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Mike Penning: To ask the Secretary of State for International Development what the estimated number of HIV positive people is in each country in sub-Saharan
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Africa; what percentage of the population this represents in each case; what proportion is being treated with retrovirals; and what estimate has been made of the cost of treating all who would benefit with retrovirals. [16063]

Hilary Benn: According to the Joint United Nations Programme for HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), over 25 million adults and children were living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa at the end of 2004. DFID focuses on 16 countries in sub-Saharan Africa under its Public Service Agreement (PSA). The following table shows the adult prevalence rate and the total numbers of adults and children infected in each of these countries (UNAIDS statistics).

In June 2005, the World Health Organisation estimated that 11 per cent. of people in sub-Saharan Africa requiring anti-retroviral therapy were receiving it—leaving a further 4.7 million people in need of treatment. According to UNAIDS estimates, it would cost approximately US$ 2 billion to provide retroviral treatment to all those that need it in Africa between 2006 and 2008. The following table also shows anti-retroviral therapy coverage in each of the 16 African PSA countries.

Adult HIV prevalence, numbers of adults and children living with HIV, and numbers of adults receiving anti-retroviral therapy in African PSA countries.
Adult (15–49) HIV prevalence rate(24)(percentage)Adults and children (0–49) living with HIV(24)Reported number of adults receiving anti-retroviral therapy (15–49)(25)
Sierra Leone(26)(26)(26)
South Africa21.55,300,000104,600

(24)UNAIDS epidemiological update, December 2004
(25)WHO/UNAIDS 35" country profiles
(26)Insufficient data

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Mr. Hunt: To ask the Secretary of State for International Development what projections his Department has (a) made and (b) received of the number of children in sub-Saharan Africa infected with HIV in each year up to 2015. [16563]

Hilary Benn: DFID relies on the joint united programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) for official figures on children affected by HIV. UNAIDS has the global mandate for collating and publishing official statistics on global and sub-Saharan African AIDS epidemics. They publish an annual epidemiological update, which outlines the status of the global and regional AIDS epidemics. However, UNAIDS does not release specific data on future projections, due to methodological constraints. As such, DFID has neither made nor received projections of the number of children infected by HIV in each year up to 2015.

The UK Government have committed to increase its spending on HIV and AIDS in developing countries to at least £1.5 billion over the next three years (2005–06 to 2007–08); a large part of this will be spent in Africa. At least £150 million has been earmarked for orphans and vulnerable children, 80 per cent. of which will be spent in Africa. For example, we are supporting UNICEF with an estimated £38 million over three years to assist the worst affected countries in east and southern Africa and some post- conflict countries, to take essential steps to develop and implement comprehensive national action plans.

Mike Penning: To ask the Secretary of State for International Development what his latest estimate is of mortality rates from AIDS in developing countries; and if he will make a statement. [16061]

Mr. Thomas: The UK relies on the Joint United Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) to provide accurate AIDS statistics. According to the UNAIDS 2004 AIDS Epidemic update, the best estimate of number of people reported to have died from AIDS during 2004 ranges between 2.8 million and 3.5 million. Since the beginning of the epidemic 40 million people are reported to have died from AIDS.

AIDS is a terrible human tragedy. DFID is leading the way forward in taking action to tackle this pandemic. We are committed to spend at least £1.5billion to 2008 to intensify AIDS-related work in the developing world. Last month the UK hosted the latest Global Fund Replenishment Conference in London. And following the historic announcement at Gleneagles in July to

we have begun work to ensure that this will be met.

Last month the UK called an informal meeting attended by Members of the G8, developing countries, civil society, UNAIDS, the World Health Organisation, the World Bank, and UNICEF to address next steps. UNAIDS have now been tasked with taking forward the process and will be asked to report on steps taken and action required to meet these commitments at the UN General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS in 2006.
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Mike Penning: To ask the Secretary of State for International Development what projects his Department is funding to encourage use of prophylactics in the sex industry in places of high HIV incidence; and if he will make a statement. [16062]

Mr. Thomas: Sexual and reproductive health services, including family planning, are some of the most cost-effective and beneficial health service interventions available. However, the unmet need for condoms, and other methods of family planning, is very high. The United Nations population fund (UNFPA) estimates that global condom needs for prevention of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections is around £9 billion annually. Every year there are 340 million new cases of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Most occur in young people. Many go untreated.

DFID is working to change this situation. We work with governments and others to help poor countries develop and implement their own national strategies to overturn the HIV epidemic and to promote sexual and reproductive health and rights. As for so many other aspects of basic health, improving sexual and reproductive health depends on well functioning health systems and improving the access of people to supplies such as condoms. We believe that effective HIV prevention programmes include providing universal access to sexual and reproductive health information and services including condoms. We also believe that it is important to make special efforts to ensure that those who are most vulnerable have access to these services. This includes sex workers.

DFID provides significant support for reproductive health commodities including condoms, through its country programmes and assistance to multilateral organisations such as the UNFPA. The UNFPA estimates that some one billion condoms supplied by donors were used in developing countries in 2001. Nearly half of these were provided by the UK. For the past 10 years, DFID has been the fourth largest provider of condoms, supporting the distribution of about 150 million condoms annually. We are currently looking at a sustainable long-term response to reproductive health commodity shortages with other donors, in order to provide a more predictable basis for the funding and availability of these essential supplies.

Andrew Rosindell: To ask the Secretary of State for International Development what steps his Department is taking to increase awareness in the African population of sexually transmitted diseases, with particular reference to HIV. [16089]

Mr. Thomas: There is a strong link between Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) and HIV infection, particularly in Africa where unsafe sex is the main mode of HIV transmission. DFID supports raising awareness as an integral part of broader approaches to STI and HIV prevention, which include other activities such as provision of sexual and reproductive health services and commodities (e.g. male and female condoms). We are also helping to remove financial, social and geographical barriers to the poorer populations, accessing information, health services and commodities; we also advocate against stigma and discrimination related to HIV.
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For example, as a part of the Ugandan national HIV programme, DFID funds are used to raise awareness of STIs and HIV through AIDS information centres, youth clubs and schools, radio and newspapers.

DFID has committed to spending £1.5 billion pounds on HIV and AIDS globally over the next 3 years, the bulk of which will go to support African countries in their fight against AIDS. Raising awareness of STIs and HIV is an important part of the comprehensive approach needed.

Mr. Hunt: To ask the Secretary of State for International Development what reports his Department has received on the progress of the joint funded Department for International Development/Medical Research Council trial on treatment in children with HIV; and if he will make a statement. [16562]

Mr. Thomas: Funding for this trial was agreed in November 2004. The researchers are in the process of securing the necessary drug supplies, developing the trial design and protocols, with African collaborators and training African paediatricians. They will start recruitment of 1,300 children into the trial in 2006.

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