Memorandum from IChemE
believes that fossil fuels will be required as a primary energy
source for electricity generation and in industry well into the
second half of the 21st Century. CO2 emissions will
continue to present a major challenge. CO2 capture
and storage technologies (CCS) provide a real opportunity to reduce
greenhouse gas emissions and meet the UK's climate change commitments.
CCS technology also offers a route to the sustainable
production of hydrogen from fossil fuels in the short and medium
terms. This can be achieved through direct conversion rather than
via a two-stage process where fossil fuel is burnt to generate
electricity and the electricity is subsequently utilised for the
electrolysis of water and hydrogen production. It is essential
that CO2 capture and storage options are further developed
and pursued to an industrial scale.
CCS technology comprises three main stages:
CO2 capture at power stationstechnologies
can be incorporated into the design of new power stations or retrofitted
to existing power stations. In addition, there is the option of
deploying Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology,
which provide a route for CO2 capture prior to combustion.
This process is already well established in the chemical industry
and existing technology is currently ready for scale-up.
Transportationby pipeline and
pumping of CO2 between the point of capture and the
point of storage. This technology is also well proven and has
been successfully deployed in the USA.
Geophysical storage of CO2The
British Geological Survey and others have identified substantial
storage capacity beneath the North Sea. This storage can meet
UK needs for at least the current century.
Chemical engineers maintain that the technologies
required for the demonstration of CCS already exist. A programme
of research and development activity in UK industries and universities
would build on existing expertise and develop competitive advantage.
UK industry would be better placed to take full advantage of international
programmes and export CCS technology developed in the UK to countries
with a high consumption of fossil fuels, in particular India,
China and other SE Asian nations.
Chemical engineering is central to the further
development and implementation of CCS technology and IChemE welcomes
the opportunity to present evidence before the Science and Technology
Chemical engineers are well placed to offer
technical advice in this subject area.
The discipline embraces a fundamental understanding
of thermodynamics and systems thinking which are critically important
in any investigation into the capture and sequestration of CO2
as part of a carbon abatement strategy. CCS involves the processing
of fuels, or flue gases, to remove CO2 and the subsequent
pumping and pipeline transport to a site of secure storage. IChemE
believes that the implementation of CCS technologies is central
to reducing CO2 emissions from power generation and
The outlook for natural gas is uncertain and
prices are subject to significant market pressure. Security of
supply remains a concern at the highest level, including the Prime
Minister who stated on 27 September 2005:
"How much longer can countries like ours
allow the security of our energy supply to be dependent on some
of the most unstable parts of the world?"
Coal and other fossil fuels present the only
realistic route for large-scale hydrogen production. The potential
of CCS allied to underground coal gasification is also worthy
of further detailed investigation. IChemE believes that the
capture of CO2 from coal plant should be given equal
weight with that from other fossil fuels.
The UK's strengths include technical expertise
and knowledge, particularly from the IEA Greenhouse Gases Programme,
universities, the British Geological Survey, and well-established
contracting companies with experience in all aspects of process
design, plant development and chemical engineering expertise for
Access to the North Sea as a potential reservoir
is a major asset and many plants are sited in locations that are
ideally suited for the application of CCS in geologically stable
strata under the sea.
IChemE believes that there is a need for
a clearer definition of the Government's energy policy and looks
forward to the publication of a further Energy White Paper in
2006. If CO2 targets are to be achieved without
the replacement of nuclear capacity then the implementation of
CCS on a large scale becomes essential. CCS is the only technology
that can reduce emissions from fossil fuels to near zero. Other
Carbon Abatement Technologies, (CAT), can be applied to existing
fossil fuel plants but there will be an increasing need for application
of CCS, especially in new plants, as fossil fuels continue to
be used for at least until 2050 and possibly to the end of the
Whilst CCS technologies will guarantee a significant
reduction in CO2 emissions, other abatement techniques
are also likely to be needed as part of a balanced portfolio of
techniques deployed in parallel with CCS, if the 60% CO2
reduction target by 2050 is to be achieved. Important contributions
will be made by advanced steam based generation systems, fuel
cell technology and other techniques for the more efficient use
of fossil fuels, particularly the use of IGCC and small scale
combined heat and power (CHP).
CAT strategies that have the potential to deliver
immediate and substantial reductions in CO2 emissions
include increasing the thermal efficiency of existing plants through
the addition of a super critical steam stage and more efficient
use of low-grade heat. Advanced plants, particularly those using
gasification, can incorporate CCS into the design at the pre-combustion
stage thus offering the option of virtually CO2 emission
CHP, even on a micro-scale, offers many advantages,
particularly when combined with energy recovery from wastes such
as municipal, agricultural and forestry residues recovered at
a local level.
IChemE emphasises that the only practical
alternative to CAT is nuclear power. Alternatively, human
activity must be reduced to a level that can be safely supported
by renewable energy; this is both politically difficult and virtually
impossible in the short term. IChemE therefore considers that
CCS is the essential component of CAT. CCS should be seen as a
major contributor to maintaining current standards of living and
rapid deployment of the technology will be required in order to
fulfil the energy and CO2 reduction needs and obligations
of the UK.
IChemE considers that a three to six year
period would be realistic for demonstration plant operation and
would welcome the possibility of international support for a UK-led
initiative in this area.
IChemE contends that all of the required
technologies for CCS already exist, can be scaled up and can be
improved as results of research and development become available.
Relevant chemical engineering technologies are already being
applied in the USA, Canada and Norway. Delegations from the DTI
have visited installations in these countries.
Absorption processes have existed at oil refineries
around the world for over 50 years. Several international companies
can supply CO2 capture equipment off the shelf and
the necessary technologies could be deployed today if the incentives
were there to do so.
IChemE also notes that the UK only accounts
for 2% of CO2 emissions globally. Many emerging
economies are undergoing rapid economic expansion and developments
in these countries are of central importance to the overall trend
in CO2 emissions. The growth of these economies is
proportional to their energy use. There is heavy dependence
upon energy-intensive industries and much energy will be generated
from coal. China has a massive programme of coal-fired power station
construction. There is huge scope for the technologies developed
in the UK to be exported to countries with a high and increasing
consumption of fossil fuels including China, India, Russia, Brazil
IChemE welcomes the initiative recently announced
by the Prime Minister to promote a coal-fired power station in
China with CCS and looks forward to further examples of international
The current state of Research and Development
in, and deployment of, CCS technologies
CCS is best applied to large, stationary sources
that offer economies of scale in construction and minimise the
extent of the supporting transport network. In the year 2000,
about 190 Mt CO2 from the UK's total energy related
emissions were produced in energy conversion plant.
Scientific assessment of the optimum means by
which CCS can be achieved using existing technologies is ongoing
and the UK based IEA Greenhouse Gas Programme, established in
1991, is a significant contributor.
Work has focused on all aspects of the technology,
including the study of different generation systems, CO2
capture options, transport challenges and an examination of the
behaviour of CO2 in the different geological formations
available for storage.
The UK plays a leading role in this research
and in the overall environmental considerations including aspects
of the legal and technical status of CCS in relation to CO2
Development of CCS is supported by research
into advanced gas separation technology including oxygen from
air, CO2 from hydrogen and CO2 from gaseous
mixtures in power stations.
Some power station applications would benefit
from developments in gas turbines to extend their capability to
use gases of different composition and further work in these areas
would support the development of CCS. However, IChemE argues
that the time has come to promote a demonstration of CCS using
proven methods. This would facilitate a wider understanding of
the process and, crucially, build confidence in the environmental
acceptability of the future use of fossil sources.
There are three main routes for the capture
of CO2 from fossil fuel combustion plant, post-combustion
capture, pre-combustion capture and oxy-fuel combustion. Each
of these processes involves the separation of CO2 from
a gas stream and five technologies are currently available: chemical
solvent scrubbing, physical solvent scrubbing, adsorption/desorption,
membrane separation and cryogenic separation.
1. Post-Combustion Capture
Following the combustion of fossil fuels in
air, flue gases are produced containing predominantly nitrogen
and carbon dioxide (5-20% by volume). The preferred technique
for CO2 removal entails "scrubbing" the flue
gas with a solvent after reactive impurities have been removed.
Typically an amine is used and this bonds with the CO2.
The solvent is then heated, breaking down to
release high purity CO2 and the original solvent. Current
processes are very energy intensive and this significantly reduces
the net electricity output.
Amine scrubbing has been used for the removal
of hydrogen sulphide and CO2 from hydrocarbon gas streams
for over 50 years. The largest operating unit in the USA captures
800t CO2 per dayless than 10% of the capacity
that would be required for a 500MW coal fired power station.
There is potential for advances in amine technology
that could increase solvent efficiency, reduce degradation and
minimise energy needs for regeneration. These developments offer
long-term opportunities for significant reductions in capture
costs and improvements to electricity generation efficiency.
2. Pre-Combustion Capture
This "gasification" process involves
the reaction of the fossil fuels with oxygen or air and steam
to produce a gas consisting mainly of carbon monoxide and hydrogen.
Technologies for the gasification of coal, natural gas or oil
derivatives have been developed and operated on a large scale
and are used to produce mixtures of carbon monoxide and hydrogen
for use in chemical synthesis in many countries. Examples include
the Sasol plant in South Africa, which uses coal to make a wide
range of fuel and related products, and plants using natural gas,
such as the BP plant at Hull for chemicals and ammonia.
For pre-combustion power generation applications,
the carbon monoxide produced by gasification can be reacted with
further steam to make CO2 and more hydrogen. The CO2
is then separated and the hydrogen is used as fuel in a gas turbine
combined cycle plant.
An advantage of this process is that the fuel
gas for the gas turbine will be hydrogen, diluted with nitrogen
or steam reducing NOx emissions. It is expected that this gas
mixture can be used in existing gas turbines with little modification.
General Electric has conducted successful tests with a turbine
running commercially on hydrogen. The main advantage of pre-combustion
separation over post-combustion is that it produces much lower
volumes of gas for treatment that are richer in CO2
and at high pressure. This reduces the size of the gas separation
plant and thus reduces capital costs. As with post-combustion
capture, this route has substantial opportunities for cost savings
and energy efficiency improvements via technological development.
In the longer term, hydrogen has a significant
potential in the powering of future vehicles and in fuel cells.
In the USA this is acting as a major driver in the development
In addition to its application in cleaner power
generation, production of hydrogen from fossil fuels is considered
to be the first stage for a "hydrogen economy".
3. Oxyfuel Combustion
A further process involves fossil fuel combustion
in an oxygen (O2)/CO2 mixture rather than in air to
produce a CO2 rich flue gas. The advantage of oxyfuel
combustion is that it produces a highly CO2 enriched
flue gas that, in principle, enables simple and low cost CO2
separation methods to be used. In addition, the formation of NOx
is greatly reduced. Disadvantages included a requirement for an
air separation plant to produce the O2. This has a high capital
cost and requires a significant amount of energy to operate. A
number of technical uncertainties remain, including questions
over boiler performance.
All three approaches could be applied to new
plant or retrofitted to existing facilities. New plant has the
advantage of allowing maximum integration of the capture facility
into the power generation facility. Retrofitting existing plant
is likely to have a lower capital cost requirement.
CO2 can be stored and transported
in gaseous, liquid or solid forms. However, in flue gases CO2
is found in gaseous form and thus it is more convenient and economic
to transport CO2 in this form obviating a need for
the construction and operation of cryogenic plants for the liquefaction
or solidification of the CO2. Such plants require large
capital investment and appreciable energy inputs, thereby reducing
the net abatement of CO2.
In view of the large volumes of CO2
involved in a CCS scheme (10-30Mt per year), transport by pipeline
is the only practical option. Significant experience has been
gained in the USA where the gas is used extensively for Enhanced
Oil Recovery (EOR). For EOR around 22Mt CO2 is transported
annually via a 4,000km pipeline system from naturally occurring
geological sources of CO2 in New Mexico and Colorado
to the West Texas oilfields. The transport of CO2 by
pipelines is therefore established commercial technology.
Various methods are proposed for the storage
of captured CO2 including injection into geological
formations, deposition into water columns on the deep ocean floor
and conversion into solid minerals. This response focuses on geological
storage. Understanding of the processes involved is more advanced
and can be undertaken within the UK and its surrounding territorial
waters. Geological storage requires permeable rock strata that
provide space for the gas to be stored. These strata must be sealed
by rock that is impermeable to CO2 and there are three
main options available
1. Depleted or Near Depleted Oil and Gas Reservoirs
Oil reservoirs are a good option, since prior
to exploitation, they have retained hydrocarbons over geological
time scales. These reservoirs have been extensively investigated
and mapped. Globally, storage capacity capable of holding an estimated
125Gt of CO2 has been identified.
EOR may mobilise some of the oil remaining in
a reservoir after primary and secondary production is complete.
CO2 dissolves in the oil, reducing its viscosity and
rendering it more mobile. CO2 based EOR is an established
onshore process in North America. It is yet to be demonstrated
offshore. IChemE believes that EOR merits particular attention
in the UK since it represents an appreciable storage option for
CO2 while offering a financial return from the additional
oil extracted from the North Sea. However, EOR must be implemented
before normal secondary production is terminated; once a field
reaches its cessation of production rate, the option for EOR is
lost. The North Sea has many ageing oil fields that are reaching
this stage, bringing a real urgency to decision making if the
benefits of EOR are to be maximised.
An estimated 800Gt of CO2 storage
capacity may be found in gas fields globally. CO2 injection
may also help with additional gas extraction from a field but
the potential benefits are markedly less than with EOR and storage
would generally only be considered once a field was largely depleted.
2. Deep Saline Aquifers
With an estimated global storage capacity of
up to 10,000 Gt of CO2, this option presents the largest
potential capacity for storage of all the geological options.
Saline aquifers have little value as sources of water for drinking
or irrigation because of their depth and high dissolved mineral
content. The world's first commercial scale storage of CO2
in aquifers was begun by Statoil in 1996 in conjunction with natural
gas production from one of the North Sea natural gas fields. Up
to 1Mt CO2 per year have so far been injected into
an aquifer formation about 800 meters below the seabed. Regarding
the geophysical storage of the CO2, the British Geological
Survey have concluded that there is extensive storage capacity
under the North Sea which will serve the United Kingdom's needs
for at least the current century.
3. Unmineable Coal Seams
This option offers storage potential because
CO2 is preferentially adsorbed onto coal displacing
previously adsorbed methane. In addition to offering the storage
of CO2, there is the potential for the collection of
the methane, with a financial return. Permeability of the coal
seam is a key factor and whilst coals in North West Europe have
relatively low permeabilities the estimated global storage capacity
is 150Gt of CO2. This storage option is currently at
the research stage.
The UK Government aspires to reduce CO2
emissions by 60% by 2050 with real progress by 2020. If policy
objectives are to be met, IChemE believes that government must
initiate action on several fronts. In view of the continued reliance
on fossil fuels, a demonstration of CCS is a key priority.
The 2003 Energy White Paper highlighted security
of supply and affordability amongst its priorities and IChemE
contends that these policy goals cannot be delivered without heavy
reliance on fossil fuels in the medium term. CCS must therefore
be deployed in conjunction with the development of other energy
sources and a renewed emphasis on energy conservation.
Without the implementation of CCS, DTI projections
indicate that current policy will not prevent the CO2
"emissions gap" increasing after 2010. In common with
other developed economies, the UK is heavily reliant on electricity.
Access to clean and reliable sources of energy is of paramount
importance. DTI energy projections indicate that the UK will continue
to be highly dependent on fossil fuels in 2020 and economic growth
is likely to increase that dependency. An increase in generation
capacity of 10% by that date is expected.
In order to secure the UK's energy and climate change
goals, IChemE proposes a two-pronged approach, comprising improvements
to existing technologies and plant in the short/medium term and
large scale implementation of CCS in the medium/long term:
Short Term (0-3 years, but continuing beyond this
Existing plants are made more efficient through best
practice, including co-utilisation with bio-fuels to reduce emissions.
Medium Term (3-10 years, but with action commencing
CCS is developed within 6 years to demonstration
level alongside concurrent development of coal gasification technology.
Long Term (10-20 years)
CCS technologies developed to commercial plant scale.
IChemE considers that 3-6 years is a realistic timescale
for demonstration plant operation and urges the government to
seek international partners for a UK-led initiative in this area.
DTI estimates indicate that the current cost
of CO2 abatement by storage in depleted gas reservoirs
is of the order of £34-93 per tonne of CO2. EOR
is more cost effective with net costs of the order of £6-50
per tonne of CO2. Expressed as an additional cost of
electricity, these abatement costs equate to 1.0-2.3p/kWh and
0.2-1.0p/kWh respectively. Costs may be reduced with further developments
and innovations and already compare favourably with other large-scale
abatement options. For example, the current estimated costs for
wind generation range from £85 per tonne CO2,
(DTI), £95 per tonne CO2, (Irish Electricity Supply
Board), to £38-£76 per tonne CO2, (US Department
These additional costs act as a major disincentive
to potential stakeholders. Power producers, gas suppliers and
the oil producers, will not implement CCS, including EOR, commercially
under current market conditions without additional financial incentives.
NETA has been successful in keeping electricity
prices low. Record low prices have been achieved at 1.7p/kWh.
However, these low prices make it impossible for investors to
consider investment in new plants, which in turn hampers the take
up of newer, cleaner technologies. A recent report predicts that
the days of cheap electric power in Europe are now limited from
the need to replace a large amount of ageing capacity and where
power prices need to be in the range of 2.5-2.8p/kWh to support
EOR is deployed at Weyburn, a large commercially
viable oil field in Canada. The CO2 comes from a coal
gasification plant in North Dakota that produces hydrogen. The
hydrogen, in turn, is reformed to produce substitute natural gas.
CO2 is captured and extracted and 5,000 tonnes per
day is piped to the Weyburn field for injection both horizontally
and vertically into wells and channelled with water. The project
has been extensively monitored to address the issues of the efficiency
of CO2 and results reveal no significant leakage of
Progressive Energy Ltd., predicts that considerable
additional oil could be extracted from the North Sea using similar
methods to those deployed at Weyburn, extending the life of North
Sea fields and increasing oil yields.
The existence of extensive storage capacity
for CO2 in the North Sea offers a major commercial
advantage for the development of CCS technologies in the UK.
In the first instance the geocapacity must be
mapped and matched against major sources of CO2. Following
mapping, a number of different scenarios can be evaluated. These
scenarios have already been modelled and the knowledge exists
to implement the selected processes once the go ahead has been
In order to meet UK emissions targets, rapid
action is required and as previously indicated EOR will need to
be implemented by 2008 before the cessation of production point
is reached in many depleting North Sea oil fields.
Other CO2 storage studies:
The Sleipner Project
Statoil selected the Utsira Formation, a 200-250m
thick massive sandstone formation located at a depth of 800-1000
metres beneath the North Sea, as the reservoir for the storage
of CO2 extracted from natural gas production in the
Sleipner field. CO2 has been injected and stored in
the formation rather than released to the atmosphere since 1996.
No evidence of leakage has been detected.
NASCENT (Natural Analogues for the Geological
Storage of CO2)
The project is addressing issues associated
with geological CO2 sequestration that include long-term
safety, stability of storage underground, and potential environmental
effects of leakage. NASCENT is studying accumulations and seepages
of CO2 where models are being built to predict the
long-term fate of CO2 in storage facilities and potential
leakage scenarios. A number of sites containing naturally occurring
CO2 accumulations in mainland Europe have been identified
for detailed examination.
IChemE believes that further research is needed
to understand offshore seepage of CO2.
Specifically, natural CO2 seepage
is generally hydrothermal and the CO2 is at a different
temperature from the seawater thus bypassing natural systems.
There is a need to know how low rates of CO2 seepage
affect organisms living close to the ocean floor. Acidification
of the oceans also requires further study, however, as with all
carbon abatement strategies; the potential risks must be dispassionately
balanced against the risk of doing nothing at all.
IChemE cannot identify any major technical or
engineering constraints that might prevent the deployment of CCS.
The Institution believes that there is the requirement for a demonstration
project to confirm the feasibility of the geological storage aspects
of CCS. International collaboration on such a project should be
The existence of large potential markets and
industries to exploit those markets does not always deliver success
and other factors must be considered to encourage new technology.
These are addressed in the next section.
IChemE highlights three areas of concern:
1. Lack of experience with the European Union-Emissions
Trading Scheme (EU-ETS)
EU-ETS is the main market-based policy aimed
at facilitating EU greenhouse gas abatement and it will have an
increasing impact on the viability of investment in CAT and CCS
Whilst CCS is not ruled out for the present
phase of the scheme, protocols for its inclusion are yet to be
agreed. There are uncertainties over its introduction into other
EU member states and over implementation, monitoring and verification.
Potential investors have no experience of the scheme. CAT and
CSS are capital intensive; as a consequence, investment may be
delayed until investors have more confidence in EU-ETS.
2. Uncertainties over the implementation of
This issue is linked with the uncertainty over
the treatment of CAT and CCS within the market-based mechanisms
being introduced to encourage CO2 abatement. This currently
applies mainly to EU-ETS but could also apply to other mechanisms
under the Kyoto Protocol. This may affect investment decisions
by power generators, for example, in the retrofitting of more
efficient boilers that reduce CO2 emissions but do
not eliminate them completely. It is conceivable that permit mechanism
may act as a disincentive to investment in CAT and CCS to the
detriment of CO2 abatement.
3. New Commercial Relationships between Producers,
Transporters and those who commit CO2 to long-term
The deployment of new technologies for capture,
transportation and storage of CO2 will lead to new
contractual and working arrangements between the operators of
large combustion and process plant, gas transporters and off-shore
operators. Organisations who may not have previously worked together
will be required to share operational and financial risk. Conflicts
may arise to the detriment of early CCS projects.
This constraint mainly affects CCS for which
the deployment of a series of technologies for capture, transportation
and storage will involve new contractual and working arrangements.
IChemE highlights four areas for consideration.
1. Legal and Regulatory Regimes
The majority of the UK's potential geological
CO2 storage capacity is offshore. Three international
treaties, designed to protect the marine environment from waste
dumping, apply to the injection of CO2. These treaties
were not designed with CO2 emissions and the potential
need for CO2 injection in mind. The unintended consequences
of these treaties and their impact on CCS will need to be addressed.
2. Monitoring and Verification
Market-based arrangements, such as EU-ETS, require
monitoring and verification procedures to ensure that contracting
parties make accurate declarations of their actual emissions in
relation to their permitted emissions.
These arrangements conform to the needs of all
CAT with the exception of CCS. Additional measures will be needed
to account for the potential leakage of CO2 during
transport and injection and also any seepage during storage.
3. Long-term ownership of stored CO2
CO2 injected into geological formations
will be at pressures of around 60-100 bar. Although this CO2
will gradually dissolve in ground water and ultimately be immobilised
by mineralisation processes, the potential for leakage will persist
for several centuries. This raises questions over long-term ownership
of storage sites and the organisation responsible for taking remedial
measures should leakage occur.
4. Planning and authorisation
The planning process for the construction and
operation of industrial plants, both on-shore and offshore, in
the UK is well established. These are full and complete for most
CAT; however, CCS raises new issues in relation to the authorisation
of storage sites, particularly regarding the International Treaties
referred to above.
THE UK GOVERNMENT
FUNDING CCS R&D AND
INDUSTRIAL R&D IN
In the short and medium term, natural gas and
coal will continue to be used in large combustion plants in the
developed and developing world. IChemE has outlined how CAT, in
particular CCS can make a substantial and affordable contribution
to the UK's CO2 reduction targets and to potential
actions on global CO2 abatement. Through retention
of coal in the UK's energy mix; CCS strengthens the security and
diversity of energy supplies. Taking the lead in the development
of CCS will demonstrate the UK's international leadership on climate
change mitigation measures and will also offer substantial advantages
in the commercialisation of these technologies both in the UK
and export markets.
IChemE believes that the overall aim of the UK
government should therefore be to ensure that the UK takes a leading
role in the development and commercialisation of CAT, particularly
Specifically, UK government should:
1. Support the research, development and
demonstration of CAT and supporting technologies, with the aim
of developing and demonstrating advanced designs with reduced
costs and improved performance. Supporting technologies include,
improving oxygen separation methods, CO2/H2 separation,
fuel-flexible gas turbines and novel CO2 capture cycles.
Further studies are required on the merits of competing technologies
for power generation including cycles based on gasification and
those based on advanced combustion cycles.
2. Support of the demonstration of CO2
capture ready plant, with the aim of highlighting these technologies
and plant concepts thereby encouraging their commercial deployment
worldwide and establishing UK industry as a leading player in
3. Support of the demonstration of CO2
storage, with the aim of establishing the frameworks for authorising
and licensing storage sites and the demonstration of their long-term
integrity as a CO2 abatement option.
4. Initiate and encourage international collaboration
in UK-based CCS development and demonstration projects, with the
aim of sharing the costs and to attract developers of leading
edge technologies to the UK. UK companies will benefit from involvement
in the best and most relevant overseas developments.
5. Take steps to encourage the early commercial
deployment of CCS technologies in the UK, with the aim of examining
the cost and market implications of alternative measures to encourage
full scale commercial deployment of CCS.
6. Encourage the use of CCS technologies
for EOR though financial incentives, such as a reduction in royalty
payments on recovered oil, as is being considered in Norway.
7. Promote the acquisition and transfer of
knowledge and know-how arising from CCS innovation world-wide
with the aim of extending the boundaries of knowledge and assisting
UK companies to gain maximum benefit from the provision of equipment
and services that allow significant CO2 emissions reductions
to be made, particularly in developing economies.
8. Take a lead in the negotiation of national
and international regulatory frameworks and market mechanisms
needed to support CCS, with the aim of ensuring that the commercial
deployment of CCS is not impeded by legal uncertainty or inappropriate
9. Develop and maintain a "Road Map"
for the growth of CCS in the UK and measure progress.
Fossil fuels will be required as a primary source
of energy for electricity production and in industry at least
until the middle of the present century and probably beyond that.
CO2 emissions will remain a major political and environmental
For the foreseeable future, fossil fuels will
be required not only to produce electrical power but also for
the production of hydrogen, in both the short and medium terms.
There is no other viable route to a hydrogen economy and ultra-low
emissions transport fuel.
A demonstration plant for CO2 capture,
transport and storage is required. Such a plant can be built now
using tried and proven technologies already developed on a large
scale for other applications.
CO2 capture and storage options should
be further developed and pursued to an industrial scale for application
in the UK and for overseas export opportunities.
Continued research and development support is
essential and should be increased where possible. A collaborative
approach is desirable with the UK taking the lead in some international
projects and collaborating in others. The current DTI Programme
for the development of CCS is welcome. The importance of a supporting
R&D Programmes should not be overlooked to ensure that UK
industry can benefit from contributions to International Programmes
and benefit from worldwide industrial opportunities.
There is considerable scope and opportunities
for the technologies developed in the United Kingdom to be exported
to countries with high consumptions of fossil fuels such as China,
India, and some South-East Asia countries.
10 IChemE is the hub for chemical, biochemical and
process engineering professionals worldwide. The heart of the
process community, IChemE promotes competence and a commitment
to best practice, advancing the science and practice of chemical
engineering for the benefit of society and supporting the professional
development of an international membership totalling 25,000. The
Institution has the role of a learned society, publishing books,
journals and training packages and organising events and courses
including the successful Gasification and Waste series of conferences. Back