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Mr. Hayes: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs what assessment he has made of the effect of the Common Fisheries Policies on seabird populations; and what mitigation measures are under discussion at EU level. 
Mr. Bradshaw: As part of its proposals for reform of the Common Fisheries Policy, the European Commission has published an action plan on improving environmental integration in fisheries management. The plan indicates that the European Community intends to follow the UN Food and Agriculture Organisations (FAO) International Plan of Action for Reducing Incidental Catch of Seabirds in Longline Fisheries. The UK is fully supportive of this initiative.
Little is known about the effects of discarding fish at sea on seabird populations. For some species it has been shown to have a positive effect by improving foraging possibilities and thus enhancing their populations. Birdlife International, however, concluded that the overall elimination of discards was more important in environmental terms than the short-term beneficial effects their continuation might have for seabirds.
In 2000, the UK was instrumental in establishing of the closure of the wee Bankie groundsoff the coast of eastern Scotland and North-East Englandto sandeel fishing to protect breeding seabird populations. We have continued to support the closure in the interim.
Outside EU waters, but still relevant to Community vessels fishing further afield, there are sea bird by-catch mitigation measures in place under Regional Fisheries Management Organisations. These include the Indian Ocean Tuna Commission (IOTC) and the Commission for the Conservation of the Arctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR). The International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT) also has some measures in place. However, these could be more comprehensive. With this in mind, the Government are proposing a study which will assess the impact on sea birds of the Atlantic tuna fishery. The outcome of this research will inform further appropriate conservation management measures.
Ian Pearson: Under the internationally agreed methodology, greenhouse gas emissions from international shipping are excluded from the national greenhouse gas inventory. They are reported separately as a memo item and, if included, would represent less than 1 per cent. of the UK total CO2 emissions.
The UKs approach to the regulation of shipping is to apply international standards to ships flying its flag and to ships entering its ports or operating in UK waters. Work on reducing maritime emissions is
co-ordinated by the International Maritime Organisation. At the last Maritime Environment Protection Committee meeting in October 2006, the UK made a significant contribution to difficult negotiations on the adoption of Interim Guidelines for Voluntary Ship CO2 Emission Indexing for Use in Trials (as well as Guidelines for On-board Exhaust Gas Sulphur Oxide Cleaning Systems). Ships under the United Kingdom flag are being encouraged to participate in these trials, which will help identify a ships greenhouse gas index where the information obtained may be used in the context of reducing CO2 emissions.
The UK has also continued to push for the consideration of measures to reduce harmful emissions of a wider range of greenhouse gases, including nitrogen oxides, and has strongly advocated emissions trading as the most effective tool.
Gregory Barker: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs what the capital expenditure cost of achieving a 10 per cent. increase in recycling performance was for the private finance initiative waste contracts let to date. 
Mrs. Spelman: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs what private finance initiative schemes his Department is involved in relating to local authority waste collection and disposal. 
Mr. Bradshaw: To date, 21 waste projects have been approved and supported with private finance initiative (PFI) credits by this Department. Nine of these are operational, 11 of the others are currently in procurement and one project has been terminated. The total PFI credits committed to the 21 projects amounts to £933.84 million.
|Project (authority)||Contract signature/approval date||PFI credits (£ million)||Municipal solid waste arisings (tonnes)|
|(1) Includes additional £5 million approved in December 2004|
(2) Includes additional £4.75 million approved in December 2004
(3) Includes additional £4.9 million approved in February 2004 and additional £15.1 million approved in 2006
(4) Includes additional £6.38million approved in December 2005
(5) Includes additional £6.8million approved in October 2006
(6) Figures are for 2003-04. The other municipal solid waste arisings are for 2001-02
Chris Huhne: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs what the estimated average cost per bulb is of the disposal of (a) an incandescent light bulb and (b) an energy efficient light bulb for the purposes of the Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive. 
Chris Huhne: To ask the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs what estimate he has made of changes in total water use since 1997; and what proportion of this change has resulted from changes in (a) per capita household demand, (b) population levels, (c) demand from business and industry, (d) demand from agriculture and (e) other areas. 
Ian Pearson: There has been a decline in water use by non-households of around 365 megalitres per day (MI/d) since 1997-98. In contrast, household use has increased by around 330 MI/d in the same period. Therefore, the volume of water use as a whole has remained largely unchanged.
The rise in household use is mainly due to a rising population rather than increasing per capita consumption. Average per capita consumption has remained stable over the period being around 150 litres per head per day in an average year.
The total amount of water put into the supply network (distribution input) has shown a decline of around 325MI/d since 1997-98. This reflects the progress made by the water industry in reducing leakage during this period.
Table 1, produced using figures from Ofwat, shows water use for household and non household customers in each year since 1997-98 in MI/d. Table 2 shows the total average household consumption in litres per head per day for each year since 1997-98.
|Water use-household MI/d||Water use non-household Ml/d||Total||Distribution input|
Averages are weighted by population of households
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