared that they are going to get killed by racist people.

    —  Some Muslims have become more religious and lost social contacts with other religions.

    —  Muslim young people have become more angry.

    —  Muslim people have become more segregated—moving further away from white people.

    —  Muslims have become more involved since 9/11—they believe they need to do more for their religion.

Q3.   Have your views towards Muslim young people changed since 9/11? If so, how?

    —  No.

Other verbal comments in response to these questions:

    —  Think Muslim people should mix with white people more otherwise white people feel suspicious.

  Bury: Prestwich Community High School

Q1.   What do you think life has been like for Muslim young people living in Britain since 9/11?

    —  Muslim young people have been discriminated against unfairly.

    —  Hard for them to live normally.

    —  Some people have blamed and bullied Muslims and these people think that it would have been fine if they didn't come to England.

    —  Some Muslims in certain "rough" areas of the country may have been targeted by people that aren't educated on the situation with Al Qaeda.

    —  Bad! I think Muslims would have been targeted by racist taunts because it was Muslims who attacked in the first place.

Q2.   Do you think Muslim young people have changed since 9/11? If so, how?

    —  Peaceful Muslims may have been disappointed by the actions of fellow Muslims.

    —  No, they have always stayed closer to other Muslims and not really made friends outside their Muslim group.

    —  I think it has only affected young Muslim people of a certain age (13 and onwards).

    —  Yes because the Muslim young people are taking this more seriously.

Q3.   Have your views towards Muslim young people changed since 9/11? If so, how?

    —  No, my views have not changed. I still treat everyone with the same respect and I don't discriminate.

    —  Young people have been bullied, Muslim families have been treated wrongly by us whites.

    —  They haven't changed because I have a Muslim friend and I can't imagine him bombing a building.

  Oldham: Breeze Hill School

Q1.   What do you think life has been like for Muslim young people living in Britain since 9/11?

    —  A bit weird—Muslims are not as confident as they were before.

    —  Its been hard to face the whites again.

    —  Its been hard—Osama Bin Laden is a Muslim so all Muslims get the blame.

    —  Nearly all Muslims have started to pay more attention to their religion.

    —  Muslims have been falling out with their white friends.

    —  Some British people blame the Muslims for the attacks on America.

    —  People are being violent and racist towards Muslim people.

    —  Racism towards Muslim people is worse than before.

Q2.   Do you think Muslim young people have changed since 9/11? If so, how?

    —  Yes, more serious about their religion.

    —  May be more serious about religion and politics but most are still the same.

    —  Some have changed, others are the same.

    —  They may pray more and help to campaign against the war in Iraq.

    —  Some are angry.

    —  The only reason to change would be to protect themselves.

    —  Yes because of wars in Iraq and Afghanistan.

    —  They are scared.

    —  Don't care about going out to play, seeing white friends—take more interest in religion.

Q3.   Have your views towards Muslim young people changed since 9/11? If so, how?

    —  Yes, white people blame Muslims and Muslims keep their thoughts to themselves they've stopped interacting with white people, going out that much and are seriously involved in their religion.

    —  Yes, they keep more to themselves and everyone blames Muslims so they blame themselves for what happened.

    —  Yes because they feel less comfortable with white people and have stopped making white friends.

    —  Yes, before 9/11 Muslims were gangsters, drug dealers etc—some still are but now many are taking religion seriously.

    —  NO, my views haven't changed—they are good friends—I have no anger to young Muslims.

    —  Yes, I thought going to school may have stopped them from praying and doing religious activities but after 9/11 I see it doesn't.

Other verbal comments in response to these questions:

    —  Understand why Muslims are angry.

    —  Good for taking religion more seriously—credit for becoming proper Muslims.

    —  Muslim boys wouldn't be as angry if 9/11 hadn't happened.

  Tameside: Littlemoss High School For Boys

Q1.   What do you think life has been like for Muslim young people living in Britain since 9/11?

    —  They will probably be nervous about people wanting them out of Britain.

    —  They are scared and terrified.

    —  Don't know.

    —  Think it has been very hard for them.

    —  Scared because of what some people will say about them.

    —  It has got worse because they are being bullied.

    —  It has been badder because before 9/11 they had been good to them and now they just say you're like Bin Laden and go back to where you come from.

    —  Very hard for Muslims because young people terrorise them.

Q2.   Do you think Muslim young people have changed since 9/11? If so, how?

    —  More nervous.

    —  Yes because they can't show their face on the street.

    —  The shop people are colder.

    —  More worse.

    —  More Muslim people have got violent.

Q3.   Have your views towards Muslim young people changed since 9/11? If so, how?

    —  Yes because it has been hard for them.

    —  Don't know.

    —  Yes because there are Muslim terrorists.

    —  No because its just Bin Laden.

Other verbal comments in response to these questions:

    —  We don't want to be bombed and have buildings blown up.

    —  Why don't the Muslims get away from England if they are scared of us.

    —  People might not really like them.

  Trafford: Stretford High School Community Language College

Q1.   What do you think life has been like for Muslim young people living in Britain since 9/11?

    —  Very harsh, maybe they think we blame their kind for the attacks.

    —  Its affected them a little bit but not a lot because nobody in my school blames Muslims for what happened and most of us still have the same Muslim friends.

    —  Life for Muslims isn't right because when terrorists attacked they were the first ones blamed.

    —  Some people treat them very differently because of what they have heard about Muslims.

    —  I think Muslims might feel intimidated and that they have to change the way they act.

    —  I have heard of people that think all Muslims/Sikhs are the same so they terrorise them.

Q2.   Do you think Muslim young people have changed since 9/11? If so, how?

    —  The ones I know haven't but I have heard since that some have got more religious and inspired by Osama Bin Laden.

    —  Some are more focused on their religion and more serious about politics and war.

    —  Most of them don't care or don't know what is going on.

Q3.   Have your views towards Muslim young people changed since 9/11? If so, how?

    —  My views towards Muslim young people have not changed as I haven't noticed any changes of that religion in our community and Muslim children are not to blame.

    —  No my views haven't changed because I think its just some bad Muslim people who have done all that and have got a bad reputation for all Muslim people.

    —  Not amongst the young people but amongst the adults yes, because I personally think they are trying/wanting to kill all the NON-muslims!

  Wigan: St John Fisher RC High School

Q1.   What do you think life has been like for Muslim young people living in Britain since 9/11?

    —  They are probably more scared.

    —  White people would be more racist.

    —  Racism has been made worse.

    —  The Muslims have been tarred with the same brush.

    —  A hard and difficult life.

    —  More bullying—they stand out.

    —  People in school have been violently abused—because they're Muslims.

Q2.   Do you think Muslim young people have changed since 9/11? If so, how?

    —  Yes, they keep their heads down at school or on the street.

    —  Yes they have changed because they are scared of British people treating them differently because of 9/11.

    —  They might not want to wear their religious clothes.

    —  They would be more conscious.

    —  Some Muslims may be ashamed of what people in their religion have done.

Q3.   Have your views towards Muslim young people changed since 9/11? If so, how?

    —  Not really because most of them are innocent who are not connected with Al Qaeda.

    —  Yes, more suspicious of them but also feel sorry for them.

    —  No, because they have done nothing wrong.

  Gamesley: Café Nites Youth Group

Q1.   What do you think life has been like for Muslim young people living in Britain since 9/11?

    —  They feel threatened after 9/11.

    —  Prejudice.

Q2.   Do you think Muslim young people have changed since 9/11? If so, how?

    —  Some are arrogant.

Q3.   Have your views towards Muslim young people changed since 9/11? If so, how?

    —  You've got to be more nicer to them.

Question 3

Have there been any consequences for other Asian people who are not Muslims?

  Bolton: Bolton Young People's Forum

Q1.   Can you tell the difference between Muslims and non-Muslims from minority communities? If so, how?

    —  No, you can't tell if they are Muslim.

    —  Sometimes, if they have a beard, burka, cross, skull cap, turban identifies some. Usually the ones wearing western dress are Hindu or Sikh.

Q2.   How do you feel about non-Muslim Asian communities since 9/11?

    —  I still feel the same about them.

    —  No different.

Q3.   How do you think non-Muslims from ethnic minority communities feel about 9/11?

    —  They will be shocked because they might think they are going to get killed.

    —  No different—all together against terrorism.

Other verbal comments in response to these questions:

    —  Some Muslims in Britain support Bin Laden (approx 30%)

  Bolton: Bolton Council of Mosques

Q1.   Can you tell the difference between Muslims and non-Muslims from minority communities? If so, how?

    —  Sometimes, depending on how they dress.

Q2.   How do you feel about non-Muslim Asian communities since 9/11?

    —  No different.

    —  A lot different because of the racist remarks, attitudes and violence they can cause.

    —  Most of them are a bit racist against Muslims.

    —  They might be scared because people might think they are Muslims.

Q3.   How do you think non-Muslims from ethnic minority communities feel about 9/11?

    —  They blame us for everything.

    —  They dislike us and think of us as terrorists.

    —  They feel hurt and very angry too.

  Bury: Prestwich Community High School

Q1.   Can you tell the difference between Muslims and non-Muslims from minority communities? If so, how?

    —  Muslim women wear headscarves and men grow beards.

    —  No, some of them could be Christian—not everyone is stereotypical.

    —  It can be difficult there are some signs but it is hard as all Indian people have similar features, colour and traits.

    —  There are stereotypical ways of judging.

Q2.   How do you feel about non-Muslim Asian communities since 9/11?

    —  They weren't involved in the attack so they have no reason to be a threat.

    —  They are normal people and just like me only from Asia etc. They probably have some of the same views.

    —  I feel that they are being wrongly generalised because of 9/11.

Q3.   How do you think non-Muslims from ethnic minority communities feel about 9/11?

    —  I think that non-Muslims will feel angry that 9/11 happened

    —  Non-Muslims are scared of getting terrorised.

  Oldham: Breeze Hill School

Q1.   Can you tell the difference between Muslims and non-Muslims from minority communities? If so, how?

    —  Yes, I can tell by who they worship, the way they live their life, how they talk, what clothing they wear.

    —  Yes, what they worship in and language.

    —  Yes, because of the way they act.

    —  No, only if they wear religious clothing.

    —  No, because a lot of Muslims look the same—you can find out by asking people.

    —  You can only tell them apart by a scarf.

Q2.   How do you feel about non-Muslim Asian communities since 9/11?

    —  They look at all people and say they are Muslims.

    —  I don't feel any different.

    —  They have started to be racist and do bad.

Q3.   How do you think non-Muslims from ethnic minority communities feel about 9/11?

    —  They blame Muslims for the 9/11 attack.

    —  They think and feel the same as Muslims.

    —  Feel sad and angry.

    —  Scared.

    —  They might feel scared in case of people attacking them.

    —  They feel targeted because people might think they are Muslims when they're not.

  Tameside: Littlemoss High School For Boys

Q1.   Can you tell the difference between Muslims and non-Muslims from minority communities? If so, how?

    —  Yes because of their clothes and language.

    —  They have different language and skin colour.

    —  I can't tell because they all look the same.

    —  You can tell if they are wearing a scarf or a beard.

    —  You can't tell by looking at someone except the women.

    —  No because you can be any religion you want.

    —  Some Muslims wear different clothes from me.

Q2.   How do you feel about non-Muslim Asian communities since 9/11?

    —  Mad for destroying the twin towers but happy for food and services they give.

    —  I feel very scared.

    —  I feel the same—does not make a difference.

    —  I feel sick and sad.

    —  No different.

    —  I don't mind.

Q3.   How do you think non-Muslims from ethnic minority communities feel about 9/11?

    —  They feel targeted because they look the same.

    —  Very scared because of bombings in Iraq.

    —  They might be upset for being blamed for something they've not done.

  Trafford: Stretford High School Community Language College

Q1.   Can you tell the difference between Muslims and non-Muslims from minority communities? If so, how?

    —  I can tell a Muslim by their scarf (girls) and a Muslim boys hat.

    —  No because not all of the Muslims are Asians and from Asian background. There are some white people that are Muslims.

Q2.   How do you feel about non-Muslim Asian communities since 9/11?

    —  I think that non-Muslims from Asian communities feel that people think that because they are Asians they are Muslims.

    —  Not really bothered, they're the same to me as always.

Q3.   How do you think non-Muslims from ethnic minority communities feel about 9/11?

    —  I think they feel intimated.

    —  Upset

  Wigan: St John Fisher RC High School

Q1.   Can you tell the difference between Muslims and non-Muslims from minority communities? If so, how?

    —  You might be able to tell if they have their scarves and clothes on but if they have our clothes on you wouldn't know.

    —  You can't always tell if they don't wear their traditional clothes.

    —  Not really because they don't have a flashing sign attached to them saying MUSLIM

    —  Yes Muslims are mostly black and sometimes wear turbans.

Q2.   How do you feel about non-Muslim Asian communities since 9/11?

    —  They do not bother me at all as they had nothing to do with 9/11 and did nothing wrong to us

    —  They do not bother me as they are not Muslims.

    —  Most black people are called Muslims/Asians now.

    —  I don't feel any different as they shouldn't be judged, they are the same as us.

    —  Only slightly different because you feel slightly suspicious of them.

Q3.   How do you think non-Muslims from ethnic minority communities feel about 9/11?

    —  They feel threatened.

    —  Probably the same as us—distressed and upset.

    —  Probably a bit worried that they would be blamed as well.

    —  I think they feel that some people might label them as Muslims and call them for terrorist attacks.

    —  Yes because they are now scared of us taking them to jail.

  Gamesley: Café Nites Youth Group

Q1.   Can you tell the difference between Muslims and non-Muslims from minority communities? If so, how?

    —  No I can't.

Q2.   How do you feel about non-Muslim Asian communities since 9/11?

    —  Can't tell the difference.

Q3.   How do you think non-Muslims from ethnic minority communities feel about 9/11?

    —  We don't mix with them so we don't know the difference.

8 December 2004

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

  PeaceMaker would like to thank the following people for their help and support with our consultation programme:
PeaceMaker StaffPeaceMaker Peer Educators
Raja MiahAnna Bailey
Carolyn GommAnneli Halliwell
Carl BaconBeckie Caffrey
Kamal UddinDaniel Lotockyj
Sammadul HoqueJosie Tyas
Karine Bailey
Kimberley Bacon
Ruman Ali
Samantha Craig
Sita Vekria
Bolton Council Of MosquesGamesley Youth Group
Asma PatelSiobhan Elliot
Farook AtchaAshley Jenkin
Naeema AtchaAbbie Rockford
Farida BawaJade Bruce
Farhana MohamedJade Gauder
Sahla BadatZac Jenkins
Mariam AleemPirri Bethall
Sumaiyah SeedatDaniel Spoak
Bibi Halima KhanJames Baker
Fatima NadatSam O'Ryan
Usamah RawatMathew Hartle
Zaeem YousoufJames Hannan
Zaeem KalaSean Tunstead
Zaman KalaNathan O'Ridge
Mohammed Yunus MalekJames Oddfellow
Hifzur Patel
Manzoor Ahmed Patel
Ashraf Vavda
Zahoor Ahmed Patel
Stretford High SchoolPrestwich Community High School
Siah KarimPamela Hunt
Hinnd MohamedJane Leary
Siân DownesHeather Mcavoy
Anmol JoelChole Hall
Sumra AshrafChris Connolly
Andrea VenablesCasey Wainwright
Wendy HoyteCallum Elliott
Bekky ParkinsonCharlotte Hickey
Terri JonesIan Murphy
Emma DuncanKate Palmer
Theo MaddixAmy Jane Stephens
Lee TaylorMichael Sullivan
Jane RennoxSophie Brown
Lucy Watson
Luke Fogg
Sophie-Louise Mahon
Matthew Whale
St. John Fisher High SchoolLittlemoss High School
Rebecca LynchPaul Moors
Josh BarberCory Mullin
Matthew CotterKasier Ahmed
Nikolas SchickhoffLewis Dean Fowler
Lewis BarwiseRyan Ingris
Callum GraceyRichard Howarth
Robert SinclairMichael Douglas
Michael HalliwellMatthew Smith
Louise AshcroftJonathon Martin
Amy ThorntonJack Shawcross
Siobhan WellingtonRyan Morby
Danielle CarrAaron Walker
Naomi FlynnBen Murphy
Kate LoweStephen Parker
Hannah MallinMichael Willans
Kyle Smith
Josh Underwood
Daniel Douglas

Breezehill High SchoolBolton Youth Forum
Bernard PhillipsSuzanne Hindle
Naveed HafeezLouise Mayers
Belal ShahidHeidi Wooley
Mohammed Shakeel Keeley Partington
Hamzah Arif Awan
Saquib Touseef
Ryan Clayton
Charlotte D Fleming
Linda Hogan
Nafisa Zenaib
Sadia Suleman
Aumera Bibi
Aliye Tahassum





 
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