I am unsure of the context of the question but there is some existing legislation which may be relevant to this issue. For example, the Agriculture Act 1947 provides that 'livestock includes any creature kept for the production of food, wool, skins or fur, or for the purpose of its use in the farming of land'. Alpacas could conceivably fall within this definition. Also, the Department issued guidance last year that, for the purposes of the Zoo Licensing Act 1981, alpacas should be considered to be 'domesticated' rather than 'wild' animals.
Mr. Robertson: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs what assessment she has had made of the impact on human health of the use of antibiotics on farms; and if she will make a statement. 
Mr. Bradshaw: There is increasing scientific support for the view that the increase in antimicrobial resistance affecting human health is primarily the result of the use of antibiotics in human rather than veterinary medicines.
Nonetheless, we take this issue very seriously and in June 2000, published a cross-Government strategy to address the issue. In 1999 the Defra Antimicrobial Resistance Co-ordination (DARC) Group was established. Details of the work of this group, together with other information about antimicrobials and links to related websites, are available on the VMD website (www.vmd.gov.uk). We recognise that veterinary medicines, including antimicrobials, are required to ensure healthy food animals in the UK, but we believe that their use should not replace good farm management and animal husbandry systems. We believe that antimicrobials should be used responsibly in food animal production and have issued guidelines in the Code of Practice on the Responsible Use of Animal Medicines on the Farm, produced by the Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD). We also support the industry's Responsible Use of Medicines in Agriculture Alliance (RUMA), which has also published responsible use guidelines for antimicrobials that have
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been adopted by assurance schemes for the five major food-producing species. Also, as a precautionary measure, the use of antimicrobial growth promoters in the EU will be banned from 1 January 2006.
The VMD annually collates and publishes figures on the UK sales of all veterinary antimicrobials. These are likely to reflect usage of antimicrobials in animals. The figures illustrate that, whilst sales of some groups of antimicrobials have increased, others have decreased or remained relatively constant over time. The VMD, in collaboration with the Department of Health, has prepared and published a list of all antimicrobial therapeutic ingredients authorised for use in animals and humans. This illustrates that many antibiotic substances used in human medicine are not used in animals.
A number of research projects designed to provide scientific data to inform further consideration of relevant issues are also underway. These range from investigating the mechanism of antimicrobial resistance transfer in organisms, to investigating the husbandry factors on farms which might lead to reduced antimicrobial usage, thereby reducing the potential for the development of antimicrobial resistance. Details of these projects can be found on the VMD website.
Jim Knight: In response to the consultation paper on the use of mechanically propelled vehicles on rights of way, 'The Government's framework for action' was published on 20 January, which set out a commitment to legislate and provide new guidance.
Mr. Robertson: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs when she expects to make a decision on the exchange of land from common land to access land at Brockeridge Farm, Twyning, Gloucestershire; and if she will make a statement. 
The application for an Order of Exchange, made under section 147 of the Inclosure Act 1845, in relation to land at Brockeridge Common, Twyning, Gloucestershire was received by the Department on 2 September 2004. On 17 September officials wrote to the solicitors acting for the applicants seeking further information. A reply was received on 23 May 2005 and the documentation is being scrutinised. The procedures
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are complex and applications can take some time to determine, so I am not in a position to say if, or when, an Order might be made. The outcome will depend on the Secretary of State being satisfied that the exchange is fair to the parties involved, and its terms just and reasonable.
To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs what the level of (a) carbon dioxide emissions and (b) greenhouse gas
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emissions has been in the UK in each year since 1990; and what the percentage change was in each case since 1990 in each case.
(a) The following table contains the carbon dioxide emission from 1990 to 2003 expressed as million tonnes of carbon equivalent (MtCeq). The figures are based on the 2005 national inventory report which contains national estimates from 1990 and 2003 inclusive. Percentage changes are shown as a year-on-year change and as a total change from 1990.
|C0 2 (MtCeq)||165.4||167.2||162.9||159.0||157.0||154.7||160.6|
|Year-on-year change (percentage)||||1.1||-2.5||-2.4||-1.2||-1.5||3.8|
|Change from 1990 (percentage)||||1.1||-1.5||-3.9||-5.1||-6.5||-2.9|
|C0 2 (MtCeq)||153.9||154.5||151.7||152.8||157.4||152.7||156.1|
|Year-on-year change (percentage)||-4.1||0.4||-1.8||0.7||3.0||-3.0||2.2|
|Change from 1990 (percentage)||-6.9||-6.5||-8.2||-7.6||-4.8||-7.7||-5.6|
|Year-on-year change (percentage)||||0.6||-3.1||-2.7||-1.3||-1.3||3.3|
|Change from 1990 (percentage)||||0.6||-2.5||-5.2||-6.4||-7.6||-4.6|
|Year-on-year change (percentage)||-3.2||-0.8||-4.8||-0.2||1.8||-3.0||1.2|
|Change from 1990 (percentage)||-7.6||-8.4||-12.8||-12.9||-11.4||-14.0||-13.0|
Mr. Williams: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs what plans her Department has to monitor (a) the welfare of the fox, (b) changes in population numbers of urban and rural foxes and (c) effects on rural employment following the ban on hunting of foxes with hounds. 
Mr. Bradshaw: Defra has no plans to institute new arrangements to monitor the welfare or population levels of the rural or urban fox, although it will retain an overview of these issues as part of its general animal welfare responsibilities. Similarly, Defra has no plans to monitor the effects of the Hunting Act 2005 on employment, beyond its normal arrangements for monitoring rural areas
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