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Mr. Randall: To ask the Secretary of State for the Home Department how many young people of school age (a) found guilty of a crime and (b) placed in custody had a previous history of being in care in (i) Uxbridge constituency, (ii) the London borough of Hillingdon, (iii) Greater London and (iv) England in each year since 1997. 
In relation to children in custody who have a previous history of being in care, the Social Exclusion Report Reducing re-offending by ex prisoners", annex D, says (page 157 D10), quoting an HMIP survey, that
Mark Simmonds: To ask the Secretary of State for International Development what steps have been taken to encourage Afghan farmers to move from growing poppies to other crops; and if he will make a statement. 
Hilary Benn: Agriculture dominates the Afghan economy. Previously Afghanistan was a major exporter of horticulture and livestock products. However, 25 years of war and civil conflict and the recent drought have seriously affected Afghanistan's agriculture sector. Developing this sector is critical for economic growth, poverty reduction and for tackling opium poppy cultivation.
DFID leads the British Government's efforts to develop alternative livelihoods to opium production in Afghanistan. In financial year 200506, we are spending over £45 million for this purpose. This is an almost tenfold increase on the amount spent in 200304. In financial year 200607 spending is expected to continue at similar levels. A proportion of this funding will continue to be specifically targeted on improving agricultural opportunities for Afghan farmers. This includes research to help identify, test and implement new crops and technologies. Examples include improvements in health and husbandry for livestock, apricot drying, honey bee keeping, and the introduction of fruit tree nurseries and greenhouses for vegetable production. DFID has also jointly funded with United States Agency for International Development a $25 million nationwide programme to increase access to seeds and fertiliser for over 500,000 farmers for alternative crops.
At the same time as developing agricultural opportunities, DFID is also promoting the development of non-farm alternative livelihoods by supporting national programmes of the Government of Afghanistan which are helping to increase access to credit and improve infrastructure for farmers to transport their produce to markets.
Hilary Benn: DFID has not yet carried out an assessment of the effectiveness of the Counter-Narcotics Trust Fund (CNTF). It is too early to do so, as the CNTF was launched at the end of October 2005. The Government are putting together CNTF spending proposals for its 200607 budget, which is expected to be passed in March 2006. There will be regular monitoring and reporting on the performance of the CNTF by UNDP and a Steering Committee of Government and donor representatives. DFID will undertake an annual review in early 2007 for its £20 million three-year commitment. An independent evaluation commissioned by UNDP covering the effectiveness of the CNTF is envisaged before October 2007.
Mark Simmonds: To ask the Secretary of State for International Development how much his Department has provided in Direct Budgetary Support to Afghanistan in each year since 2001; how much will be given in each year until 2008; and if he will make a statement. 
DFID has not yet provided any un-earmarked Direct Budgetary Support to Afghanistan. However, DFID is one of the largest contributors to the Government of Afghanistan's budget. We have contributed £135 million of un-earmarked support
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through the Afghanistan Reconstruction Trust Fund (ARTF) since 2002. The ARTF is a multi-donor trust fund administered by the World Bank. It channels money through Government systems. However, there are independent monitoring agents that verify actual expenditures on the Government's recurrent budget. The ARTF operates on a reimbursement basis. Only eligible expenditures are reimbursed by the ARTF. It is therefore not Direct Budgetary Support.
DFID has also financed several specific national programmes through the Government's budget. This includes £30 million since 200304 to the ARTF for alternative livelihoods activities to tackle the opium problem in Afghanistan. We intend to contribute at least a further £25 million for alternative livelihoods until 2008. DFID contributed £20 million in 2004 directly to the Government's Afghanistan Stabilisation Programme to help strengthen ties between provincial government and the central Administration. We have also agreed this year to a three-year commitment of £20 million for the Counter-Narcotics Trust Fund (CNTF). The CNTF will also channel money through the Government's budget to finance counter-narcotics activities.
Mark Simmonds: To ask the Secretary of State for International Development how much (a) bilateral and (b) multilateral funding his Department has given to non-governmental organisations working in Afghanistan in each year since 2001. 
A further significant portion of DFID's programme goes to NGOs indirectly through the Government of Afghanistan, which subcontracts implementation of many of its national programmes (to which DFID contributes funding) to national and international NGOs, as well as other implementing partners. Exact figures for NGOs are not easily available. Other direct recipients of DFID funding, such as UN agencies, also use NGOs as implementing partners.
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DFID also provides global funds to NGOs through Partnership Programme Agreements (PPA). PPAs are long-term agreements of three to five years with civil society organisations which have a strong track record of work in international development and an ability to make a contribution to achieving the Millennium Development Goals. The way PPA support is set out means that we cannot attribute DFID funding to any specific activity or country. OXFAM, ActionAid, Christian Aid, and Save the Children UK all have Partnership Programme Agreements with DFID, and work in Afghanistan.
Mark Simmonds: To ask the Secretary of State for International Development how much (a) bilateral and (b) multilateral aid has been provided to Afghanistan by the UK in each year since 2001; and if he will make a statement. 
Total bilateral aid in 200506 is expected to be around £150 million. The Prime Minister announced on 31 January that the UK expects to spend some £500 million in Afghanistan in the three year period from 200609.
Mark Simmonds: To ask the Secretary of State for International Development how much the UK has provided to Afghanistan for developing education facilities and increasing access to education in each year since 2001; and if he will make a statement. 
DFID has not provided direct assistance to the education sector in Afghanistan, with the exception of very limited support (£47,000) for primary education of refugees in 200102. However, through our funding to the Afghanistan Reconstruction Trust Fund (ARTF), DFID supports the Government of Afghanistan's budget, which finances significant expenditure in the education sector. Since 200203 the operating budget for education as a whole has risen by 250 per cent. Overall civil service numbers have remained stable, but there has been a major increase in the number of teachers, who constitute one of the largest portions of the civil service. DFID's contribution to the
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ARTF, to which we are the biggest donor, has thus played a big part in increasing the number of children in school since 2002.
Support to development projects in the education sector was budgeted to rise by 60 per cent. in 200506. Other donors have taken the lead in providing direct support to the education sector, including the World Bank, the United States Agency for International Development, Denmark, and United Nations Agencies. The UK is therefore also supporting the education sector in Afghanistan through its contributions to multilateral agencies such as the World Bank and the UN, but we do not have specific breakdowns. Through donor support to the education sector, over a thousand schools have been built or rehabilitated, which has enabled the enrolment of 5.6 million children, 37 per cent. of them girls.
Mark Simmonds: To ask the Secretary of State for International Development how much the UK has provided to Afghanistan for (a) the development of health capacity and (b) increasing access to treatments in each year since 2001; and if he will make a statement. 
Hilary Benn: DFID support to the health sector is mostly through our funding to the Afghanistan Reconstruction Trust Fund (ARTF). The ARTF supports the Government's budget, including the health sector. This plays a big part in meeting recurrent costs such as wages and salaries of Government health workers and medical supplies. The Government's health programme was expanded to all 34 provinces, covering 70 per cent. of the population, and there has been a 60 per cent. increase in functioning health centres.
Other donors have been very active in the health sector, including the World Bank and United Nations Agencies such as the World Health Organisation. The UK is therefore also supporting the health sector in Afghanistan through its contributions to multilateral agencies, but we do not have specific breakdowns.
Mark Simmonds: To ask the Secretary of State for International Development how much the UK has provided to Afghanistan (a) for strengthening women's rights and (b) for improving access to clean water and sanitation in each year since 2001; and if he will make a statement. 
Hilary Benn: The following table shows DFID's bilateral expenditure on projects that have targeted the strengthening of women's rights in Afghanistan. These figures reflect all projects that were recorded as having a significant focus on this policy objective, but it should be noted that these projects will also have targeted other policy objectives.
Recording expenditure on water and sanitation presents a challenge due to the cross-cutting nature of many water and sanitation initiatives and the range of instruments used to channel development assistance, including budget support to Governments and via multilateral organisations.
Since much of our expenditure on water and sanitation is cross-cutting, for example as part of our health and education programmes, a detailed analysis is required to obtain more specific figures. DFID has commissioned a series of reports on financial support to the water sector; this analysis estimates that DFID bilateral expenditure on water and sanitation projects in Afghanistan between 2001 and 2004 is as follows:
DFID also channels significant funds through multilateral organisations including the UN, EU and WB. A proportion of this spend also contributes to outcomes in water and sanitation and women's rights.
Mark Simmonds: To ask the Secretary of State for International Development how many staff from his Department have worked in Afghanistan in each year since 2001; what estimate he has made of the number who will work there in each year until 2008; and if he will make a statement. 
|UK staff posts||Afghan staff posts||Total|
Figures include DFID staff working outside the DFID office on secondment to other organisations, or with Provincial Reconstruction Teams. They do not include DFID staff working on Afghanistan in Pakistan (in 200102) or the UK, staff from the Post-Conflict Reconstruction Unit on short-term assignment, Afghan drivers or guards, contracted consultants, or unfilled posts under recruitment. Some posts may have been
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filled by more than one person in any one year where staff changed mid-year. Others were vacant for part of the year.
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