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Gregory Barker: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs what assessment he has made of the adequacy of his Department's guidance on the recovery of controlled substances in refrigerators and freezers; and what assessment he has made of its impact on falling CFC recovery rates in the UK. 
Mrs. May: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (1) how many lost ways have been identified under the Discovering Lost Ways project; and how many of these go through private property; 
Barry Gardiner: The Discovering Lost Ways project is currently in its pilot phase. Research methods are being tested in Cheshire, Wiltshire, Dorset and Shropshire, with a view to determining whether the approach works well, and can be rolled out across the country. Because no lost ways will be identified until the pilot phase is complete, I cannot advise on the number passing through private property. If a lost way were to prove problematic for a landowner, a process already exists whereby the local authority may effect a suitable diversion or extinguish the right of way.
The estimated total cost of the project over 19 years is £15 million, including the additional resources needed to facilitate the process of recording the rights of way on the definitive map and statement (the local authorities legal record of rights of way).
Dr. Cable: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs how much English Nature spent on (a) conservation and nature management programmes and (b) salaries in (i) 2004-05 and (ii) 2005-06; and what estimates have been made of expenditure in each category in 2006-07. 
Barry Gardiner: English Natures entire expenditure effectively supports conservation and nature management, including salary costs, so it is not possible to meaningfully separate out an amount spent on conservation and nature management. The Grant in Aid paid to English Nature over the period concerned was £68.6 million in 2004-05, £73.1 million in 2005-06 and the planned amount for 2006-07 is £74.4 million.
Gregory Barker: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs what assessment he has made of the impact of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme on the profitability of the power generation sector in Phase 1 of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme. 
A report, Implications of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme for the UK Power Generation Sector,
commissioned by the Government, was published in 2005 by IPA Energy Consulting Ltd on the DTI website:
Further analysis conducted by the DTI has suggested that this report may overestimate the profits to electricity generators. This is because some power suppliers have not been passing the full costs of the EU ETS on to retail industrial and domestic customers, indicating that generators who have both wholesale and retail customers could be using some of their windfall profits to subsidise their retail customers.
Bob Spink: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs what special measures will be taken during the extraordinary high tides expected in autumn 2006 to protect low lying areas of the Essex coastline and islands lying off Essex. 
Ian Pearson: This autumn, the lunar effect on the tides will be greater than average. However, this does not mean that there will be flooding. Weather conditions are critical in determining whether potential flood risk generated by high tides actually results in a flood.
Defences in Essex are already prepared for high tides. Tidal surges in the North Sea can lead to flooding throughout the year and the maintenance regime and operational procedures take this into account.
The Flood Warning system sends warnings to those at risk of flooding along the Essex coast and has recently been upgraded with the introduction of new technology. This allows flood warnings to be sent out in a timely and efficient manner to everyone in a flood risk area who has registered for this free service.
The Flood Warning system also links into the emergency planning and resilience structure for Essex. Regular meetings are held between the major response parties to ensure that, in a flooding situation, the response is co-ordinated and seamless. Extra meetings and briefings have taken place in Essex before the flood season to ensure that flood plans and procedures are in place to deal with any flooding that may occur.
Bob Spink: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs if he will undertake research to estimate whether, there has been a change in the level of protection afforded by Canvey Island sea defences since they were first established; and if he will make a statement. 
Ian Pearson: The Environment Agency has initiated a project, Thames Estuary 2100 (TE2100), to address the impacts of future climate change and sea level rise on the Thames estuary (including Canvey Island).
More accurate assessments of the standards of sea walls in the Thames estuary are being undertaken as part of this overall project. Once this work has been completed, the need for any greater protection can be assessed. The consultation document on the final TE2100 Plan should be available in 2008.
Mr. Peter Ainsworth: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs when he last reviewed procedures to protect against unauthorised genetically modified organisms entering the UK; and if he will make a statement. 
Ian Pearson: Importers of materials for use in food and animal feed are obliged to ensure that they do not place unauthorised genetically modified organisms on the market. The regulatory controls on GM food and feed, which are the responsibility of the Food Standards Agency, came into force in 2004 and are currently under review.
Pending the establishment of legislative thresholds at European Community level, DEFRA has contracted with the Central Science Laboratory to carry out voluntary audits of seed companies to monitor the steps they are taking to minimise the risk of adventitious GM presence in conventional seed. Procedures were reviewed earlier this year and a decision taken to augment the audit programme with improved risk assessment procedures. The new procedures are due to take effect from November this year.
Mr. Peter Ainsworth: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs how many times unauthorised genetically modified organisms (a) entered the UK and (b) entered the food chain in the UK in each year since 1997; and what the (i) substance and (ii) country of origin was in each case. 
In 2000, a batch of rape seed from Canada supplied to United Kingdom farmers was found to contain a proportion of a genetically modified (GM) variety called GT73. The growing of GT73 rape was not authorised, although food ingredients derived from the rapeseed were permitted.
In 2000, a small sample of 25 tomato seeds from the United States was imported and grown in the UK but not for food or feed use. In 2003 it was discovered that this batch of seeds had been mislabelled by the US supplier and were of an unidentified GM variety. No GM tomato varieties are authorised to be grown in the UK.
In 2000 it was reported that UK field trials with GM sugar beet contained approximately 0.5 per cent. of a second, unauthorised, line of GM beet. None of the affected beet entered the food chain. The company concerned indicated that the unauthorised event was likely to be present due to cross- contamination during the production of beet seed in Germany.
In August 2006, the US Department of Agriculture announced that some commercial long grain rice on the US market had been found to contain traces of the unauthorised variety LLRICE601. This genetically modified rice could therefore have been present in imports of US rice to the UK. This incident is still under investigation in the US. Recent reports of rice products from China containing GM rice are under investigation.
Mr. Brady: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs what powers his Department has to require water companies to take action to prevent repeated instances of sewage flooding in residential areas. 
Ian Pearson: Water and sewerage companies are under a statutory duty to ensure effectual drainage of their respective areas, but this does not extend to an absolute duty to prevent sewer flooding under all circumstances. This would not be practicable. Ensuring compliance with the duty on companies is a matter for the economic regulator, Ofwat.
Mr. Ingram [holding answer 11 September 2006]: As at 29 August 2006 there were 35 Royal Navy personnel serving in Afghanistan. I am withholding information relating to individual units because to publish such information could compromise operational security as it would also reveal information on force capability and force laydown.
John Smith: To ask the Secretary of State for Defence what assessment he has made of the availability of components for the Harrier jets deployed in Afghanistan; and if he will make statement. 
Derek Twigg [holding answer 13 September 2006]: The equipment support for the Harrier aircraft in Afghanistan is routinely reviewed to ensure an effective supply chain and to maximise aircraft availability. The supply of equipment is afforded priority status and robust procedures are in place to ensure operational tempo is met. The latest review has confirmed that there is sufficient equipment support in theatre for our Harrier aircraft.
[holding answer 13 September 2006]: I have considered the issue of pardons for world war one soldiers in the round, taking into account the difficult circumstances of that war and the spectrum of cases
involved. Given the lack of information in many cases, I believe that it would not be fair to consider each case on an individual basis. However, it is now appropriate to show compassion by seeking a statutory group pardon for those individuals executed for cowardice, desertion and similar offences.
Des Browne [holding answer 11 September 2006]: As at 12 September 2006, 40 British forces personnel have died serving on Operation Herrick, the UK military operation in Afghanistan, which began in November 2001 and 118 British forces personnel have died serving on Operation Telic, the UK military operation in Iraq, which began in March 2003.
Des Browne [holding answer 13 September 2006]: The electronic counter-measures fitted to Land Rovers deployed in Iraq and Afghanistan, and the tactics employed in the use of the vehicles are updated as appropriate as the threat evolves. Weight constraints mean it is not possible to provide additional armour. I announced in my statement on 24 July 2006, Official Report, column 74WS the procurement of almost 400 vehicles with improved protection for deployment to Iraq and Afghanistan, including Mastiff (also known as Cougar), Vector and up-armoured FV430. These will provide commanders with a range of vehicles of varying protection, mobility and profile, to be used according to operational circumstances.
Jeremy Corbyn: To ask the Secretary of State for Defence pursuant to his oral answer of 24 July 2006, Official Report, column 587, on the nuclear deterrent, whether his Department has completed its assessment relating to the future of Trident including non-replacement; and whether he expects to issue a White Paper on the future of the nuclear deterrent. 
Des Browne [holding answer 11 September 2006]: I have nothing further to add to the answers I gave on 24 July 2006, Official Report, column 586, to the hon. Member for Cheadle (Mark Hunter), and to my hon. Friend the Member for Tamworth (Mr. Jenkins), Official Report, column 592.
Des Browne [holding answer 13 September 2006]: I have nothing further to add to the answer I gave on 24 July 2006, Official Report, columns 592-93, to the hon. Member for Inverness, Nairn, Badenoch and Strathspey (Danny Alexander) and my hon. Friend the Member for Tamworth (Mr. Jenkins).
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