Select Committee on Home Affairs First Report


6  INCREASING EX-PRISONERS' OPPORTUNITY TO WORK

138. At present only about one in four released prisoners has the prospect of immediate employment. A large-scale survey of prisoners about to be discharged, conducted in 2001, showed that 24% had a job to go to, with a further 6% being released to a training or education place. A further survey conducted in 2003 on the same basis as the earlier one again found that a total of 30% of prisoners had an employment, training or education place to go to on release (32,992 prisoners).[109]

139. Employment on release from prison reduces the risk of re-offending between a third and a half.[110] Several studies have charted the relationship between employment and return to crime and found that starting work after release reduced rates re-offending whilst ceasing to work resulted in a return to offending.[111] One of the best ways of rehabilitating prisoners is to take action within prison which increases their chances of finding employment on release. Such action will include prison work as well as training and education.

The Custody to Work initiative

140. The Prison Service's 'Custody to Work' initiative is aimed at assisting more prisoners to gain employment on release and have access to accommodation. There are three main strands to the initiative:

Prison work

141. Prison work has the potential to provide prisoners with the following:

142. In this section of the report we consider the contribution that prison work can make to the prison rehabilitation regime. We identify the types of work available across the prison estate, from cleaning prison wings and working in the prison laundry to working in the structured business environment of a prison workshop. We distinguish clearly between these different types of activities: to blur them together under the general heading of 'prison work' does not help in the search to identify the most effective work models. In our investigations of prison work, we were most impressed with structured working environments that offered most similarity to working outside. We identify the work schemes which we think should be adopted more widely as part of an effective, integrated prison work strategy.

143. Each week on average about 32,000 prisoners (that is, about 43% of the current prison population) are employed in prisons. Most of this work is to meet the Prison Service's own needs. In a number of prisons, voluntary organisations are also involved in providing work for prisoners. The Prison Service has around 300 workshops covering industries including clothing and textiles, woodwork, engineering, printing, laundries and contract services. During 2003-04 around 10,000 prisoners (or about 13% of the total prison population) were employed in these workshops, working an average of 25 hours a week in the following areas: 40% in contract services (filling external contracts requiring low-level, menial work), 27% in clothing and textiles, 10% in laundry, 9% in woodwork, 9% in engineering, 2% in printing, 2% in footwear and 1% in sewing machine repair. [113] Prisoners receive pay for this work (see paragraph 187 below). [114] It should be noted that prison work is specifically exempted from the International Labour Organisation convention prohibiting forced labour.[115]

144. The Prison Service divides work in prisons in England and Wales into four main categories:[116]

    i.  work for the internal market, including complex and challenging production tasks, such as clothing, window frames, furniture, plastic goods and light engineering (produced through prison production workshops);[117]

    ii.  work to maintain and service the prison, including cleaning cells and landings, working in the kitchen or laundry (prison maintenance work);

    iii.  work for external contractors, such as filling mail-shot envelopes and assembling electrical components (co-ordinated through contract services workshops[118]); and

    iv.  various land-based activities such as market garden operations, ground maintenance, landscaping and animal husbandry . There has recently been a shift from agricultural to horticultural work within prisons.[119]

145. Although all the above activities are grouped together under the heading 'prison work', they should not all be regarded as being of equal value. There has been little research into the correlation between types of prison work and ex-prisoners' ability to secure employment on release, but it is clear that there is a great difference between work such as cleaning cells and doing laundry, and workshop-based activities which offer an element of training and which replicate, to some degree, the structured working environment to be found outside prisons.

146. As we commented in paragraph 57 above, the Prison Service recently commissioned an internal review of prison industries.[120] The review's terms of reference were to study the purpose, structures and operation of prison industries (defined as including prison workshops and contract services activities but not vocational training workshops, laundries, prison kitchens or land-based activities). It was charged with identifying a strategy for prison workshop-based activities that would contribute to the Prison Service's objective of providing prisoners with purposeful and cost-effective out of cell activity at the same time as improving their employment prospects post-release.

147. The Prison Industries Review reported in July 2003.[121] We endorse its conclusion that:

    "Industrial workshops are one of the best means, within prison walls, to reflect real working life. A proportion of the prison population will never have been exposed to real work before, and this may be their first opportunity to gain some transferable employment skills. In order to advance the resettlement agenda prison work needs to be targeted at those who are least likely to want to work. These individuals should be allocated for work, particularly on work initially that requires little training. They should not be ignored if they are difficult, or lack motivation. They should be the target audience of industries, and will benefit most from prison work. They have the potential for most return in terms of reduced re-offending on release."[122]

148. The Review's main recommendations are set out in the text box on the following page.


149. In response to the publication of the Review, the Prison Service has adopted the following Statement of Purpose on prison industries:

    "The aim of Prison Industries is to occupy prisoners in out-of-cell activity and wherever possible to help them gain skills, qualifications and work experience to improve their employment prospects upon release. The management of industries must weigh the true costs and benefits to the organisation and constantly strive for greater efficiency in providing developmental opportunities for prisoners."[123]

The Prison Service has supplied us with a checklist showing progress with implementing the other recommendations in the Review. [124]

150. The dramatic expansion of the prison population has not been matched with a corresponding growth in workshop facilities. Currently fewer than 10,000 prisoners out of a prison population of over 74,000 are employed in prison workshops. Whilst there are other work opportunities for prisoners within the prison estate (e.g. in catering, cleaning, land-based activities and day release programmes), the total proportion of prisoners engaged in any kind of prison work is well below 50%. The majority of the places that are available offer low-grade, menial work which supplies neither vocational qualifications nor transferable work skills.

151. One prisoner who took part in our Prison Diaries project expressed his wish for such skills to be taught more widely in prisons:

    "the way to stop—or at least reduce—released prisoners re-offending is to help qualify them in legal jobs that they would like to do. Here are a few things that I have heard people talking about: Electrical Engineering / Basic Engineering, Construction, NVQ / GNVQ Information Technology, Computer Repairs, Plumbing, Plastering, Electrician … etc … etc. If prisoners were given the chance to be qualified in such crafts then maybe they wouldn't be released and left claiming benefits or packing shelves … .[125]

152. Giving evidence to us, senior officials in the Prison Service acknowledged the deficiencies of the current system of prison industries. The Service's Director of Resettlement, Mr Peter Wrench, told us that, historically, decisions regarding the types and location of particular workshops across the prison estate "has not been [taken] in a properly informed way".[126] He stated that prison industries "have rather got left behind by other developments within the system", and accepted that the impression was currently given that providing work opportunities for prisoners was not a central and essential part of the prison regime.[127] Mr Mike Newall, President of the Prison Governors' Association, gave us a vivid example of outmoded prison work:

    "When I went to Durham [as Governor in 1999], I had sewing machines for men and we were still making nets. Both of those, I am afraid, are quaint positions. They are not going to get anyone a job in society."[128]

153. We agree with the Prison Industries Review that it is "indefensible" that the Prison Service cannot find enough work or purposeful activity for prisoners. There continues to be an unacceptable disparity in the provision of work opportunities for prisoners across the prison estate. Whilst a maximum of just over 30% of prisoners may be involved in some form of prison work activity, only a third of those have placed in prison workshops, the type of work activity which most closely reflects "real working life". This suggests that involving prisoners in work schemes remains a low priority in the Government's current rehabilitation agenda.

154. Whilst the Home Office claim that the key recommendations of the Prison Industries Review are being implemented, it is clear that prison industries remain peripheral to the Prison Service's strategy for rehabilitation. Prison industries continue to be run in isolation from other activities rather than as a complement to other rehabilitation measures. There has been no substantial increase in the number of hours workshops operate. Hardly anywhere in the prison estate does the work regime yet reflect the structured working week found in outside work. Of particular concern is the failure of the Government to include outstanding recommendations from the Prison Industries Review within Pathway 2 (Education, Training and Employment) of its Reducing Re-offending National Action Plan published in July 2004. We take the omission of these recommendations as a sign that the Government has no intention of implementing them. This would be a great mistake. We recommend that this omission from the Plan be remedied as a matter of urgency.

155. It should also be a priority of the Prison Service to established a policy team to develop a long-term prison work strategy, and foster links with internal Prison Service departments, government departments, employers and local authorities.

Examples of good practice

156. The two core aims of a prison industries strategy should be (i) provision of constructive work activities for the majority of the prison population when they are in prison and (ii) the employment of prisoners at the end of their sentence. In our view, the closer the work and training activities provided by prisons relate to the needs of the labour market, the greater are the chances of prisoners securing employment on release. During the course of our inquiry we have come across two prison work schemes which we suggest should form the basis of a modern, integrated prison work strategy. The first scheme is operated at HMP Coldingley and is based on the traditional prison workshop template, where the workshop is designed on the basis of a small private business. The second work scheme involves private employers providing prisoners with vocational training and external work placements, with continuation in employment following release. This is operated by the Transco Foundation. We consider each of these schemes in the following paragraphs. We also discuss the German experience of extended use of day release, from which we think lessons can also be learnt.

HMP COLDINGLEY PRISON WORKSHOP SCHEME

157. In May 2004 we visited HMP Coldingley, a Category C industrial training prison in Surrey, to see at first hand the types of work available for prisoners at one of the most productive and industrially active prisons in the prison estate. Eighty per cent of HMP Coldingley's population are from the London area, serving medium- to long-term sentences. One of the criteria that this prison imposes in accepted prisoners transfers is that the prisoners must be willing to work full-time. If prisoners refuse to accept this part of the prison regime, they will be moved on to other prison establishments. (We note that this aspect of the regime at Coldingley is contrary to the recommendation in the Prison Industries Review that time off should be negotiable with the workshop manager, as should part-time working to encourage education: see paragraph 148 above.) The main aim of the prison, as set out in its mission statement, is to increase the employability of prisoners post-release by providing opportunities to address offending behaviour and acquire qualifications and work experience.

158. We inspected the workshops run at HMP Coldingley, all of which are run as small businesses. The three main industrial workshops, which provide full-time employment for 165 prisoners, are:

159. Workplace vocational training is delivered alongside the two main workshops, the engineering workshop offering a National Vocational Qualification (NVQ) in production engineering and welding, as well as a forklift driving training course and a signs workshop offering various City and Guilds qualifications, including a computer design course. In addition, NVQs are being developed by both the prison cleaning department and the kitchens. The prison also runs an education scheme allowing suitable prisoners day release to attend classes for courses including basic skills (literacy and numeracy), information technology and preparation for work. As part of its resettlement strategy, HMP Coldingley is in process of creating a dedicated job centre to co-ordinate prisoners' progress during their time at the prison, acting as the main link for both internal and external job markets. The prison is also attempting to establish partnerships with local and national companies.

160. The model of HMP Coldingley demonstrates that through a coherent, focused prison work strategy, prisoners can obtain transferable skills and qualifications at the same time as gaining experience of a real working environment and routine. We recommend that the Prison Service develop a prison industrial strategy to ensure that—in the words of the President of the Prison Governors' Association—"prison after prison does the same thing and does it in a very businesslike way to very high standards and very competitively".[129]

161. In one respect only we consider that the Coldingley regime is open to criticism: that it does not allow prisoners to work part-time in order to accommodate other rehabilitative activities such as education, as recommended by the Prison Industries Review. We recommend that in this respect the regime should be modified.

162. We recommend that the Prison Industries Review recommendation to extend prisoners' working hours should be adopted across the prison estate as a matter of prison policy. A key performance indicator target should be set requiring individual prison establishments to provide a full working day for prisoners. We consider that the prison regime should be restructured to support prisoners working a conventional 9am to 5pm working day (in education, vocational training or work programmes, or a mixture of these), fostering the work ethic and giving prisoners responsibility for their future post-release by encouraging them to obtain recognised qualifications and marketable skills through on the job training.

163. We believe that the Prison Service should make the development of structured work a central part of the national prisons strategy. Every effort should be made to use the Coldingley system as a model for other establishments, adapted as necessary to extend it to those who have little previous experience of work or who are reluctant to take on prison work.

164. A coherent constructive prison work strategy will not be developed while the responsibility rests on ad hoc initiatives by individual prison governors.

DAY RELEASE: THE GERMAN EXPERIENCE

165. One way of increasing prisoners' employability on release is to permit them to sample the world of work by arrangement with external employers through day release schemes during their imprisonment. We describe below the very extensive use of such day release schemes in Germany.

166. In England and Wales, prisoners may be released on temporary licence for a number of purposes, including compassionate reasons, training, employment and voluntary work, to re-establish family ties and help prisoners make the transition from prison to life in the community. On most occasions the licences recorded are for one day ('day release'). For resettlement activities, however, the licence may cover up to five days away from the prison.[130] In 2003, over 328,000 temporary licences were issued. Of these, over 50,000 were granted to assist prisoners with resettlement, and over 211,000 were granted to allow prisoners to take part in training, education, community service projects or some form of reparation. In the same year there were only 367 'temporary release failures' (i.e. prisoners on day release absconding).[131]

167. During our visit to Tegel prison in Germany, we were impressed by the large numbers of prisoners on day release. In Germany, home leaves and other 'relaxations' have become one of the most important features of the contemporary prison system. Since 1977, every prisoner has been entitled to up to 21 days of home leave per year, together with further entitlement to day leaves.[132] Day release for training and work placements are seen as important components of the 'normalisation' principle. The rate of abuse of these entitlements is low: less than one per cent of all prisoners who are granted home leave fail to return unescorted. Reported criminal offences committed during home leaves are relatively rare and usually minor. Denial of home leaves and other relaxations has become an important and effective disciplinary measure.

168. Sixty per cent of all prisoners in Tegel Prison are engaged in some form of prison work activity. In recent years, Tegel prison has invested heavily in equipping 14 prison workshops with the technical infrastructure and facilities equivalent in standard to those in the external market place. Whilst the workshops require some level of subsidy, they provide prisoners with directly transferable skills training and work experience.

169. Once prisoners transfer to an open prison in Germany, they are entitled to day release to attend education and training courses or work placements in the community. Tegel prison runs an extensive Day Release Work Programme. Over 70% of prisoners on the scheme continue to work for their employer after they are released from prison. We have been informed that even those prisoners on temporary work contracts with employers are in the main successful in securing permanent contracts once they demonstrate that they are reliable workers.

170. Home leave and day release arguably reduce some of the most typical negative consequences of imprisonment: loss of contact with friends and relatives, and ignorance of employment and societal developments. We note that prisoners do external work under day release schemes from open prisons on a much greater scale in Germany than in the UK. We recommend that the Prison Service should expand its current system of day release along the lines of the Tegel model set out above, to allow a wider number of prisoners to take part in work and educational programmes in the community as part of their preparation for release. Home leave can provide prisoners with the only chance of sustaining the family unit, and is particularly pertinent to women prisoners, the majority of whom are desperately trying to maintain relationships with children. Save in the most serious cases, there should be a presumption that home leave is available for women prisoners. Day release and home leave plans should become an integral part of the Prison Service's broader resettlement strategy.

THE TRANSCO WORK SCHEME

171. Whilst prison work can provide a work-like experience for prisoners, there is considerable potential in schemes which offer the possibility of guaranteed employment on release. The Prison Service Internal Review Report noted that "it is apparent that over recent years the current organisation has lost a lot of links with outside industry."[133] We turn now to consider the involvement of the private sector in providing work opportunities for prisoners.

172. We were very impressed with the evidence we received from The National Grid Transco Foundation ("Transco") regarding its involvement with the resettlement of young offenders.[134] Transco initiated a pilot scheme in partnership with the Kennet young offenders' resettlement wing of HMP Reading in 1998 to train initially up to 50 young offenders for jobs as forklift truck drivers. The aim of the pilot scheme was both to reduce re-offending rates and meet an identified skills shortage of forklift truck drivers around the M4 corridor.[135] To date, over 100 young offenders have been trained as forklift truck drivers.

173. Building on the success of this first project, in 2002, Transco established a second project in partnership with HMP Reading, Advantica and Transco's contractors, to train and employ up to 50 selected young offenders as gas distribution technicians. Transco is now working with four prisons to train prisoners for employment in the gas industry. [136] This initiative is targeted at prisoners who are eligible for release on temporary licence to undertake part of the training in the community, and who have the necessary basic skills and are motivated to work. By the end of 2003, 26 offenders had completed NVQs to qualify as Gas Network Operatives Level 1. All are now in employment.

174. In 2004, the Gas Network Operative training scheme has been expanded to 10 prisons, including for the first time Scotland. Successful completion of the course guarantees employment with Transco's supply chain.[137]

175. Transco has identified a number of factors which it defines as critical to the success of the projects:

    a)  identification of skills shortage in the local area;

    b)  establishment of a public/private partnership between the company and the prison establishment;

    c)  strong business leadership in bringing together the scheme partners, including lead contractors, particularly in providing the initial work placements; providing funding for training, co-ordinating of provision and quality of training; liaising with Government departments, and monitoring and evaluating the scheme. [138]

176. In the 2003 Budget Statement, the Government stated that it wished to consider the possibility of extending the Transco model.[139] In February 2004, a Steering Committee was established, chaired by Sir John Parker, with members from the Home Office, the CBI and five industry sectors which have given a commitment to supporting the project (engineering; construction, transport and logistics; utility contractors; electricity and gas; water). The Prison Service, with the help of the CBI, Nacro and others, is attempting, through its 'Custody to Work' initiative, to put the business case for employing ex-prisoners to employers at national, regional and local level. Many prisons are beginning to develop relationships with employers, particularly within the context of regional resettlement strategies and partnerships.[140]

177. We support a major extension of the Transco approach. We recognise that it directly meets the employment needs of a private sector company. The programmes are driven by those needs, rather than by charitable or educational aims. However, in identifying and meeting those needs, the Transco work scheme offers a higher quality of education, training and motivation than the vast majority of prison-based education or training.

178. We note that the Transco work scheme demonstrates that some of the labour shortages in the economy that are currently met through managed migration could be met by enhancing the employment potential of the prison population (see paragraph 184 below).

179. We endorse efforts to develop the Transco work scheme across other industries and sectors. However, whilst the Prison Service offers support to the programme, we do not believe that there is yet a central drive from within the Prison Service to maximise its potential. The Prison Service now needs to give priority to supporting this type of initiative. The development of training programmes leading to guaranteed employment requires stability in the prison population and longer-term commitments to individual prisoners. We are not convinced that the Prison Service is yet committed to providing such opportunities.

A new strategy for prison work

180. We believe that a radical reprioritisation of work within the prison rehabilitation agenda is necessary. Partnerships between the prison sector, companies and their supply chains should be established as a matter of priority to identify and provide sustainable employment opportunities for offenders on successful completion of relevant training courses. Basic labour shortages and skills gaps in the external labour market should be identified and matched to vocational training and work programmes in prison. There should be much greater use of day release schemes on the German model to enable prisoners to experience work in the community prior to their release, and demonstrate their abilities and trustworthiness to employers.

181. Development and implementation of the HMP Coldingley and Transco prison work models and the formulation of an integrated prison industries strategy will require commercial expertise. The Committee is aware that the senior management team at HMP Coldingley is unusual in the prison service in that a number of its members come from a commercial background and have the financial and corporate expertise necessary to operate the industrial activities of the prison with an annual turnover in excess of £1million. Due to the low priority given to prison work, the Prison Service has not historically recruited staff from the commercial sector on a widespread basis. We recommend that a business case should be formulated for the creation of a specialist not-for-profit agency outside the Prison Service, staffed by personnel with the necessary financial and commercial expertise and experience, to co-ordinate investment, marketing and supply for prison industries.

182. The Prison Service's Director of Resettlement, Mr Peter Wrench, told us that it is preferable to have "more individuals attending some form of work than the working day being lengthened for those individuals who were in work."[141] We agreed with this view. There is inevitably a tension between providing work places with a definable skilled component which will equip prisoners for work outside, and providing the largest volume of work places to engage the largest number of prisoners in some form of work activity. We recommend that the emphasis on prison work should be on employing the largest number of prisoners in some form of productive work scheme for the standard number of hours of the working week, rather than design a system facilitating full-time work for a very small number of highly trained prisoners.

183. Building on the recommendations of the Internal Review Report, we suggest that the Prison Service consider developing a more structured sequence of work opportunities for prisoners. Contract workshops offering basic, low-level work can still have value where linked in an integrated manner with the teaching of basic skills, such as numeracy or accounting skills. Workshops should provide prisoners with experience of the real working day which will be a new experience for many of them. As they proceed through their sentence, and on condition of successfully completing requisite elements of their sentence plan (e.g. education courses, offending behaviour programmes and drug treatment programmes), prisoners should have the opportunity to apply for higher skilled work, ultimately moving towards training and working in a prison workshop or on day release in education and training programmes. As the sentence progressed, the emphasis should increasingly be on getting prisoners into work outside. The advantage of this more structured sequence of prison work is that it would give prisoners clear staging posts. It would also provide prisoners with an incentive for completing the other rehabilitative elements of their sentence plan, not least basic education and treatment programmes.

184. We have little sense that the Government has assessed the potential contribution of ex-offenders to the UK labour market. Whilst economic migration is being encouraged in order to fill a range of skilled and semi-skilled (with 145,000 work permits issued for such jobs in 2003),[142] and many employers are looking for similar labour from new members of the EU (between May and September 2004, just under 91,000 accession state nationals applied to register for work in the UK),[143] about 100,000 offenders are released every year of whom only about a quarter get a job. [144]

185. As we have seen, the Transco work scheme demonstrates that prisoners can meet labour needs. When we visited HMYOI Aylesbury, the Governor told us that in his view ex-offenders could make a much bigger contribution towards the labour needs of projects like Heathrow Terminal 5. In discussions during our various prison visits, many inmates showed that they had clear ideas of the sort of skills that they needed to enable them to get jobs.

186. We believe that extra investment in prison work, training and education is much more likely to be forthcoming if a strong business case can be made in terms of benefits for the UK economy as a whole. We recommend that HM Treasury, in conjunction with the Home Office, should carry out an assessment of the potential of ex-offenders to meet UK skill needs.

Prisoners' pay

187. It is Prison Service policy that "all prisoners who participate in purposeful activity in prison such as work that supports the running of the prison, in workshops that enable them to obtain work skills, induction programmes, education, training or offending behaviour programmes must be paid. The purpose of paying convicted prisoners is to encourage and reward their constructive participation in the regime of the establishment".[145] Likewise, Governors and Directors of contracted-out prisons are required to provide a fair, open and affordable local pay structure that is clear to staff and prisoners, reflects Prison Service priorities and supports and encourages constructive participation in regime activities. [146]

188. The National Minimum Wage Act 1998 specifically excludes prisoners. A prisoner "does not qualify for the national minimum wage in respect of any work which he does in pursuance of prison rules".[147] Prisoners are not deemed "workers" within the meaning of the Act on the ground that they do not work pursuant to a contract of employment or a contract for services.[148] As prisoners are not employees, the usual range of employment law protections is not available to them.

189. The current minimum rate of pay for employed prisoners is £4.00 per week. Governors or Directors of contracted-out prisons have established pay schemes that are higher than the minimum employed rate. Prisoners can earn up to £9.50 per week at HMP The Verne and some prisoners at HMP Ford earn up to £30 per week. A small number of prisoners who are very close to the end of their sentences, and who have been assessed as posing no risk, are employed by private employers outside the prison, as part of the Custody to Work programme, at the same rates of pay as any other employee.[149]

190. The Howard League for Prison Reform argues that prisoners should be paid a fair working wage with deductions made to reflect real work and financial responsibilities outside. With the co-operation of the Prison Service, the League is setting up a pilot project at HMP The Mount, a category C training prison, with the intention of demonstrating the practical and financial viability of this approach. The Howard League will set up a small printing enterprise, employing 11 prisoners and aiming to make a profit within four years. Prisoners involved in the project will be given on-the-job training and the opportunity to acquire relevant printing qualifications. They will earn the statutory minimum wage or above, will be liable to pay tax, national insurance and child support, and will be encouraged to save for their release and make a donation to Victim Support.[150] We urge the Prison Service to monitor closely the development of this project.

191. The National Action Plan commits the Government in the longer term to developing a strategic approach to increase the number of prisoners who are able to save money during their time in prison "so that they have sufficient income on release to cover them, without recourse to the Discharge Grant or the Social Fund".[151]

192. We recognise that the argument for paying prisoners a more representative wage is not to make them better off while they are in prison, but to give them experience of paying tax, national insurance and living costs, and facing up to the same responsibilities as other citizens. We recognise the complexity of developing such a policy, not least in terms of public perception, the costs of administration of such a system and the setting of deductions. We recommend that the Prison Service run a small number of pilot schemes to assess the impact of paying market rates with appropriate deductions to cover the cost of accommodation, food, child support and—as a requirement—reparation for victims. This might help overcome objections that prison work undercuts local companies.


109   Ev 141 (paras 3.4.3-5) Back

110   Home Office, An evaluation of prison work and training (1996) Back

111   Uggen, "Work as a turning point in the life course of criminals: a duration model of age, employment and recidivism", American Sociological Review (2000); Horney, Osgood and Haen Marshall, "Criminal careers in the short term: intra-individual variability in crime and its relation to local life circumstances", American Sociological Review (1995); Mischkowitz, "Desistance from the delinquent way of life?", in Weitekamp and Kerner (eds), Cross-national Longtitudinal Research on Human development and Criminal Behaviour (1994) Back

112   Ev 141-42 (paras 3.4.2, 3.4.9) Back

113   Prison Industries Internal Review Report, pp 12 and 24 Back

114   Ev 142 (paras 3.5.1-2, 7, 11) Back

115   International Labour Organisation Convention (No. 29) Concerning Forced Labour 1930; this was ratified by the UK in 1931. Back

116   Ev 174 Back

117   Production workshops constitute the majority of operational workshops across the prison estate. The summary of the range and number of production workshops offering work experience to prisoners is set out at Annex 8. Back

118   Contract Service workshops employ just over 4,000 prisoners on external contract work, which ranges from very simple packing to complex assembly work, at around 24 hours per week. Back

119   Following a review of Prison Service agricultural enterprises in 1996, the decision was taken to close the pig industry together with three farm units. According the Prison Service statistics, the number of prisoners employed on prison farms reduced from 1047 to 249 between 1996 and 2001. A further review was undertaken in 2000/2001. At that time, 21 farms were in operation, including 12 dairy units, with a total of 295 prisoners employed. The total acreage of these farms amounted to 5500 acres.The recommendations of the 2001 Review were considered by the then Prisons Minister and the Minister for Rural Affairs at DEFRA. In February 2003, approval was given to implement the main recommendations, which were to (i) phase out field scale agriculture including livestock, where few or no prisoners were employed; (ii) sell land related to this reduction, where it was not required for prison building; (iii) reinvest the receipts in horticulture and other related resettlement activities. Between the summer of 2003 and spring of 2006, 12 farms will be closed, including ten dairy units, and approx. 2770 acres will be sold. The Prison Service justifies its decision to reduce land-based activities on the ground that as agriculture as a proportion of total workforce has fallen to 2.2%, employment opportunities in agriculture are decreasing. Back

120   The review was conducted under the auspices of the Prison Service Headquarters Review Programme. Back

121   Prison Industries: an internal review of the strategic oversight and management of public sector prison Industries in England and Wales, Report by the Prison Industries Review Team (July 2003) [henceforward 'Prison Industries Internal Review Report'] Back

122   Ibid, p 19 Back

123   Ev 143 (para 3.5.10) Back

124   Ev 305-308 Back

125   Evidence not printed Back

126   Q 352 Back

127   Q 312 Back

128   Q 466 Back

129   Q 466 Back

130   HC Deb, 1 September 2003, col 997W Back

131   Home Office, Offender Management Caseload Statistics 2003 (December 2004), tables 10.6 and 10.10; see also National Action Plan, p 4 Back

132   Between 1977 and 1996 the number of periods of home leave granted increased from 243 to 649 per 100 prisoners and the number of periods of short prison leave increased from 219 to 1,069 per 100 prisoners of the daily sentenced population. Back

133   Prison Industries Internal review Report, para 58 Back

134   The Foundation leads and co-ordinates the strategic community investment activities of National Grid Transco in Great Britain. Back

135   Ev 218 (para 2.1.3) Back

136   The prisons are HMP Reading, HMP Rochester, HMYOI Glen Parva and HMYOI Wymott. The duration of the course is 13 weeks. Prisoners are selected for training in the final stages of their rehabilitation and trained within the prison for the theoretical parts of the course. Transco has provided a secure location in Slough for the practical elements of the course. During the training programme, all trainees are given a half-day course on driving theory, and five-day intensive practical tuition followed by a driving test. Back

137   Ev 222 (para 4.2.1) Back

138   Ev 219-20 (paras 6.1 and 6.2) Back

139   HC Deb, 9 April 2003, col 281 Back

140   Ev 182 (para 69) Back

141   Q 373 Back

142   HC Deb, 12 July 2004, col 988W Back

143   HC Deb, 10 November 2004, col 26WS Back

144   Ev 141 (paras 3.4.3-5) Back

145   Ev 181 (para 55) Back

146   Ev 181 (para 56) Back

147   National Minimum Wage Act 1998, s 45(1) Back

148   A contract of employment is a pre-requisite to application of the Act (see s 54). Back

149   Ev 181 (para 57) Back

150   Ev 194 Back

151   National Action Plan, p 35 Back


 
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