Memorandum submitted by Transport for
From involvement in the current fuel cell bus
trials, our understanding from the manufacturer is that fuel cells,
when in mass production, will be recycled as they contain precious
metals such as platinum. Any replaced components within the current
vehicles have been returned to the supplier, Ballard. Our current
understanding is that the rest of the fuel cell hardware, casing
etc will have the same life as the vehicle itself.
TfL offers an Alternative Fuel discount for
vehicles entering the central London Congestion Charging Zone.
This is a 100% discount and is determined by whether vehicles
meet Band 4 of the Energy Saving Trust Powershift Register. TfL
requires vehicles to be 40% cleaner than Euro IV for air quality
and offers at least a 7% improvement in CO2 levels
over a conventionally fuelled vehicle. However, this discount
is not focused on carbon emissions but is designed to target air
However, there are vehicles which are receiving
the Congestion Charging 100% Alternative Fuel discount which are
also low carbon vehicles, including over 500 Toyota Prius models.
The number of low carbon cars driving into the congestion zone
is estimated at up to 2%. However, this is difficult to estimate
as carbon emissions have only been recorded by DVLA since 2001.
TfL is currently investigating the possibility
of introducing a series of carbon thresholds to the scheme.
Its worth noting that lighter conventional vehicles
have substationally lower emissions than heavier vehicles. A Range
Rover, for example, has triple the carbon emissions than that
of a lighter vehicle.
The primary focus of the Low Emission Zone (LEZ)
is to improve air quality. It is also possible that, in later
years, the introduction of a LEZ would also lead to reductions
in the emissions of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2),
through the introduction of more modern, fuel efficient engines.
Estimates indicate that at least 14%, and probably
more likely, around 36% of the British lorry fleet come into London
each year. A higher proportion of coaches, possibly as many as
half of all British vehicles, also operate in London during the
course of a year. A LEZ would affect a proportion of these vehicles.
The proposed LEZ scheme of Euro III for 2008
would mean up to about 56% of coaches, and up to about 37% of
lorries, operating in London would need to take some action to
comply with the LEZ.
This translates to about 5,800 coaches, and a low of 22,900 and
a high of 59,000 lorries being affected.
A range of options would be available to operators of non-compliant
vehicles operate in London, retrofitting pollution abatement equipment,
re-engining or vehicle replacement.
A summary of advertising spend for congestion
charging, cycling, buses, London Underground and Traffic Demand
Management (TDM) is provided below. It is important to note that
it is not possible to understand the direct impact of the advertising
on modal shift, as many other variables will affect behaviour
and attitudes. Information has been provided on the impact of
the congestion charging, cycling, buses LU and TDM programmes
of which advertising is a key element. Where specific market research
has been carried out to identify the impact of advertising this
2002-03 advertising spend: £11,000,000
The Congestion Charging scheme was launched
in February 2003 with a multimedia campaign involving outdoor
advertising, direct marketing, field marketing, public relations
and a telephone and internet based enquiry service.
In the years since the launch advertising spend
has been about £3 million a year, In 2005-06 the Congestion
Charge was increased from £5 to £8. This required a
complete overhaul of all printed materials, as well as a heavy
weight advertising campaign to communicate the change in the scheme.
Impact of Congestion Charging:
Since its launch the Congestion Charge has delivered
the following benefits:
30% fewer vehicles are entering the
Congestion Charging zone during charging hours.
Excess bus waiting times have been
cut by 45% across Greater London.
Congestion Charging has generated
a net revenue of £93 million.
The congestion charge, with a number of other
iniatives, has resulted in a 4% shift in travel patterns from
private cars onto public transport, a trend not repeated in any
other UK city or elsewhere in the world.
No advertising spend prior to 2004-05
2004-05 advertising spend: £76,000
In 2004-05, a small amount (£35k) was used
to promote the Tour of Britain (ToB) and the remainder was used
to promote the Cycling guides.
Need a higher spend to create a bigger
presence at the next ToB event as other sponsors are dominating
To ensure TfL meets its key business
objective of increasing cycling levels by 80% by 2010, an increased
investment in advertising is necessary.
Accordingly, research was undertaken
to understand what would motivate Londoners to begin cycling.
This research indicated that focusing on leisure and, in certain
environments, health, would be the most motivating messages.
2005-06 advertising spend: £1,160,000
A TV campaign was developed, focused on three
key audiences (Youth, Young professionals and Families) with three
executions focusing on leisure cycling in London.
TfL also attended four key London events with
a "Bike Doctor", which aimed to put lapsed cyclists
bikes back into action.
Our investment in the ToB was significantly
enhanced, with TfL becoming a lead co-sponsor for the London stage
and in addition, a launch film was developed for the Tour de France.
Leisure and health messages are key
to motivating Londoners to cycle again/cycle more.
Sponsorship of the ToB and Bike Doctor
are key events for TfL to promote London as a cycling city.
The Tour de France will provide a
further opportunity to get our key messages across.
Impact of cycling programme 2004-052005-06:
With lower TV advertising spend that the "My
other car is a bus" and "unlocking London, the cycling
campaign achieved the same recognition score as for other campaigns
The increase in cycling trips from March 2000
to March 2006 was 72%, of which 23% occurred between 2004-05 and
2002-03 advertising spend: £1,500,000
A new advertising strategy was introduced in
January 2002 that more fully reflected the Mayor's Transport Strategy
and the commitment to transform London's buses. A major campaign
focusing on the theme "Buses are getting better" was
launched with bursts of activity promoting fares and ticketing,
improvements to night buses and low floor and environmentally
2003-04 advertising spend: £1,650,000 (£750K
plus £900K for "Pay before you board")
Built on the success the 2002-03 campaign. Again,
the business objective was to reduce perception gaps and inform
customers of improvements to bus services. There were three bursts,
these focussed on improvements in staff, improvements in service
reliability and a cumulative message consolidating the "Buses
are getting better" campaign and drawing it to a close. Additionally,
TfL introduced the "Pay before you board" campaign which
aimed to educate all Londoners about the launch of this new scheme
in central London.
2004-05 advertising spend: £1,900,000
Despite increasing bus usage and improving perceptions
of bus travel, Londoners continued to rate cars as more appealing
than buses for travelling within London. In 2004-05 TfL launched
an advertising campaign to reposition the bus as a better alternative
to the car for some off-peak local journeys.
2005-06 advertising spend: £2,500,000
The objective this year was to continue to encourage
additional use of London's buses, by encouraging use by non-users
and increasing loyalty amongst existing users.
In addition we needed communicate that Under
16s could now travel for free to parents, guardians, teachers,
school heads, bursars and children aged 14/15. The aim was
to drive applications for the Oyster Child photocard ahead of
the potential back to school peak in September.
2002-06 Bus Patronage and Satisfaction Survey
Over the last four years, bus advertising has
aimed to encourage Londoners to leave their car at home and use
the bus. Against this objective we have seen bus usage increase
by 27% over the last four years (2001-022005-06) and there
are now over 6 million journeys made by bus each day.
The 2003-04 "Pay before you board"
(PBYB) campaign post launch research showed that around half of
customers were made aware of PBYB before arriving at a bus stop
to make their journey, around 1/5th became aware on reaching the
stop and only a small minority became aware of PBYB after they
had actually boarded a bus and might therefore have caused a delay
in the boarding process.
In 2005-06 the Under 16s travel free campaign
resulted in 298,000 cards being issued.
Results from the London Buses" Customer
Satisfaction Survey show the following image improvements (the
higher the figure the happier customers are):
BUS SERVICES NETWORK RESULTS
|Safe & secure||83
|Provide the information needed||77
|Time waited to catch bus||73
|Ease of boarding/alighting||83
|Level of crowding||77
|Comfort on bus||75
|Ease of interchange||82
2003-04 advertising spend: £3,100,000
The "Love London" campaign was successfully launched
and promoted the idea of the Tube being a great way of getting
the most out of the city.
2004-05 advertising spend: £744,000
In 2004-05 TfL continued the theme launched in the 2003-04
campaign and aimed to further increase off-peak travel by inspiring
people to make extra journeys by Tube.
2005-06 advertising spend: £1,300,000
In 2005-06 we negotiated special discounts with key London
attractions and made them available to those travelling by Tube
using an Oyster card. It is estimated that 400,000 people took
advantage of these offers.
Attitudes to LU 2003-05:
The brand tracker for London Underground shows how this activity
has been steadily improving how people think and feel about the
|Use LU 3 or more days a week||21%
|Know LU well||75%
|Agree LU cares about its customers||50%
|Overall service rating (out of 100)||59
|I am proud of LU (out of 100)||50
|Net advocacy (+ praise/critical)
Travel Demand Management
As part of the Travel Demand Management (TDM) scheme TfL
has allocated a travel awareness budget of £2 million. This
budget is aimed at events, marketing and public relations advertising
at the local level. TfL is rolling out the largest scale programme
of this kind in the world. The trial will begin in September 2006
and will be monitored over the following 12-18 months. This is
an innovative and strategic direction that will provide evidence
that soft measures can change behaviour.
5. ESTIMATES OF
CO2 EMISSIONS FROM
DfT's report "Feasibility Study of Road Pricing in the
UK" (published July 2004) presented the likely impacts of
11 different road pricing scenarios on traffic levels and congestion.
Modelling suggested that traffic levels on urban roads would
be reduced by 4-10% depending on the scheme implemented. Most
suggested reductions at the higher end of this range (nine out
of 11 scenarios showed a reduction of 7% or more).
Scenario 10"Charging in London and Conurbations
Only"suggested a traffic reduction of 8% of urban
roads. Assuming this reduction is representative of the vehicle
fleet as a whole, an 8% reduction in CO2 would also
However, there are additional decongestion related CO2
benefits associated with implementation of road pricing. As road
congestion fails, vehicles are able to operate more fuel efficiently
(eg, less stop-start driving, optimal speeds).
Analysis of London's Congestion Charging Zone estimates that
the 18% reduction in traffic entering the zone during charging
hours has resulted in a 20% reduction in CO2 from road
transport within the zone.
Based on this experience, implementation of road user charging
along the lines of a national scheme across London would reduce
CO2 emissions from road transport by about 10%.
The precise reduction achieved would ultimately depend on
the nature of the road pricing scheme employed (eg, cordon charging,
You also asked for some separate further information:
New York City's hybrid buses
New York has just ordered 500 more hybrid buses for delivery
in 2006-07. Once these vehicles are delivered they will boost
the number of hybrid buses running on New York City streets to
more than 800.
The costs below are based on the New York fleet for a 40ft
(13m) bus. Note it is likely that the purchase cost of a hybrid
bus has come down in the US following the purchase of 500 more
Note also that in the UK, TfL's fleet of six is the largest
in the country, so prices may be higher (anecdotal estimate suggest
£175k for a diesel hybrid in the UK)
The operating cost is based on the sum of the fuel cost and
maintenance cost over 400,000 miles (equivalent to the 12 years
life cycle of a bus)
Anecdotal comments from the New York trials suggest they
have been successful and that reliability was not an issue and
the planned ramp up of purchases backs this up.
I have not found figures on CO2 for the New York
fleet, but TfL data suggests hybrids offer a 30% reduction in
CO2 per km
Sites to recharge electric cars
There are a list of 12 fuelling stations for electric cars
in London on the Energy Saving Trust Website. To view these stations
please click on the following link: http://www.est.org.uk/fleet/Vehicles/Alternativefuels/Alternativefuelsrefuellingmap/index.cfm?region=LONDON&mode=results&fueltype=3&county=&mapsearch=1
Please note these figures are taken from the July 2003 London
Low Emission Zone Feasibility Study. Figures will be updated as
more information becomes available. The figures are based on forecast
vehicle number in 2007 (using growth rates from the London Transportation
Studies (LTS) model). Back
The low and high values for lorries reflect the range in number
of vehicles operating in London. Back