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Ms Angela C. Smith: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs what assessment was made of the psychological effects on each badger captured in the recent field trials of badger body snares. 
Mr. Bradshaw: The study follows the principles laid down in the draft EU directive on humane trapping standards. These include an assessment of the behaviour of the animals as a measure of their psychological welfare. The assessment carried out during work on these methods, in pens, included continuous video monitoring of the animals to assess their welfare and behaviour. This was conducted prior to the start of the field trials. Such continuous monitoring is not carried out during field trials. Following completion of the trials and peer review a full report will be published by the end of the summer.
Mr. Sheerman: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs what progress is being made towards the target of annual reductions of 3 per cent. of carbon dioxide emissions. 
The policies and measures set out in the 2006 UK Climate Change Programme are currently projected to reduce our carbon dioxide emissions to 14 to 17 per cent. below 1990 levels by 2010. This would take us close to our domestic goal to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 20 per cent. below 1990 levels by 2010 and help to put us on a path towards our long-term target to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by some 60 per cent. by about 2050, with real progress by 2020.
My right hon. Friend, the Secretary of State, announced on 29 June the UKs proposal for the next phase of the EUs Emissions Trading Scheme. The proposal outlines the contribution business needs to make to help tackle climate change and save 8 million tonnes of carbon each year. A saving of this amount would equate to the emissions of 4Â1/2 million households.
Over the past 10 years UK fisheries have landed an average of approximately 12,000 tonnes of dogfishes and sharks per year. Of these, sharks (pelagic and unspecified sharks) accounted for approximately 1,000 tonnes per year, although this has decreased in recent years. I do not have information on
the numbers of sharks caught because the data on landings is recorded in tonnes and it is difficult to convert this into numbers of sharks due to the wide range of species and body sizes.
Deliberate capture and killing and reckless disturbance of cetaceans is prohibited under the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981. Bycatch of dolphins and other marine mammals does, however, occur in some fisheries. The exact number of animals that die from bycatch every year is unknown, as it is not feasible to monitor all fishing operations.
Bycatch has been monitored in the bass pair trawl fishery. An average of 180 dolphins per year were bycaught in the bass pair trawl fishery between 2000-01 and 2004-05 winter seasons. Estimates for each year are provided in the following table:
Bycatch is known to occur in gill net fisheries in the Channel and Western Approaches, but there are no recent estimates of the numbers involved. The most recent estimate dates from the early 1990s when around 200 common dolphins were being bycaught in the English and Irish gill net fishery for hake.
The long-running DEFRA-funded Cetacean Strandings Contract has shown a 13 per cent. reduction in strandings around the UK coast in 2005 (799 in 2004, 700 in 2005). Figures for the preceding four years (2000 to 2004) had shown a generally increasing trend from 420 in 2000 to 799 in 2004. A report analysing the findings was published on 6 July 2006 and is available on DEFRA's website.
Chris Huhne: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs what the (a) name, (b) professional and academic qualifications and (c) relevant experience are of the finance director of his Department. 
Barry Gardiner: DEFRAs acting finance director is Ian Grattidge, pending a permanent appointment via an open competition, currently under way. Ian Grattidge joined DEFRA on 18 February 2002 and was appointed acting director on 7 November 2005.
Prior to joining DEFRA, Ian Grattidge held finance director posts at the Food Standards Agency and the Veterinary Laboratories Agency. He has also held posts in the Finance Management Division of former MAFF and at the BBC; was Head of Finance and Business Administration at the Laboratory of the Government Chemist, DTI; financial accountant at NMI Ltd; an internal auditor for the DTI and a tax inspector for HM Customs and Excise.
Martin Horwood: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs what estimate the Government have made of greenhouse gas emissions from (a) car, (b) aviation, (c) train and (d) ship transportation by Departments in each year since 1997. 
Ian Pearson: The estimates available for greenhouse gas emissions from transport by Departments currently focus on the road car fleet. The most recent estimates for carbon dioxide emissions from this car fleet was published in November 2005 as part of the Sustainable Development in Government (SDIG): Fourth Annual Report. This covers the period from April 2004 to March 2005. Copies are available from the Sustainable Development Commission website:http://www.sd-Commission.org.uk/watchdog/4th_Annual _Report_(final)_UPDATED_30_11_05.pdf.
All central Government ministerial and official air travel has been offset since 1 April 2006. Departmental aviation emissions are calculated on an annual basis and subsequently offset through payments to a central fund. Final calculations for the opening year of the scheme, 2006-07, will be carried out in April 2007.
The DEFRA-led Civil Service Travel Group has been created to help improve travel sustainability across the civil service. Its initial focus will be to work with all Departments on a voluntary basis to help them develop, and improve their own management information systems (MIS) on travel activities, alongside developing sustainable travel action plans for them to progress.
Ian Pearson: The Government have agreed in principle to support energy crops under the new Rural Development Programme, which will run from 2007 to 2013. We are currently considering how best to take this forward with regard to the responses to the consultation on the Rural Development Programme for England. The nature of the support may be different to that provided under the current programme.
Mr. Drew: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs what measures are in place to encourage companies to carry out regular audits of their buildings to seek opportunities for introducing energy efficiency methods. 
The Carbon Trust provides a range of tools and products designed to help companies to make an assessment of the energy they use and to understand
where changes could be made. This includes action plan tools, energy surveys, design advice and benchmarking tools. The Carbon Trust also offers small and medium-sized companies interest free loans to help them take practical energy efficiency action. In addition, the Trusts Carbon Management programme provides a systematic approach to managing the risks and realising the opportunities that climate change presents. It looks at both the revenue and cost sides of business and involves areas outside the scope of a normal energy or operational efficiency review.
Alan Simpson: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs what assessment he has made of the likely impact of the environmental liability directive on (a) pollution control, (b) water resources, (c) biodiversity, (d) wildlife, (e) contaminated land and (f) environmental protection in the UK. 
Ian Pearson: Proposals for implementing regulatory measures have to be accompanied by an impact assessment. The first public consultation, to be launched later this year, will be accompanied by a detailed assessment of all costs and benefits of implementing the environmental liability directive, taking account of existing environmental protection regimes.
Chris Huhne: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs whether the Government (a) is committed to the achievement of environmental management to ISO 14001 standard and (b) has been externally certified as in compliance with that standard; and if he will make a statement. 
Ian Pearson: On 12 June the Prime Minister and the Secretary of State announced new sustainable operations targets for the Government estate. Environmental Management Systems (EMS) are a key enabler in supporting improvements in operational performance on the estate, particularly in areas such as energy, water and waste. Therefore, the new targets included a commitment that all Departments should have an EMS in place, based, or modelled upon, a recognised system (such as ISO 14001, or the European regulation EMAS).
In terms of certification some Departments have implemented the international standard ISO 14001 and have obtained external certification. Other Departments are working towards implementation of the standard and some Departments have already put in place bespoke environmental management systems so are not certified to a recognised standard.
Departmental performance against EMS estate targets, including external certification, has been published in annual Sustainable Development in Government reports. The last report published by the Sustainable Development Commission, the
independent watchdog, was in December 2005. It covered the reporting period April 2004 to March 2005 and is available at: http://www.sd-commission.org.uk/watchdog.
Michael Gove: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs what estimate he has made of the total economic cost to the UK of taking part in the EU Emissions Trading Scheme relative to taking no action to control carbon dioxide emissions. 
Ian Pearson: In the recently published Regulatory Impact Assessment (RIA) for Phase II of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme we estimate that the cost of the scheme to the UK economy could be between £80 million and £640 million per year. This cost assumes a certain level of abatement will take place within the UK and also that the UK will purchase some allowances from the market. The final cost will therefore depend on the market price of carbon.
If Phase II of the scheme was not implemented this would lead to costs predicted to be between £400 million and £1,344 million per year. These estimates are based on the conclusions of the Social Cost of Carbon Working Paper published by the Government Economic Service, and are also set out in the RIA. This cost represents the potential physical impacts of climate change.
These estimates do not take into account the significant benefits to the UK economy that the scheme may generate through the growing market for emissions abatement equipment, and for financial services associated with emissions trading.
Mr. Steen: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs if he will undertake an inquiry into the extent to which small hydroelectric generating plants damage fish stocks in rivers in which they are placed. 
The Government and the Environment Agency support the development of alternative, renewable sources of energy that are properly sustainable, taking into account wider environmental needs including protecting and improving fisheries.
The Environment Agency engaged in a workshop with the hydropower industry and representatives from the Department of Trade and Industry earlier this year. The Environment Agency plans to work with the industry to develop good practice guidance, taking into account the needs of fish stocks and fisheries. It published a fisheries research report which included best practice guidance for screening intakes and out-falls(1). The report is relevant to protecting fish against certain impacts of hydropower schemes, and will inform future discussions.
(1) Screening for intake and out-falls: a best practice guide (2005) R&D
Author(s): OKeeffe, N; Turnpenny, A W H
Series Environment Agency science project (SC030231)
Environment Agency science report (W6-103/TR)
Environment Agency R&D project (W6-103)
Publication Bristol: Environment Agency, 2005
Mr. Carswell: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs what funding has been made available for sea coastal defences in (a) Clacton-on-Sea and (b) Holland-on-Sea in each of the past five years; and if he will make a statement. 
Ian Pearson: The Environment Agency is the principal operating authority with responsibility for flood risk management in England, including for flooding from the sea. DEFRA funds most of the Environment Agency's flood related work and grant-aids individual capital improvement projects and related studies undertaken by local authorities.
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