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Mr. Hoyle: To ask the Chancellor of the Exchequer what measures his Department is preparing to take to reduce the burden of administration on small businesses. 
John Healey: The Government set out in the pre-Budget report their approach to better regulation including the progress made in implementing the Better Regulation Task Force's and the Hampton Report's recommendations first announced in Budget 2005. The Treasury is fully committed to the implementation of these recommendations as they effect the department, in particular applying a risk-based approach to the regulation of financial services and measuring the administrative burdens of the Treasury's regulations on business as part of a government-wide project. The Government will set targets to reduce these administrative burdens on businesses, charities and the voluntary sector next year.
To ask the Chancellor of the Exchequer (1) how many applications have been received for tax credit additional payments (a) in each year since the start of the scheme and (b) in each month for 200506; 
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(2) how many tax credit additional payments have been made (a) in each year since the start of the scheme and (b) in each month for 200506; and what the total value of these additional payments has been in each case; 
(3) how many tax credit additional payments have been refused (a) in each year since the start of the scheme, (b) in each month for 200506 and (c) according to each of the grounds for rejection as set out in Code of Practice 26 (2005); 
(4) how many tax credit additional payments have been made in (a) in-year overpayments and (b) end of year overpayments, broken down by the year in which the initial award was made. 
Dawn Primarolo: Information on the numbers of requests for additional tax credits payments, and the number refused, is not available.
For the number and value of additional payments made I refer my hon. Friend to the answer I gave my right hon. Friend the Member for Birkenhead (Mr. Field) on 8 November 2005, Official Report, column 331W.
Mr. Frank Field: To ask the Chancellor of the Exchequer what his Department's latest estimate is of the number of likely (a) overpayments and (b) underpayments in tax credits for 200405. 
Dawn Primarolo: I refer my right hon. Friend to my reply to the hon. Member for Yeovil (Mr. Laws)
Mr. Jenkins: To ask the Chancellor of the Exchequer, what proportion of small and medium-sized enterprises in Tamworth constituency were eligible for research and development tax credits in each of the last five years; and what the take-up was in each year. 
John Healey: The information requested in relation to enterprises in Tamworth is not available.
For information generally on take-up of research and development tax credits I refer the hon. Member to the answer I gave to the hon. Member for Luton, South (Margaret Moran) of 1 November 2005, Official Report, column 991W, on tax credits.
John Hemming: To ask the Secretary of State for Transport what action his Department is taking to reduce emissions from aviation as a contribution to the shared Public Service Agreement climate change target to move towards a 20 per cent. reduction in carbon dioxide emissions below 1990 levels by 2010. 
International aviation is outside the scope of our domestic targets, but we are taking action to tackle the climate change impact of aviation as set out in the Aviation White paper. This includes pressing for the inclusion of aviation in the EU emissions trading scheme. The Government are also pressing for the adoption by industry of working practices that minimise their impact on climate change, research into new technologies and voluntary action by industry to
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control greenhouse gas emissions. We recognise that these measures may not provide a total solution. In view of this, the Government will continue to explore and discuss options for the use of other economic instruments.
Adam Afriyie: To ask the Secretary of State for Transport what steps the Government are taking to tackle aircraft emissions. 
Ms Buck: The Government's plans to tackle aircraft emissions are set out in The Future of Air Transport White Paper". On climate change, it sets out the Government's belief that the best way of ensuring aviation contributes towards the goal of climate stabilisation would be through a well-designed emissions trading regime, for which we are pressing at international and European level. At the local level, the Government are seeking powers through the Civil Aviation Bill to require the imposition of an emissions related element in airport charges where an air quality problem exists. We are also continuing to press for tighter standards for aircraft emissions and improved operational practice to reduce local emissions.
Alan Keen: To ask the Secretary of State for Transport what steps he is taking to ensure that children's education is not affected by exposure to aircraft noise; what (a) standards and (b) guidelines for airlines apply in this area; and if he will make a statement. 
Ms Buck: In its White Paper The Future of Air Transport" the Government stated that larger UK airportsthose with more than 50,000 movements a yearare expected to offer acoustic insulation to noise-sensitive buildings such as schools, which are exposed to medium to high levels of noise, that is 63dBA Leq or more. The dBA value relates to the Leq16 hour daytime period from 07.00 to 23.00.
The White Paper recognised the difficulties associated with insulating some noise-sensitive buildings. We say that where acoustic insulation cannot provide an appropriate or cost-effect solution, airport operators should endeavour to provide alternative mitigation measures such as environmental grants, provisions of quiet rooms for reading or music, or funding for school trips away from the noisy environment, especially where the loss of amenity outdoors may be severe. In such cases we expect the priority of need and the level of any contribution to be assessed on a case-by-case basis by the airport operator and relevant stakeholders.
BAA have announced its intention at Heathrow to work with relevant local authorities to set up a community-led body to take these decisions.
Alan Keen: To ask the Secretary of State for Transport what research he has (a) commissioned and (b) evaluated on the (i) impact of exposure to aircraft noise on the educational development of children and (ii) numbers of schoolchildren who may be affected by aviation-related noise. 
The Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs co-funded the European Community RANCH (Road Traffic and Aircraft Noise exposure and Children's Cognition and Health) Study.
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This comprised three field studies of children around major airports in the UK, Spain and the Netherlands. In the UK children from 29 different schools around Heathrow took part.
The Government took the emerging results of this research into account when developing its environmental policies set out in The Future of Air Transport" White Paper.
Full details of the RANCH studyas well as the earlier West London Schools Studyare on DEFRA'S website at www.defra.gov.uk
The study concluded that aircraft noise exposure was related to impaired performance in reading comprehension and recognition memory. In particular that the reading age in children exposed to high levels of aircraft noise was delayed by up to two months in the United Kingdom and by up to one month in the Netherlands for a 5dB change in noise exposure. It was not possible to calculate reading age for the Spanish test.
Aircraft noise was not associated with impairment of recall memory, working memory, prospective memory or sustained attention.
Alan Keen: To ask the Secretary of State for Transport what discussions his Department has had with the Department for Education and Skills on the impact of aviation-related noise under Heathrow flight paths on children's learning. 
Ms Buck: The Department for Transport and the Department for Education and Skills are aware of the European Community RANCH (Road Traffic and Aircraft Noise exposure and Children's Cognition and Health) Study, which was co-funded by the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs. There have been no discussions between Departments specifically on the issues raised by the RANCH study, as they affect Heathrow. In the first instance these are matters for the local education authority.
John Hemming: To ask the Secretary of State for Transport what estimate he has made of the change in quantities of emissions produced by UK air travel in (a) 2030 and (b) 2050 compared with 2005; and what assumptions underlie those forecasts. 
Ms Buck: Our forecasts for aviation and climate change, and the assumptions underlying them, are set out in Aviation and Global Warming, published by the Department for Transport in January 2004. The figures shown relate to estimates of emissions for all flights departing UK airports for 2030 and 2050, with an interpolated figure for 2005.
|Carbon emitted (Mt)|
John Hemming: To ask the Secretary of State for Transport by what amount emissions trading is expected to reduce the Government's forecast of increased climate change emissions from aviation at 2030, expressed as a percentage and in absolute terms. 
Ms Buck: At present, it is too early to provide a reliable estimate of the impact emissions trading will have on forecasts of emissions from aviation. This will depend on a number of factors including the overall number of allowances and the detailed design for the inclusion of aviation into the ED ETS. These factors have yet to be specified and will be subject to discussion with other member states' Governments.
John Hemming: To ask the Secretary of State for Transport what modelling the Government has undertaken of the impact of the trend in aviation's proportion of total UK emissions of greenhouse gases on the costs and reduction requirements of other UK emissions sectors with, particular reference to (a) business, (b) public services and (c) residential use. 
Ms Buck: International aviation is outside the scope of our domestic targets. Domestic aviation was responsible for 0.38 per cent. of UK emissions in 2003. We have not undertaken any modelling of the impact that trends in these emissions would have on the costs and reduction requirements in other sectors.
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