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Emily Thornberry: To ask the Secretary of State for International Development pursuant to the answer of 26 January 2006, Official Report, column 2398W, on the water action plan, what percentage of budget support from his Department was spent by each African country in receipt of such support on access to safe water and sanitation in 200405. 
Hilary Benn: We do not yet have figures for the percentage of public expenditure (including budgetary support) spent on improving access to safe water and basic sanitation for 200405. The process of collecting and reconciling national figures is lengthy, and the methodology for analysis is still experimental. We expect to be able to publish figures for 200405 by the third quarter of 2006. In the meantime, we believe that the figures in the DFID report entitled Financial Support to the Water Sector 200204" (copies of which are in the Library of the House and also on the DFID website: www.dfid.gov.uk) may provide a useful indicator for 200405, since budget allocations typically do not change sharply from year to year.
Mr. Thomas: There is very little reliable data on progress towards achieving the millennium development goals (MDGs) in Yemen. Much of the data which comes from surveys is now very old and new more reliable data is not expected until late 2006 at the earliest. The data which does exist shows that Yemen is unlikely to meet most of the MDGs. Poverty has probably doubled during the 1990s and the population has increased by about 3 per cent. a year over the same period. Child malnutrition figures are particularly worrying. Progress in reducing infant and child mortality has been much slower than required to meet the target. Access to health services is very limited in many parts of the country. Two surveys on maternal deaths conducted in 1997 and 2003 show no improvement over this period (the risk of pregnancy-related death is one in 19 women). HIV/AIDS appears to be spreading. TB remains highly prevalent although incidence is falling. In the 1990s malaria became more widespread, with epidemics in 1996 and 1998. Yemen is confronting a severe environmental crisis with rapidly depleting water reserves that will leave the capital city, Sana'a without water within a generation. Some progress has been made in increasing the proportion of the population with access to improved sanitation, but not at a rate rapid enough to meet the MDG target.
There has been a rapid increase in enrolment in primary school, particularly enrolment of children in the designated age groups, but this has been from a very low base. If the current rate of progress is maintained, the goal of universal primary education by 2015 could be attained. The rapid expansion of primary, and to some degree secondary enrolment has particularly favoured girls, and if the rate of change continues, this goal could possibly be met by 2015. Other indicators of gender equality however, do not indicate progress.
Mark Simmonds: To ask the Secretary of State for International Development how much (a) bilateral aid and (b) multilateral aid the UK has given to Yemen in each of the last five years; and if he will make a statement. 
|Bilateral aid provided to Yemen (£ million)|
The most recent year for which DFID has multilateral aid figures is 2003. This is because information is drawn from a report compiled by the OECD Development Assistance Committee (DAC) which all multilateral donors provide information to, and there is a time lag before this is published. The UK contributes to several multilateral agencies which work in Yemen including the UN, EC and World Bank. The UK's multilateral aid contribution to Yemen between 1999 and 2003 was as follows:
|Multilateral aid contribution|
Mark Simmonds: To ask the Secretary of State for International Development how much bilateral aid from the UK has been used for improving health care facilities and tackling diseases in Yemen in each of the last five years; and if he will make a statement. 
Mr. Thomas: DFID has supported improvements to the health sector in Yemen since 2003, working with the Government of Yemen, UN agencies, and other bilateral donors. Funding has been provided to support polio eradication, and family planning and prevention of HIV/AIDS. Total spending on support to the health sector was £462,310 in 200304 and £210,740 in 200405.
DFID is now providing £3.1 million over four years to help the Government of Yemen improve maternal and neonatal health, working with the UN and the Dutch Government. The work involves improving services for maternal and neonatal health in five governorates, and helping the Ministry of Population and Health Policy to improve its planning and policy making capacity, including in undertaking a full health sector review during 2006.
DFID also provides funding to the Yemeni Social Fund for Development (SFD) which supports community level development, including improved health care services. DFID has provided approximately £10 million to the SFD since 200405. Approximately 7.5 per cent. of the fund's budget is allocated to health projects.
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Mark Simmonds: To ask the Secretary of State for International Development how much aid the UK has given to Yemen in each of the last five years for projects to protect and promote the rights of women; and if he will make a statement. 
Mr. Thomas: Poverty affects women more severely than men in Yemen as they have less access to health and education, employment opportunities, and resources such as land. Yemen is ranked 126th out of 144 countries in the UNDP gender-related development index, the worst performer among the Arab states.
£13.9 million between 2004 and 2007 to support the Yemeni Social Fund for Development (SFD), which provides community based development, with a particular focus on improving women's lives. Programmes by the Social Fund for Development have directly served nearly five million women since 1997, slightly more than men (4.7 million). Some programmes, such as health and small and medium enterprises, involve far more women than men. As well as basic services, the SFD operates a range of programmes to fulfil the legal, social and political rights of women and girls.
Almost £500,000 between 2003 and 2006 to support work to bring women's development needs into Yemen's Five Year Development and Poverty Reduction plan so that women and men benefit equally for the Government of Yemen's development polices.
Prior to 200304, DFID's bilateral programme in Yemen was focused only on strengthening economic and financial management, so there was no expenditure on promoting gender equality and empowering women. From 200304, the programme expanded into other areas. In 200304, nearly £2 million was spent on projects which had a primary or significant focus on promoting gender equality and empowering women; and in 200405, nearly £4 million.
The Foreign and Commonwealth Office has been funding a number of projects in this area including work to enhance women's role in local communities and a young women's leadership programme. The spend on these totalled £26,783 in 200304 and £73,221 in 200405. The FCO is committed to spend £181,882 in 200506, £179,657 in 200607 and £80,336 in 200708 on this programme of interventions.
Mark Simmonds: To ask the Secretary of State for International Development how much bilateral aid from the UK has been spent on education and education facilities in Yemen in each of the last five years; and if he will make a statement. 
DFID has provided support to the Government of Yemen to improve basic education since 200304, and this is now one of DFID's main priorities in Yemen and accounts for approximately 25 per cent. of our annual spend. DFID is providing £15 million between 2005 and 2010 to help implement the Government of Yemen's Basic Education Strategy
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through a World Bank project co-financed with other donors. The strategy aims to increase the percentage of school age children enrolled in basic education from 64 per cent. in 2005 to 84 per cent. by 2010, with the proportion of girls increasing from 38 per cent. to 47 per cent., and to improve the quality of basic education. DFID spent approximately £90,000 bilaterally on education in 200304 and approximately £500,000 in 200405, mainly on the development of the strategy and the design of the World Bank project.
Mark Simmonds: To ask the Secretary of State for International Development what steps his Department is taking to improve the operation of the judiciary in Yemen; what funds have been committed to projects to achieve this; and if he will make a statement. 
Mr. Thomas: DFID together with other UK Government Departments is currently assessing how the UK could support judicial reform in Yemen, especially in the interests of women and the poor, who have little access to justice. The Government of Yemen is keen for international donors to support judicial reform. DFID has committed an initial £500,000 and is looking into options for longer-term programming.
Mark Simmonds: To ask the Secretary of State for International Development what contribution his Department has made to the Social Fund for Development in Yemen in each of the last five years; and if he will make a statement. 
Mr. Thomas: DFID contributed £1.6 million to the Social Fund for Development (SFD) in 200304. DFID then committed an additional £12.3 million to a subsequent phase of the project between 2004 and 2008. £1.88 million was spent in 200405 and £6.5 million has been spent already in this financial year. The funds to the Social Fund for Development are used for community based development throughout Yemen.
Mark Simmonds: To ask the Secretary of State for International Development what aid and resources the UK has contributed to tackling the recent poliomyelitis outbreak in Yemen; and if he will make a statement. 
Mr. Thomas: The first case of polio in Yemen since 1996 occurred on 25 February 2005. As of 1 February 2006, 478 cases had been confirmed (source World Health Organisation (WHO)). The Government of Yemen completed a mass information campaign in April and eight nationwide immunisation campaigns have taken place since the outbreak last year. This strategy appears to be having results: the last new case was reported on 17 November 2005. Independent monitors now show that immunisation coverage overall is at 97.2 per cent. and the outbreak is coming under control.
DFID provided £250,000 to a UNICEF polio vaccination campaign in 200304. We did not provide bilateral funding in response to the polio outbreak in February 2005 because of the need to focus our programme on relatively few areas in order to have impact, and because other donors were better positioned to assist. However, DFID provides funding multilaterally for polio eradication via the WHO-led Global Polio Eradication Initiative (PEI). DFID contributed £34 million for the PEI in 200506, which
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helped close its funding gap for 2005 and ensured that all immunisation activities could go ahead in 2005. In addition DFID announced a further £40 million for 2006 to 2008 to eradicate polio in 2006 and ensure the world stays polio free thereafter. The funds we provide for the PEI are not earmarked, allowing the PEI to allocate resources according to their assessment of priority needs. The PEI provided at £7.6 million for polio eradication activities in Yemen in 2005.
Mark Simmonds: To ask the Secretary of State for International Development what steps his Department is taking to tackle corruption in Yemen; what funds have been committed to projects to achieve this; and if he will make a statement. 
Mr. Thomas: Corruption is a serious problem in Yemen. It holds back development and particularly harms the poor. The key to tackling corruption in Yemen is securing transparent and accountable public finances. DFID is helping the Government of Yemen develop its action plan for public financial management reform. This will include ways to improve control and accountability of public finances and develop a more transparent system for procuring goods and services with public funds. DFID has committed £200,000 for the development of the plan and is considering funding its implementation together with other donors.
DFID also provided £2.57 million between 1999 and 2005 to support the modernisation of customs services which will also help tackle corruption by providing more effective and transparent mechanisms for collecting revenue.
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