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22 Nov 2005 : Column 1862W—continued

Road Freight Traffic

Mr. Hollobone: To ask the Secretary of State for Transport what proportion of road freight traffic was the transport of food products in each of the last five years. [30862]

Dr. Ladyman: The following table contains estimates for transport of food products as a proportion of total kilometres travelled by GB freight.
Food industry HGV kilometres

Billion
20002001200220032004
Total HGV Kms23.022.222.222.222.3
Food Products Kms4.74.24.34.24.2
Food Products/Total Kms (percentage)2019191919
Packaging Kms1.01.01.11.11.1
Packaging/Total Kms (percentage)45555
Fertiliser and Animal Fodder Kms0.30.30.30.30.3
Fertiliser and Animal Fodder/Total Kms (percentage)11111
Total Food Industry Kms6.05.55.75.65.6
Total Food Industry/Total Kms (percentage)2625262525




Source:
Continuing Survey of Road Goods Transport, DfT





 
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Road Gritting

Martin Horwood: To ask the Secretary of State for Transport what guidance he has issued on (a) how frequently roads should be gritted during a prolonged period of cold weather and (b) the trigger for gritting to take place; and if he will make a statement. [29106]

Dr. Ladyman: The guidance on how frequently roads should be gritted, and when, is the same during a period of prolonged cold weather as it is at any other time in winter.

The starting point for the Highways Agency's service providers on the motorway and trunk road network is the Trunk Road Maintenance Manual, which gives advice on the method and timing of treatment to prevent ice forming and on dealing with snow. Service providers have the opportunity to use different methods and timings providing they can demonstrate an improved service to achieve the overall objective of keeping the roads free from ice and snow.

For local roads, there is detailed advice on winter service in Section 13 of Well-Maintained Highways; Code of Practice for Highway Maintenance Management, published by the UK Roads Liaison Group in July this year. Among other things, this code advises authorities to formally approve, adopt, and publish, in consultation with users and key stakeholders, a Winter Service Operational Plan, based on the principles of the code. The Department of Transport strongly recommends the code to local authorities.

Road Safety

Mrs. Dunwoody: To ask the Secretary of State for Transport what the average fatality rate was of pedestrians involved in a motor vehicle accident where the vehicle was moving at (a) 30 mph and (b) 40 mph for each year between 1994 and 2004. [29893]

Dr. Ladyman: In 1979 Aston and Mackay calculated that, as a general rule, an adult pedestrian hit by a vehicle travelling at 30 mph has a 1 in 5 (20 per cent.) chance of being killed, and that a pedestrian hit by a vehicle travelling at 40 mph has a 9 in 10 (90 per cent.) chance of being killed. A child pedestrian hit by a vehicle travelling at 40 mph has a 4 in 5 (80 per cent.) chance of being killed.

Mrs. Dunwoody: To ask the Secretary of State for Transport on what percentage of persistently high risk roads, as defined by the European Road Assessment Programme, speed cameras were installed in each year between 1994 and 2004. [29895]

Dr. Ladyman: The results of the European Road Assessment Programme (EuroRAP) 2004 report on British roads identified 11 stretches of road as being persistently high risk" based upon casualty data for 1997–99 and 2000–02. The length of these stretches varies between 13 kmh and 56 kmh.

Our records show that cameras operating within the National Safety Camera Programme have been deployed at individual locations on 10 out of 11 of the persistently high risk roads identified.
 
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Mrs. Dunwoody: To ask the Secretary of State for Transport what assessment he has made of whether clearly marked speed cameras are reducing (a) road accidents and (b) fatalities. [29896]

Dr. Ladyman: The objective of the national safety camera programme is to reduce excessive speeds, injuries arid crashes at camera sites. All cameras operating within the programme have been required to be highly visible and clearly signed since 1 June 2002. No specific assessment has been made of the extent to which this change has contributed to the effectiveness of the programme. However the independent 3-year evaluation report of the programme covering all cameras operating between April 2000 to March 2003 concluded that there had been a 33 per cent. reduction in personal injury collisions and a 40 per cent. reduction in fatalities at camera sites Assessment of the programme over the period April 2000 to March 2004 will be contained in the 4-year evaluation report which will be published shortly.

Mrs. Dunwoody: To ask the Secretary of State for Transport what the criterion is for the percentage of drivers exceeding the speed limit, excluding congestion periods, before (a) a fixed speed camera is installed and (b) a mobile speed camera is used. [29903]

Dr. Ladyman: The criteria for the percentage of drivers exceeding the speed limit, excluding congestion periods, before either a fixed or mobile safety camera is installed is that at least 20 per cent. of drivers are exceeding the speed limit. In addition speed surveys must show that free flow 85th percentile speed is at or above the ACPO enforcement threshold.

Mrs. Dunwoody: To ask the Secretary of State for Transport what assessment he has made of the impact on road safety of speed cameras between 1994 and 2004; and what (a) long-term trends and (b) seasonal variations have been recorded. [29904]

Dr. Ladyman: The following independent evaluations have been undertaken for the Department and are available in the Library of the House, and on the Department's website:

A four year evaluation report has also been commissioned and is expected shortly.

The two evaluations of the national programme assessed the effectiveness of cameras using a statistical model, in which the effects of long-term trends and seasonal variations were among many different parameters. Full details of the modelling approach are included in the Appendices to these reports.

In respect of the two year report, the statistical model shows that in Great Britain prior to the study period there was a national trend of over 4.5 per cent. per
 
22 Nov 2005 : Column 1865W
 
annum reduction in the number of people killed or seriously injured (KSI) and a 0.75 per cent. per annum reduction in personal injury collisions (PIC). The assessment concluded that even after taking these national trends into account there was a 35 per cent. reduction in the number of KSIs and a 6 per cent. reduction in the number of PICs at camera sites.

The statistical model also shows that the frequency of KSI casualties for the whole of Great Britain increases from quarter to quarter through the year, with those during the first quarter of each year (January to March) being about 10 per cent. less than that during the last quarter (October to December) of the same year. The model did not assess seasonal variations relating directly to the camera sites.

In respect of the three year report, the statistical model shows that in Great Britain over the study period there was a national trend of a little over 4 per cent. per annum reduction in the number of people killed or seriously injured (KSI) and a 1.5 per cent. per annum reduction in personal injury collisions (PIC). The assessment concluded that even after taking these national trends into account there was a 40 per cent. reduction in the number of KSIs and a 33 per cent. reduction in the number of PICs at camera sites.

The statistical model also shows that in urban areas the frequency of KSI casualties for the whole of Great Britain increases from quarter to quarter through the year, and that rural areas have a peak in quarter three. The model did not assess seasonal variations relating directly to the camera sites.

Mrs. Dunwoody: To ask the Secretary of State for Transport how many fixed speed cameras the Government intend to install in England in each of the next five years. [29905]

Dr. Ladyman: The Government do not intend to install any fixed speed cameras in England in each of the next five years. Speed cameras are installed by the local highway authority as the appropriate solution to a road casualty problem following their investigation of that problem. It is not possible to predict in advance where these road casualty problems may arise. Any speed cameras proposed as part of the national safety camera programme will need to meet the site selection rules that apply at the time before being considered for approval as part of the programme.

Anne Milton: To ask the Secretary of State for Transport what representations he has received from (a) road safety groups and (b) police authorities about the reduction of speed limits in villages and outside schools; and what assessment he has made of the potential impact of the reduction in speed limits (a) in villages, (ii) outside schools and (iii) in residential areas from 30 mph to 20 mph on the incidence of accidents. [30182]

Dr. Ladyman: The Department receives occasional representation from road safety groups in support of reduced speed limits, including in villages and outside schools. No such representations have been received from the police at the national level, although we are aware that many police authorities support these measures at the local level.
 
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The Department has not undertaken specific assessment of the reduction of speed limits in villages and outside schools. However, research shows a clear link between reducing vehicle speed and accident reduction, with a 1 mph reduction in average speed expected to lower accident frequency by 5 per cent. It also shows that 20 mph zones and 20 mph speed limits can be effective at reducing collisions and injuries in the right situation, in particular when accompanied by traffic calming measures.

Local authorities already have the powers under section 84 of the Road Traffic Regulation Act 1984 to introduce local speed limits, including 20 mph, if they believe it appropriate to do so. The Department encourages their implementation in areas where vulnerable road users are present, particularly around schools.

Mrs. Dunwoody: To ask the Secretary of State for Transport what percentage of the road network in England had its speed limits enforced by active speed cameras in each year between 1994 and 2004. [30371]

Dr. Ladyman: The Department does not hold this information.

Mrs. Dunwoody: To ask the Secretary of State for Transport what assessment he has made of the effectiveness of (a) fixed speed cameras and (b) mobile speed cameras; and what criteria he uses to assess effectiveness. [30373]

Dr. Ladyman: The independent 3-year evaluation report of the national safety camera programme assessed the effectiveness of both fixed and mobile cameras using the criteria of reductions in speed and casualties at camera sites. The evaluation concluded that both types of camera were effective in both respects. Fixed cameras had, on the whole, a greater effect in reducing speeding than mobile cameras, reflecting the fact that fixed cameras affect driving behaviour all the time, whereas mobile cameras operate periodically at each location.

Mrs. Dunwoody: To ask the Secretary of State forTransport how many Safety Camera Partnerships there were in England in each year between 1994 and 2004. [30375]

Dr. Ladyman: The first Safety Camera Partnerships were formed in 2000. Their numbers for England for each year are as follows:
Number
April 20006
October 200112
April 200220
October 200226
April 200333
April 200536




Note:
In 2005, Avon Somerset and Gloucestershire which joined in 2002 split into Avon and Somerset, and Gloucestershire.




Mrs. Dunwoody: To ask the Secretary of State for Transport what guidance he issues on the minimum number of persons that must be killed or seriously injured at a given site before (a) a fixed speed camera and (b) a mobile speed camera can be installed. [30376]


 
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Dr. Ladyman: The casualty criteria that must be met before a fixed or mobile speed camera is installed is set out in the Handbook of Rules and Guidance for the National Safety Camera Programme for England and Wales for 2005/06. For fixed camera sites this is at least four killed or seriously injured collisions per site kilometre in the 36 months that forms the baseline period. For mobile camera sites it is at least two killed or seriously injured collisions per site kilometre in the baseline period.
 
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Mrs. Dunwoody: To ask the Secretary of State for Transport what the criteria are for the placement of a fixed speed camera. [30447]

Dr. Ladyman: The handbook of Rules and Guidance for the National Safety Camera Programme for England and Wales 2005/06 sets out the rules for core fixed speed camera sites operating within the Programme. Definitions of terms used are contained in the handbook but in summary the rules are:
Rules for proposed core sitesFixed camera sites
Site length requirementsBetween 0.4 and 1.5 km
Number of fatal and serious collisions (KSIs)At least 4 KSI collisions per km in the baseline period
85th percentile speed at proposed sitesSpeed survey shows free-flow 85th percentile speed is at or above ACPO threshold
Percentage over the speed limitAt least 20 per cent. of drivers are exceeding the speed limit, excluding congestion periods
Site conditions that are suitable for the type of enforcement proposedLoading and unloading of camera can take place safely
No other engineering solutions can be .implementedThere has been a site survey carried out by a road safety engineer confirming that no other cost effective engineering solution can be implemented to improve road safety along this stretch of road.

Mrs. Dunwoody: To ask the Secretary of State for Transport how many and what percentage of fixed speed cameras were located on roads with (i) a 30 mph speed limit and (ii) a 40 mph speed limit in each year between 1994 and 2004. [30449]

Dr. Ladyman: The number and percentage of fixed speed cameras newly installed in each year on roads with a 30 mph or 40 mph speed limit from 1994 to 2004 is shown in the following table:
Number of fixed speed cameras installed in each year
Percentage of fixed speed cameras installed in each year
In a 30 mph speed limitIn a 40 mph speed limitTotal for all speed limitsIn a 30 mph speed limitIn a 40 mph speed limit
19942720545037
199578341335926
199686371465925
199783431605227
1998117562215325
199994591835132
2000108411726324
2001139342007017
2002160392456516
2003227503127316
2004230433047614


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