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9 Feb 2006 : Column 1351W—continued

Commercial Developments (Energy Efficiency Standards)

Mrs. Dorries: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs what steps the Government are taking to promote zero carbon renewable energy systems in commercial buildings; and if she will make a statement. [49539]

Malcolm Wicks: The Major PV Demonstration Programme has offered £3.7 million in grants to fund the installation of solar PV panels on commercial buildings. The Low Carbon Buildings Programme (to be launched in April, subject to state aids approval) will continue to provide grants for the installation of renewable energy systems in commercial buildings. In addition the Government strategy for the promotion of micro generation will aim to encourage the installation of small-scale renewable energy systems in all buildings.

Countryside and Rights of Way Act

Tom Levitt: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs how many and what mileage of new (a) byways and (b) bridleways have been created since the enactment of the Countryside and Rights of Way Act 2000. [49995]

Jim Knight: This information is held by local highway authorities and could be gathered only at a disproportionate cost.

Drought (Contingency Plans)

Keith Vaz: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs what contingency plans are in place in case of drought in summer 2006. [48624]

Mr. Morley: Each water company has a drought plan to manage short term water shortages that contains various triggers to be used depending on the severity of a drought. The provision of drought plans became a statutory requirement in October 2005.

Keith Vaz: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs how many gallons below their capacity level are the (a) reservoirs and (b) other areas of water supply that supply Leicester; and what these figures are as a proportion of their capacity level. [48625]

Mr. Morley: The Dove and Derwent reservoirs supply Leicester. The Dove is 94 per cent. full and the Derwent is 95 per cent. full. It would require 3,415 cubic metres (751,209 gallons) of water to bring these reservoirs to full capacity.

EU Habitats Directive

Mr. Drew: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs whether the UK has implemented the EU Habitats Directive. [49379]

Jim Knight: Yes. In the UK there are three principal instruments transposing the directive:

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Fuel Poverty

Rosie Cooper: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs what steps she is taking to eradicate fuel poverty. [48700]

Mr. Morley: We have a PSA target in place that affirms our commitment to eradicate fuel poverty, as far as reasonably practicable, in vulnerable households in England by 2010. More information on the target, which is shared with the Department for Trade and Industry, and information on the targets in place in other parts of the UK, is available in the UK Fuel Poverty Strategy, published in November 2001.

The Government's main tool for eradicating fuel poverty in the private sector in England is the Warm Front Scheme, which offers a range of heating and insulation measures to householders in receipt of one of a range of qualifying benefits. The Scheme has assisted over one million households since its launch in June 2000. The new phase of the Scheme got under way in June last year, and is better equipped to target and assist those most in need in a sustainable way. The Scheme benefited from a boost in fuel poverty funding in England announced in the 2005 pre-Budget report of £250 million. This is additional to the extra £140 million announced in the last Spending Review and takes DEFRA's total fuel poverty funding over the 2005–08 period to over £800 million.

We are also working closely with colleagues across Government, not just with DTI but also ODPM, DWP, DH and HMT. Defra has a PSA Management Board that brings senior officials from these Departments together to monitor and tackle the range of issues relating to our targets. This ensures that the full policy agenda is properly considered, moving beyond the central tenets of energy efficiency and energy prices and taking in concerns relating to poor housing, benefit take-up, health risks and wider points relating to deprivation more generally.

GM Food

Mr. Drew: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs whether the delegation from her Department which will attend the conference in April in Austria to discuss genetic modification in the EU will represent different shades of opinion on the subject of GM crops; and if she will make a statement. [49340]

Mr. Morley: The membership of the UK delegations which will attend the two conferences on genetic modification in April in Austria has yet to be finalised. However, those Defra officials who attend will represent agreed UK government policy on genetically modified organisms.

Greenhouse Gases

Chris Ruane: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs if she will estimate the annual emission of methane gas emitted by (a) cattle, (b) sheep and (c) pigs; and if she will make a statement. [48242]

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Mr. Bradshaw: [holding answer 2 February 2006]: The following table presents the total UK emissions of methane (CH4) from cattle, sheep and pigs for the years 1990 and 2004, in million tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent (Mt CO 2 equivalent). This data is taken from the most recent UK greenhouse gas inventory.
Methane emissions (Mt CO 2
Sheep (includes goats and deer)4.483.73

Between the years 1990 and 2004, annual UK methane emissions fell by 10 percent. for cattle, by 17 percent. for sheep and by 31 percent. for pig categories.

Mr. Forth: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs what the carbon dioxide emission levels were for (a) the United Kingdom, (b) the EU, (c) the USA, (d) Russia, (e) China, (f) India, (g) Japan, (h) Brazil, (i) Indonesia and (j) the world in the last year for which figures are available; and what her projections are for (i) 2020 and (ii) 2030. [48344]

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Mr. Morley: The following table shows historical and projected carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions in million tonnes of CO 2 (MtCO 2 ) for the UK, EU, USA, Russia, China, India, Japan, Brazil, and Indonesia, together with global emissions.

Countries submit emission estimates to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The UK, EU, USA, Russia and Japan are developed country (Annex I) Parties to the UNFCCC, and submit emissions inventories annually; the most recent year for which data are available is in general 2003. China, India, Brazil and Indonesia are developing country (non-Annex I) Parties to the UNFCCC; the most recent data they have submitted is for 1994. Annex I CO 2 emissions for 1994 are provided for comparison. The data in the table cover all sectors including land-use, land-use change and forestry. Global emissions are estimated as the sum of those submitted to the UNFCCC in 1994 by 136 participating countries, including all major developed economies, plus an estimated 680 MtCO 2 for emissions from international shipping and aviation which are not included in national totals under international reporting guidelines.

The UK, EU, USA, and Russia have submitted projections to the UNFCCC for CO 2 emissions in 2020, and Japan has submitted projections for 2010. China, India, Brazil and Indonesia have not submitted projections. UK projections are have been updated for consistency with the inventory and projections information published in January 2006. Projections to 2030 are not available for any of the countries, although the UK policy, as set out in the 2003 Energy White Paper, is to put ourselves on a path to a reduction of some 60 per cent. by 2050.
CO 2 emissions including LULUCF

MtCO 2
UK559.2559.2 (for 2004)536.4
Russia1,421.9n/a (1,297.3 in 1999)1,180–1,430
Japan1,104.6n/a1,183.7 (for 2010)
Global (136 countries)21,090n/an/a

n/a = not available

The International Energy Agency provides estimates of projected emissions from use of fossil fuels which indicate, for China and India respectively, increases of about 110 per cent. and about 140 per cent. over the period 1994–2020. Fossil fuels account for the majority of CO 2 emissions in China and India but do not include land-use, land-use change and forestry which in 1994 reduced emission from China by about +5 per cent. and increased those of India by about 8 per cent.

For Brazil the IEA data indicate an increase of about 120 per cent. in emissions from fossil fuel use over the period 1994 to 2020; however this does not include projections of emissions from deforestation, which accounted for about three-quarters of total CO 2 from Brazil in 1994. We do not have projections specific to Indonesia. In total, emissions from world fossil fuel usage, including emission from international marine and aviation, are predicted by IEA to increase by 55 per cent. between 1994 and 2020.

Norman Baker: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs what assessment she has made of carbon emissions generated by water desalination plants; and if she will make a statement. [48454]

Mr. Morley: Water companies have duties to maintain water supplies and the inclusion of desalination plants in their water resource plans is an option to overcome supply deficits. In considering planning permission for such plants, the planning authority will take into account sustainability factors including energy requirements and carbon emissions. Any appeal against a refusal of planning permission would come before the Secretary of
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State. One such appeal, by Thames Water, is currently before the Secretary of State for determination once a public inquiry has been held.

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