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Tom Brake: To ask the Secretary of State for Transport what assessment the Highways Agency makes of the likely impact on traffic on Agency-controlled roads (a) before and (b) after construction of major schemes on surrounding roads which are not operated by the agency. 
Dr. Ladyman: The Highways Agency is consulted on all developments, including road schemes, that impact on the strategic road network. All major proposals are required by the planning system to have a full transport and environmental impact appraisal carried out. The agency can and does comment on these impacts.
Tom Brake: To ask the Secretary of State for Transport what the level of inter-urban congestion was (a) in 2000 and (b) at the latest date for which figures are available; and what the predicted level for 2010 is. 
Dr. Ladyman: In 2000, congestion was measured on the basis of average vehicle delay, using data derived from floating car surveys, and comparing actual traffic speeds with those that would be achievable by a car in the absence of other traffic. Full details of the methodology are available on the Department's website at:
The Government published predictions of the level of average vehicle delay in the Transport Ten Year Plan 2000: Delivering better transportprogress report" (December 2002) to which I refer the hon. Member. The Progress Report also announced that the Government were developing new indicators of congestion that would be more meaningful to road users and capture important aspects of congestion such as journey time reliability.
In July 2005 the Department announced a new indicator of congestion looking at the reliability of journey times. Details are on the Department's website at http://www.dft.gov.uk/stellent/groups/dft_about/documents/page/dft_about_03057801.hcsp#P61_1195.
Mr. Laurence Robertson: To ask the Secretary of State for Transport if he will assess the merits of introducing an element of first aid training for people learning to drive; and if he will make a statement. 
Norman Baker: To ask the Secretary of State for Transport if he will list (a) marine, (b) oil and (c) other pollution incidences recorded in United Kingdom waters in each year since 1990 from shipping registered in (i) the UK, (ii) the EU and (iii) other countries; what actions were taken to clean up in each case; what the cost was; by whom this was paid; what fines were levied; and if he will make a statement. 
The Advisory Committee on Protection of the Sea (ACOPS) produced a report entitled Long-term analysis of oil spill statistics for the waters around the British Isles 1964 to 1995". For this period the trend was for a consistent and continuing decline in the numbers of pollution incidents in UK waters accompanied by reductions in the annual total number of incidents attributed to the handling and transportation of oil around the UK coastline. The annual reports that have been produced between 1995 and 2004 have shown a continuation in these trends.
The United Kingdom follows the internationally recognised 3-tiered classification of marine pollution. A Tier-3 spill would require a national response and activation of the national contingency plan.
The Maritime and Coastguard Agency (MCA) has a robust cost recovery regime that ensures, where possible, the polluter pays principle is applied. A recent example of this principle followed the grounding of the tug Vanguard in the Inner Sound between the Isle of Skye and the mainland in September 2004. MCA resources including equipment from national stockpiles were deployed. All costs incurred by the MCA have been recovered.
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Norman Baker: To ask the Secretary of State for Transport if he will list the occasions since 1975 when ships have lost dangerous cargoes overboard in (a) United Kingdom waters, (b) the English channel and (c) the North sea; what cargo was lost in each case; and what was subsequently recovered. 
Dr. Ladyman: The Maritime and Coastguard Agency uses data provided by the Advisory Committee on Protection of the Sea (ACOPS) and statistics are not available in the form requested. It can however be confirmed that such instances are few in number, coastguard experience suggests that around five or six incidents of cargo being lost overboard occur over the course of one year in United Kingdom waters and only a few of these can be listed as dangerous or harmful. In a circumstance where a dangerous or harmful cargo has been reported to have been lost overboard in UK waters the Maritime and Coastguard Agency would execute recovery where necessary and operationally possible.
Andrew Mackinlay: To ask the Secretary of State for Transport what assessment has been made of the health and safety implications of (a) how and (b) where motorists repair a punctured tyre on a motorway hard shoulder; if he will include guidance in the Highway code; and if he will make a statement. 
Dr. Ladyman: Guidance on breakdowns and accidents is already included in the Highway Code. Rule 249 of the Code (additional rules for the motorway) advises that road users should not attempt even simple repairs. They are further advised to use an emergency telephone in order to seek help.
Norman Baker: To ask the Secretary of State for Transport what estimate he has made of the external costs associated with private motoring, with particular reference to environmental costs; and if he will make a statement. 
Dr. Ladyman: A study 1 was undertaken for the Department in 1998 which made estimates of the external costs associated with surface transport. The table presents the estimates of the marginal external costs (cost per additional vehicle kilometre) associated with car use for 1998 as found by this study. The presentation of high and low values reflects the uncertainty associated with estimation of external costs.
|Marginal cost (p/vkm), 1998 prices|
|Low cost estimate||High cost estimate|
The pence per kilometre values for climate change found in the study were based on the recommended values at the time£27/tonne of carbon in the low scenario and £106/tonne of carbon in the high scenario. Guidance from DEFRA that was published after the surface transport study was published advises that values of £35 per tonne of carbon be used for the low scenario and £140 per tonne for the high scenario. Therefore the values for climate change in the table should be uprated by around 30 per cent. to reflect the latest Defra values.
1 Surface Transport Costs and Charges: Great Britain 1998. Final Report to DETR. Institute of Transport Studies and AEA Technology Environment (Sanson, T., Nash, C., Mackie, P., Shires, J., and Watkiss, P. (2001))
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