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Greg Clark: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs what information the Government publish on carbon dioxide emissions from each type of fuel; and what emission factors are used to calculate these figures. 
Mr. Morley [holding answer 27 February 2006]: The most recent estimates of carbon dioxide emissions by type of fuel are published in Defra's statistics Digest in table 5: Estimated emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) by UNECE source category, type of fuel and end user: 1970-2003 (http://www.defra.gov.uk/environment/statistics/globatmos/download/xls/gatb05.xls). These data will shortly be updated to contain the emissions from the 2004 greenhouse gas inventory.
Emissions data aggregated according to fuel type are also published annually under contract to Defra in the Common Reporting Format (CRF) tables of the UK's greenhouse gas inventory. Tablesl.A(a)s1 to Tablesl.A(a)s4 provide sectoral background data for energy from Fuel Combustion Activitiesemissions according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPPC) fuel class are listed. These can be found at the National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (NAEI) website: http://www.naei.org.uk/report_link.php?report_id=317.
Carbon emission factors used in the UK greenhouse gas inventory are also accessible through the NAEI website and are directly available via http://www.airquality.co.uk/archive/reports/cat07/0509161441_ energy_background_data_uk_2005_v1.1.xls.
Greg Clark: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs how much (a) shipping fuel and (b) aviation fuel included in table 1.1 of the Digest of United Kingdom Energy Statistics is excluded from the calculation of UK carbon dioxide emissions. 
Mr. Morley [holding answer 27 February 2006]: The following table shows the estimate of fuel consumption in million tonnes, from both domestic and international shipping and aviation for 2004, the latest year for which carbon dioxide calculations for the UK greenhouse gas inventory are available. Under internationally agreed guidance, emissions from international shipping and international aviation are not included in the greenhouse gas inventory; this amounts to 1.83 million tonnes of fuel from international shipping and 10.52 million tonnes of fuel from international aviation being excluded.
The data are derived from table 3.4 of the Digest of United Kingdom Energy Statistics which presents details on the supply and demand of petroleum products according to fuel type, rather than from the more aggregate table 1.1.
Norman Baker: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs what estimate she has made of the carbon emissions resulting from (a) the generation of heating for buildings and (b) the powering of air conditioning in buildings in a town of average size. 
Mr. Morley: An estimate of annual carbon emissions for the town of Swindon in 2003 due to the generation of heating for buildings is 81 thousand tonnes of carbon (ktC/yr). For powering of air conditioning in buildings the corresponding estimate is 3.6 ktC/yr.
Gregory Barker: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs what the percentage contribution of (a) non dwelling buildings and (b) dwellings to the UK's total annual carbon emissions was in each year between 1997 and 2005. 
Mr. Morley: The following table shows carbon emissions for non-domestic buildings and for housing as a percentage of total UK carbon emissions for the years 1997 to 2004, the latest year for which data are available.
|Carbon emissions from non-domestic buildings as a percentage of total UK carbon emissions||Carbon emissions from housing as a percentage of total UK carbon emissions|
Dr. Kumar: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs what her Department's assessment is of the potential impact of the influx of Chinese mitten crabs in British waterways on the environment; and what plans her Department has to tackle the problem. 
Where this species has become established it has displaced crayfish and other native crabs. It has damaged estuary banks by burrowing, and it can cause erosion of soft sediment banks. This could create future problems for our flood defences.
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English Nature, Scottish Natural Heritage, the Scottish Association of Marine Sciences (SAMS), the Marine Biological Association of the UK, the Joint Nature Conservation Committee, and the Natural History museum are working to investigate the ecological impacts of this species, and any appropriate control methods.
Norman Baker: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs what assessment she has made of the quantification of the relationship between global dimming and the measureable effect of climate change; and if she will make a statement. 
Mr. Morley: It is not possible at this stage to quantify with accuracy the relationship between global dimming and climate change because of the large uncertainty in the magnitude of the cooling effect of sulphate aerosols, the main contributor to global dimming.
A recent study funded by the Department, which was published in the journal Nature last December, suggested that the cooling effect of anthropogenic aerosols could be larger than previously estimated. If confirmed, these results suggest the likelihood of a larger impact of increasing CO 2 emissions on the climate system, adding urgency to our need to cut greenhouse gas emissions.
Estimating the size of the cooling resulting from aerosols is an ongoing and crucial research activity. The Department continues to fund research in order to determine the size of the aerosols' cooling effect and what overall implications there are for forecasts of future global warming.
Mr. Morley: The timetable for publication of the revised UK Climate Change Programme has been extended to allow us to take full account of the outcome of a number of other pieces of ongoing work including the energy efficiency innovation review and gives us more time to take forward commitments made in the 2005 pre-Budget report.
The revised timetable also fits more closely with the timetable for developing phase II of the EU emissions trading scheme enabling us to take into greater consideration the level of the cap for the second phase of the EU ETS which is occurring in parallel to the Climate Change Programme Review.
Clare Short: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs when the Minister of State for Climate Change will reply to the letter of 11 January from the right hon. Member for Birmingham, Ladywood, on behalf of Ladywood Furniture Project. 
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